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Educational Research

Educational Research
Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches

Seventh Edition
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September 2019 | 696 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches by R. Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introduction to research methods for undergraduate and graduate students. Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields, including how to read and critically evaluate published research and how to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own. The Seventh Edition maintains the features that made this book a best-seller, including attention-grabbing chapter-opening vignettes, lively examples that engage student interest, a conversational and friendly writing style, and more. With the support of this highly readable text, readers will transform into critical consumers and users of research.


SAGE edge gives instructors and students the edge they need to succeed with an array of teaching and learning tools in one easy-to-navigate website. Learn more:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
Why Study Educational Research?  
Areas of Educational Research  
Examples of Educational Research  
General Kinds of Research  
Sources of Knowledge  
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation  
Objectives of Educational Research  
Overview of this Book  
Chapter 2: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Research
Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms  
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research  
Qualitative Research Methods  
Mixed Research (or Mixed Methods Research)  
Our Research Typology  
Chapter 3: Action Research for Lifelong Learning
Defining Action Research  
Origins of Action Research  
Basic Scientific Research Versus Action Research  
Types of Action Research  
The Cycle of Action Research  
Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research  
Action Research Journaling  
Action Research in the Remaining Chapters of This Book  
Chapter 4: How to Critically Review the Literature and Develop Good Research Questions
Sources of Research Ideas  
Ideas That Can't Be Resolved Through Emrpirical Research  
Review of the Literature  
Feasibility of the Study  
Statement of the Research Problem  
Statement of the Purpose of the Study  
Statement of Research Questions  
Formulating Hypotheses  
Consumer Use of the Literature  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 5: How to Write a Research Proposal
Framework of the Research Proposal  
Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 6: Research Ethics
What Are Research Ethics?  
Ethical Concerns  
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans  
Institutional Review Board  
Ethical Issues in Electronic Research  
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 7: Standardized Measurement and Assessment
Defining Measurement  
Scales of Measurement  
Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment  
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure  
Educational and Psychological Tests  
Sources of Information About Tests  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 8: Methods of Data Collection in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Focus Groups  
Constructed, Secondary, and Existing Data  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 9: How to Construct a Questionnaire
What Is a Questionnaire?  
Principles of Questionnaire Construction  
Putting it All Together  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 10: Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Terminology Used in Sampling  
Random Sampling Techniques  
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques  
Random Selection and Random Assignment  
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used  
Sampling in Qualitative Research  
Sampling in Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 11: Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research  
Internal Validity (i.e., Causal Validity)  
External Validity (i.e., Generalizing Validity)  
Construct Validity  
Statistical Conclusion Validity  
Research Validity (or "Trustworthiness") in Qualitative Research  
Research Validity (of "Legitimation") in Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Section A: Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
Chapter 12: Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs
The Experiment  
Experimental Research Settings  
Independent Variable Manipulation  
Control of Confounding Variables  
Experimental Research Designs  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 13: Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs  
Single-Case Experimental Designs  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 14: Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
Steps in Nonexperimental Research  
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research  
Simple Cases of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research  
Three Required Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships  
Applying the Three REquired Conditions for Causations in Nonexperimental Research  
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research)  
Interlufe (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology)  
Classifying Nonexperimental Research by Time and Research Objective  
The TIme Dimension in Nonexperimental Research  
The Research Objective Dimension in Nonexperimental Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Section B: Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
Chapter 15: Narraitve Inquiry and Case Study Research
Narrative Inquiry  
Case Study Research  
Action Research Reflection  
16: Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory
Grounded Theory  
Action Research Reflection  
Section C: Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches
Chapter 17: Mixed Research
The Research Continuum  
Types of Mixed Research Designs  
STages of the Mixed Research Process  
Limitations of Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflectoin  
Chapter 18: Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics  
Frequency Distributions  
Graphic Representations of Data  
Measures of Central Tendency  
Measures of Variability  
Measures of Relative Standing  
Examining Relationships Among Variables  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 19: Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions  
Hypothesis Testing  
Hypothesis Testing in Practice  
Action Research Reflection  
Chapter 20: Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
Interim analysis  
Analysis of Visual Data  
Data Entry and Storage  
Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems  
First-Stage and Second-Stage Coding  
"Themeing the Data" and Creating Hierarchical Category Systems  
Identifying Relationships Among Categories  
Corroborating and Validating Results  
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis  
Data Analysis in Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Chpater 21: How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines
General Principles RElated to Writing the Research Report (I)  
Writing an APA-STyle QUantitative Research Report (II)  
Example of an APA-Style Manuscript  
Writing Qualitative Research Reports  
Writing Mixed REsearch Reports  
Action Research Reflection  
Appendix: Citations for Journal Articles Noted in the Margins


