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Ending Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery

Ending Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery
Freedom's Journey

Edited by:

September 2017 | 392 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Bringing together conceptual, practice, and advocacy knowledge, Ending Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery: Freedom's Journey explores the complexities of human trafficking and modern-day slavery through a global perspective. This comprehensive, multidisciplinary text includes a discussion of the root causes and structural issues that continue to plague society, as well as real-life case studies and vignettes, the words of human trafficking survivors, and insights from first responders and anti-trafficking advocates. Each chapter includes a “call to action” to inspire readers to implement a range of strategies designed to disrupt, eradicate, or mitigate human trafficking and modern-day slavery.

About the Author
About the Contributors
1 Introduction and History of Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery
Chapter Objectives

History of Slavery

Defining Trafficking

Sex Trafficking

Understanding Sex Work

Labor Trafficking

Conceptual Approaches to Human Trafficking

Scope of the Issue

Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report

Alternatives to the TIP Report

Call to Action: A Multitude of Lenses

Discussion Questions


2 The Law of Supply and Demand: The Business of Trafficking
Chapter Objectives

Demand Dynamics

Supply Side

Beyond Supply and Demand

Call to Action: Changing the Business Model

Discussion Questions


3 Social Determinants of Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery
Chapter Objectives

Social Determinants



World War II Sex Slaves (“Comfort Women”)

Case Vignette: Chien


Female Gender

Race and Ethnicity


Caste and Class

Call to Action: Ending Trafficking by Targeting Social Determinants

Discussion Questions


4 Trauma-Informed Care
Chapter Objectives


Defining Trauma

Complex Trauma

Neurobiology and Trauma

Impact of Trauma-Informed Care

Trauma-Informed Care and Trafficking

Principles to Guide Practice

Implementing Trauma-Informed Care

Trauma-Informed Practice Example: Seeking Safety

Meditation and Mindfulness

Complex Case

Call to Action: Strengths-Based and Trauma-Informed

Discussion Questions


5 Case Management
Chapter Objectives


Defining Case Management

Implementing Case Management

Resources for Case Managers

Effective Approaches


Complex Case

Call to Action: Coordination, Communication, Case Management

Discussion Questions


6 Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Chapter Objectives

Defining Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Implementing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

PTSD: Common Diagnosis with Victims of Trafficking

Current Issues with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Complex Case

Call to Action: Reframe and Rethink

Discussion Questions


7 Survivor Advocate Model
Chapter Objectives


Pimp Appropriation

Survivor Advocate Model

Examples of Survivor Advocate Models

12 Beliefs


Complex Case

Call to Action: No Justice, No Peace

Discussion Questions


8 Interventions for Commercially Sexually Exploited Children (CSEC)
Chapter Objectives


Overview of CSEC

The Language of CSEC

Screening for CSEC

Widely Used CSEC Interventions

Global Child Trafficking

Case Vignette: Amber

Call to Action: One Child Is One Child Too Many

Discussion Questions


9 Landmark Policies in Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery
Chapter Objectives


The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime: The Palermo Protocols

United States: Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000

Highlight: Kids in Need of Defense (KIND)

Additional Legislation

Safe Harbor Laws

Anti-trafficking Laws: A Global View

Organizational Highlight: Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST)

Case Vignette: Cristela

Call to Action: Create and Enforce Anti-trafficking Policy Worldwide

Discussion Questions


10 Supply Chain Transparency
Chapter Objectives

Introduction: Labor Trafficking Overview

The Ghost Fleet

Understanding the Supply Chain

Laws Around Supply Chain Transparency

Case Study: Brazil, a National Pact for the Eradication of Slave Labor

The Road to Transparency

Highlight: H2B Visas and Migration

California Transparency in Supply Chains Act (CA–TISC)

Highlight: Alliance to Stop Slavery and End Trafficking (ASSET)

Modern Slavery Act–UK

Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) (Executive Order 13,627) and the Trade Facilitation Enforcement Act of 2015 (H.R. 644)


Best Practices

Case Vignette: Edward

Call to Action: Transparency to Freedom

Discussion Questions


11 Grassroots’ Advocacy and Activism
Chapter Objectives


(Human) Rights-Based Approach

Advocacy and Activism

Highlight: UN Women

Feminist Movement Building

Highlight: Coalition Against Trafficking Women

Grassroots Initiatives

Forging Institutional Partnerships

Developing Public and Institutional Support Through Research and Advocacy

Overall Insights: From the Local to the Global Perspective


Call to Action: Advocacy and Activism to End Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery

