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Criminology
The Essentials

Third Edition
Additional resources:


February 2017 | 392 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Criminology: The Essentials, Third Edition, introduces students to major theoretical perspectives and criminology topics in a concise, easy-to-read format. This straightforward overview of the major subject areas in criminology still thoroughly covers the most up-to-date advances in theory and research. In the new full-color Third Edition, special features have been added to engage the reader in thinking critically about concepts in criminology. 


 
Preface
 
1. An Overview of Crime and Criminology
What Is Criminology?

 
What Is Crime?

 
Criminality

 
An Excursion Through the American Criminal Justice System

 
A Short History of Criminology

 
The Role of Theory in Criminology

 
Ideology in Criminological Theory

 
Connecting Criminological Theory and Social Policy

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
2. Measuring Crime and Criminal Behavior
Categorizing and Measuring Crime and Criminal Behavior

 
Uniform Crime Reports: Counting Crime Officially

 
NIBRS: The “New and Improved” UCR

 
Crime Victimization Survey Data and Their Problems

 
Areas of Agreement Between the UCR and NCVS

 
Self-Report Crime Surveys and Their Problems

 
Crime Mapping

 
White-Collar Crime: The FBI’s Financial Crimes Report

 
The Dark Figure of Crime

 
What Can We Conclude About the Three Main Measures of Crime in America?

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
3. Victimology: Exploring the Experience of Victimization
The Emergence of Victimology

 
Who Gets Victimized?

 
Victimization in the Workplace

 
Victimization in Schools

 
Human Trafficking

 
Sexual Assault of Children: Who Gets Victimized?

 
Domestic Violence Victimization

 
Identity Theft and Other Forms of Cybervictimization

 
Victimization Theories

 
Is Victimology “Blaming the Victim”?

 
The Consequences of Victimization

 
Victimization and the Criminal Justice System

 
Victim–Offender Reconciliation Programs

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
4. The Early Schools of Criminology
Preclassical Notions of Crime and Criminals

 
The Classical School: The Calculating Criminal

 
The Rise of Positivism

 
Deterrence and Choice: Pain Versus Gain

 
Evaluation of the Classical and Early Positivist Schools

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Deterrence Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
5. Crime as Choice: Rationality, Emotion, and Criminal Behavior
Returning to Classic Assumptions of Human Nature

 
Rational Choice Theory

 
Cultural Criminology

 
Emotions and Their Functions

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Cultural Criminology

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
6. Social Structural Theories
The Social Structural Tradition

 
The Chicago School of Ecology

 
Social Disorganization

 
Evaluation of Social Ecology/Social Disorganization Theory

 
The Anomie/Strain Tradition

 
Extending Anomie: Subcultural Theories

 
Street Gangs Today

 
Evaluation of the Anomie/Strain and Subcultural Tradition

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Structural Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
7. Social Process Theories
The Social Process Tradition

 
Differential Association Theory

 
Social Learning Theory

 
The Social Control Tradition

 
Labeling Theory: The Irony of Social Reaction

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Process Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
8. Critical and Feminist Theories
The Conflict Perspective of Society

 
Karl Marx and Revolution

 
Conflict Theory: Max Weber and Power and Conflict

 
Other Critical Criminologies

 
Evaluation of Critical Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Critical Theories

 
Feminist Criminology

 
Evaluation of Feminist Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Feminist Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
9. Psychosocial Theories: Individual Traits and Criminal Behavior
The Two “Great Pillars of Psychology”

 
Intelligence

 
The IQ–Crime Connection

 
Temperament and Personality

 
Glen Walters’s Lifestyle Theory

 
The Antisocial Personalities

 
Evaluation of the Psychosocial Perspective

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Psychosocial Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
10. Biosocial Approaches
The Biosocial Approach

 
Behavior Genetics

 
Molecular Genetics

 
The Neurosciences

 
Evolutionary Psychology

 
Other Biosocial Risk Factors for Criminality

 
Evaluation of the Biosocial Perspective

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Biosocial Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
11. Developmental Theories: From Delinquency to Crime to Desistance
The Developmental Perspective: Continuity and Change

 
Risk and Protective Factors for Serious Delinquency

 
Major Developmental Theories

 
Evaluation of Developmental Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Developmental Theories

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
12. Crimes of Violence
Violence in History

 
Murder

 
Mass, Spree, and Serial Murder

 
Rape

 
Robbery

 
Aggravated Assault

 
Gun Violence

 
Theories of Violence

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
13. Terrorism
What Is Terrorism?