Instructor Teaching Site

SAGE edge for instructors supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students with:
  • a password-protected site for complete and protected access to all text-specific instructor resources;  
  • a test bank that offers a large and diverse set of test questions and answers for each chapter of the book. Multiple-choice and true/false questions are included for every chapter to help you assess students’ progress and understanding;
  • editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that assist with lecture and review, highlighting essential content, features, and artwork from the book;
  • carefully selected, and updated web-based video resources featuring relevant content for use in independent and classroom-based exploration of key topics;
  • teaching tips designed to help conceptualize your overall teaching plan for each chapter;
  • lecture notes that summarize key concepts by chapter to help prepare for lectures and class discussions;
  • lively and stimulating ideas for class activities in and out of the classroom to reinforce active learning;
  • datasets and SPSS exercises for additional hands-on practice;
  • exclusive access to multiple full-length SAGE journal articles, providing examples and discussion of ideas explained in the book;
  • downloadable versions of the tables, figures, and worksheets;
  • suggested answers to the review questions found throughout each chapter (provided by the author); and
  • sample syllabi for quarter, semester, and online courses.
Student Study Site

SAGE edge for students enhances learning, it’s easy to use, and offers:
  • an open-access site that makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime;
  • eQuizzes that allow students to practice and assess how much they’ve learned and where they need to focus their attention;
  • suggested answers to review questions to help students study and master the chapter material;
  • concept maps to show students links among the concepts and see the “big picture”;
  • lecture notes for students to review and bring to class;
  • eFlashcards that reinforce student understanding and learning of the key terms and concepts outlined in the chapters;
  • carefully selected, web-based video links featuring relevant content for use in independent and classroom-based exploration of key topics; and
  • exclusive access to multiple full-length SAGE journal articles, providing examples and discussion of ideas explained in the book.

“The innovative structure of Educational Research paves the way for students to build a cohesive understanding of the research process and learn to appreciate various approaches to research design without positioning any one paradigm as the ‘default.’”

Christy Galletta Horner
Bowling Green State University

Educational Research provides students the introduction that is needed for them to be both consumers and producers of educational research.”

David Schmid
University of Northern Iowa

Educational Research is an excellent textbook that meets the needs for a course based on CACREP standards. Extremely reader friendly with helpful supplemental materials.”

Nancy L. Leech
University of Colorado Denver

Educational Research contains invaluable wisdom and advice from leading scholars. It is accessible to a wide audience, including management scholars, undergraduate and graduate students majoring in business, and working professionals in the field of management and marketing. I greatly admire this textbook.”

Young Kim
Lasell College
Key features
  • This revision was driven by seasoned reviewers who teach research methods, as well as by the authors’ attention to new ideas and movements in research. The collaboration of the authors and expert reviewers resulted in every chapter being updated to clarify and simplify the material.
  • Each of the six major parts of the book now includes a helpful overview, highlighting key concepts presented in each section's chapters.
  • The majority of the chapter-opening vignettes have been rewritten to reflect current events, helping students engage with and connect to the material.
  • Updates to references, new concepts with definitions, journal articles, review questions, recommended readings and websites, and more ensure that students are learning from the most up-to-date information in the field.
  • The free SAGE edge student study site includes 82 published research articles, multiple new YouTube videos on chapter materials, and many new and helpful links that support student learning and retention of the material.
  • Chapters are organized to follow the major components or steps involved in the research process.
  • Every chapter starts with an opening vignette that connects the content with current events, followed by a list of objectives to get students thinking about what they are going to learn.
  • While many texts only offer one method, this text provides balanced coverage of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research while also explaining each method's strengths and appropriateness.
  • The authors' conversational and accessible writing style makes the book student-friendly, unintimidating, and easy to read.
  • Margin definitions of all key terms, examples of concepts from published research studies, review questions, and margin icons connecting readers to journal articles, tools, and tips provided via the book’s companion website are strategically placed throughout the text to bolster student comprehension of important topics.
  • Each chapter ends with a full chapter summary, a list of the key terms used in the chapter, discussion questions, research exercises, relevant websites, and recommended reading.

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