Discussion Questions


12 Faith-Based Organizations
Chapter Objectives


Faith-Based Services

Faith-Based Abolitionist Movements

Highlight: Hookers for Jesus (Domestic Organizational Highlight)

Faith-Based Services, Programs, and Projects

Highlight: Wellspring International


Case Vignette: Fellowship Monrovia

Call to Action: Be the Light

Discussion Questions


13 Prevention
Chapter Objectives


Ecosystems Lens

Addressing Root Causes

Examples of Best Practices

Adequate Training

Corporate Social Responsibility and Supply Chain Management


Call to Action: Address “Complete Range of Vulnerabilities” for Effective Prevention

Discussion Questions


14 Social Innovations in Human Trafficking: Solutions to a Wicked Problem
Chapter Objectives


Wicked Problems

Growing Innovation in the Anti-trafficking Movement

Best Practices in Social Innovation

Highlight: LaborVoices

Highlight: Traffickcam


Case Vignette: The Mariposa Center

Call to Action: Impact and Disruption as The Road to Ending Trafficking

Guiding Questions for Social Labs


15 Ending Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery
Chapter Objectives

What We Have Learned So Far

Evolving Trends

Changing Role of Survivor Advocates and/or Activists

Case Vignette: Women’s Rights Defenders

Call to Action: End Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery Now!

Survivor Statements: In Our Own Words . . .

Discussion Questions



"This excellent text offers a meaningful contribution to knowledge on the pressing issue of human slavery.  Its use of a systems perspective coupled with an emphasis on advocacy represents an ideal combination of scholarship and practice vital to any examination — and response — to human trafficking."

Jorja Leap
University of California, Los Angeles

Labor trafficking continues to be an invisible issue. Enrile  takes labor trafficking out of the shadows and puts it in plain view for the reader; highlighting the challenges we face as individuals, and within local and international communities to target labor law violations and control supply chains.” 

Wendy Stickle
University of Maryland

 “The text does a skillful job of integrating various perspectives relevant to understanding the problem of human trafficking. It takes a problem-solving approach to trafficking that fully recognizes the complexities of this vital concern.”

Kali Wright-Smith
Westminster College

“Historical and contemporary, critical and applied, global and local, this book provides both a rich overview of the problem of human trafficking and a detailed account of strategies for addressing it at practice and policy levels.” 

David Porteous
Middlesex University

“This book offers a comprehensive and holistic look at issues of contemporary slavery.” 

Marie A. Conn
Chestnut Hill College

“Enrile’s systems perspective and focus on advocating for survivor interventions adds a robust dimension to any study of human trafficking.” 

Manuel F. Zamora
Angelo State University

“This text takes a thorough intellectual look at the problem of human trafficking and the very real issues impeding those who would bring it to an end.” 

Nancy Janus
Eckerd College

“An interesting and useful book which fills a notable gap in the literature.” 

Simon Sneddon
University of Northampton

“A multi-disciplinary text which encompasses a vast range of aspects concerning trafficking and modern day slavery.” 

Jan Bourne-Day
Manchester Metropolitan University

“A timely and substantial contribution to the global issue of human slavery, this text introduces students to the comprehensive suite of responses currently being utilized in the US and beyond, whilst basing such discussions within a practice-orientated domain.” 

N. Chubbock
Nottingham Trent University
Key features


  • Thought-provoking research enables students to contrast a variety of viewpoints and develop critical thinking skills.
  • Case vignettes allow students to experience the nuances of a single case taken through several iterations based on context, circumstance, and availability of resources.
  • Cases and examples presented are based on the authors’ interactions and communication with survivors and their allies.
  • Calls to action in every chapter provide readers with a path to empowerment through a role in anti-trafficking activities.
  • An advocate/practitioner perspective allows readers to see issues not only through the eyes of the client, survivor, or victim, but also through the additional lens of the helping professional, advocate, or organizer.
  • A feminist, ecosystems theoretical lens provides readers with a solid perspective not only of the issue but of the issue’s root causes.

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