 
Is There a Difference Between Terrorists and Freedom Fighters?

 
The Extent of Terrorism

 
Al-Qaeda

 
Hezbollah

 
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

 
Domestic Terrorism

 
Other Domestic Groups

 
Is There a Terrorist Personality?

 
Terrorism and Common Crime

 
Theories of Terrorism

 
Law Enforcement Response and Government Policy

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
14. Property Crime
What Is a Property Offense?

 
Larceny–Theft

 
Burglary

 
Motor Vehicle Theft

 
Arson

 
Crimes of Guile and Deceit: Embezzlement, Fraud, and Forgery/ Counterfeiting

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
15. Public Order Crime
What Are Public Order Crimes?

 
Alcohol and Crime

 
Illegal Drugs and Crime

 
Prostitution and Commercialized Vice

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
16. White-Collar Crime
The Concept of White-Collar Crime

 
Occupational Crime

 
Corporate Crime

 
Cybercrime: Oh, What a Tangled World Wide Web We Weave!

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
17. Organized Crime
What Is Organized Crime?

 
Political Corruption and Organized Crime

 
A Brief History of Organized Crime in the United States

 
Affirming the Existence of Organized Crime

 
Other Organized Crime Groups

 
Theories of Organized Crime

 
Law Enforcement’s Response to Organized Crime

 
SUMMARY

 
EXERCISES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

 
USEFUL WEBSITES

 
CHAPTER TERMS

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Instructors Resource Site
The open-access Instructor Resource Site includes the following:
  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available, containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content and features.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.

  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.

Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.

"The Instructors guide gives me an array of teaching options and it will assist the instructor with a clear outline of each chapter . This has provided me with the added tools to make the textbook relative to current events in Criminology with the benefits passed on to the Graduate Student at AIC ."

Jaime Bruno
American International College
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION

  • New “Research Snippets” and “Critical Thinking” exercises encourage students to take a deeper look at the concepts being presented and develop a more critical understanding of the issues.
  • New co-author Cody Jorgensen brings expertise in forensic science, biosocial criminology, and policing.
  • New sections about recent research, topics, and events such as green criminology, convict criminology, and ISIL familiarize students with the latest advances in criminology. 
  • “Theory in Action” boxes have been updated to reflect the most current and interesting real life cases to help students make connections between theory and modern practice (such as deterrence theory and the death penalty).
  • Statistical information gathered from official sources (e.g., UR, NCVS, NIBRS) has been updated from the most recent sources available to reflect the latest developments in criminology.

KEY FEATURES

  • Full-color page design uses an extensive photo and illustration program to enliven the content.

  • End-of-chapter summaries of theory tables ensure students understand the main differences between the theories.

  • End-of-chapter Policy and Prevention sections describe the implications of each theoretical perspective.
  • Learning Objectives have been added to the start of each chapter to help students focus on the key content
  • Chapter Opening Vignettes pull students into the material and provide motivation for discussion.
  • Key Terms and Discussion Questions at the end of the chapter provide bulleted summary points.
  • Web resources and exercises at the end of each chapter provide additional opportunities for learning.
  • An accompanying instructor and student study site provide ample resources and support.
  • The Theory in Action boxes illustrate chapter material with interesting case studies and now include review questions
  • Research Snippets offer students brief overviews of interesting research that demonstrates important finding in criminology
  • Critical Thinking exercises include added material on convict criminology and green criminology to other critical theories in chapter eight.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 5

Chapter 9


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