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Armed Forces & Society

Armed Forces & Society

eISSN: 15560848 | ISSN: 0095327X | Current volume: 50 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Quarterly

Contact Information:
Editorial Office
Department of Political Science
University Academic Center, Rm.370
601 University Drive
Texas State University
San Marcos, TX 78666

Phone: (703) 853-9170

Armed Forces & Society is the leading peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, and international journal publishing on topics such as

  • Civil Military Relations
  • Military Organizations
  • Use of Force
  • Conflict Resolution
  • Logic and Consequences of War
  • Terrorism
  • Military Leadership & Professionalism
  • Ethics
  • Security
  • Arms Control
  • Peacekeeping
  • Defense Economics
  • Recruitment and Retention
  • Reserve Forces and Veterans
  • Representation Issues
  • Family and Health Issues
  • Military History

Armed Forces & Society publishes empirical, theoretically-informed articles, research notes, book reviews, and review essays.  Its articles may adopt an interdisciplinary, comparative, or historical perspective, use qualitative or quantitative methods, and range from policy-relevant to theoretical themes—but they always meet the highest standards of intellectual rigor, scholarly argument, evidence, and readability.

Armed Forces & Society: an interdisciplinary journal publishes articles quarterly on civil-military relations, veterans, force effectiveness and diversity, military culture, officer education and training, military institutions, ethics, unit cohesion, military families, peacemaking, privatization, public opinion, and conflict management. The journal is international in scope with a focus on interdisciplinary and policy discourse. The editors and contributors include political scientists, sociologists, psychologists, legal scholars, historians, and economists, as well as specialists in military organization and strategy, and peacekeeping.

For further exploration, please read Dr. Pat Shields’s “Dynamic Intersection of Military and Society (2020).

Armed Forces & Society: Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Statement

Traversing the fine line between armed violence and peacekeeping, our mission at Armed Forces & Society is to represent fully the constituents we serve as well as those underserved or marginalized throughout history and today. Our international team of scholars and reviewers reflects and champions the diversity of our audience across the spectrum of human experience. We aspire to equity in our policy and administration. We are committed to inclusion. We endeavor to cultivate peace.

Patricia M. Shields Texas State University, San Marcos, USA
Managing Editor
Donald S. Travis Texas State University, USA
Board of Editors
David L. Albright The University of Alabama, USA
Charles (Chuck) Allen US Army War College, USA
Eyal Ben-Ari Kinneret College, Israel
Bernard Boene L'Ecole Superieure Militaire de Saint-Cyr, France
Risa Brooks Marquette University, USA
Richard Chasdi Walsh College, Michigan, USA
Lindsay Cohn U.S. Naval War College, USA
Damon Coletta United States Air Force Academy, USA
Thomas Crosbie Royal Danish Defense College, Denmark
Christopher Dandeker King's College London, UK
Thomas Doyle Texas State University, USA
Antulio Echevarria U.S. Army War College, USA
Morten Ender United States Military Academy, USA
Peter D. Feaver Duke University, USA
Nir Gazit Ruppin Academic Center, Israel
Andrea Ghiselli Fudan University, China
Irina Goldenberg Department of National Defence, Canada
Lindy Heinecken Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Ramon Hinojosa University of Central Florida, USA
Moses Khisa North Carolina State University, USA
Anthony King University of Exeter, UK
Gerhard Kuemmel Bundeswehr Institute of Social Research, Germany
Terence Lee National University of Singapore, Singapore
Christian Leuprecht Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
Yagil Levy The Open University of Israel, Israel
Robert Mandel Lewis and Clark College, USA
Laura Miller RAND, USA
Rene Moelker Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands
Brenda Moore State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Emmanuel Ojo University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Ami Pedahzur University of Texas at Austin, USA
David Pion-Berlin University of California, Riverside, USA
Jonathan Powell University of Central Florida, USA
Jos C. N. Raadschelders The Ohio State University, USA
Sebastiaan Rietjens Netherlands Defense Academy, Netherlands
Chiara Ruffa Uppsala University, Sweden
William Ruger American Institute of Economic Research, USA
Rebecca L. Schiff U.S. Naval War College, USA
Ryan Scott US Army
Anders Sookermany Norwegian Defence University College, Norway
Ori Swed Texas Tech University, USA
Hassan Tajalli Texas State University, USA
Jeremy M. Teigen Ramapo College, USA
Pascal Vennesson Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Robert A. Vitas Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, USA
Travis Whetsell Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
John Allen Williams Loyola University, Chicago, USA
Editors Emeritus
Morris Janowitz (1973-1983)
David R. Segal (1983-1989)
Claude Welch (1989-1993)
Jay Stanley (1992-1995)
James Burk (1995-1998)
Mark Eitelberg (1998-2001)
Book Review Editor
Donald S. Travis Texas State University, USA
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  • Armed Forces & Society

    Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Statement

    Traversing the fine line between armed violence and peacekeeping, our mission at Armed Forces & Society is to represent fully the constituents we serve as well as those underserved or marginalized throughout history and today. Our international team of scholars and reviewers reflects and champions the diversity of our audience across the spectrum of human experience. We aspire to equity in our policy and administration. We are committed to inclusion. We endeavor to cultivate peace.


    Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    Manuscripts must be submitted electronically via; authors must establish an online account on the SageTrack system powered by ScholarOne. Manuscripts are not accepted by e-mail nor are they ‘pre-reviewed’ by editorial staff for suitability.

    Book reviews should adhere to all submission guidelines and generally will not exceed 7 pages and 2000 words.

    Submission of a manuscript implies a commitment by the author to publish in the journal if the manuscript is accepted; authors must certify that the manuscript is not currently under consideration by any other journal.

    Please contact the journal’s editorial staff at if you have any questions or concerns about submitting a manuscript that are not addressed below or at

    Manuscript Quality

    Reviewers rate submitted manuscripts based on the following seven criteria: 

    • readability/writing style
    • interest to readership
    • use of literature
    • use of theory
    • appropriateness of methods
    • significance of evidence
    • contribution to knowledge.

    Manuscript Preparation

    Size: Manuscripts typically should not exceed 26 pages and 8,000 words, including tables, figures, and references. However, manuscripts received that exceed that limit may be considered at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

    Style: Manuscripts should be prepared using the APA Style (7th ed.). See below and

    Manuscript Formatting Basics

    Anonymizing the manuscript; see instructions:

    The manuscript must be in MS Word or equivalent.

    Margins must be 1” on all four sides of 8.5” x 11” (US letter-size), portrait orientation paper.

    All manuscript text pages must be typed, double-spaced in 12-point Times New Roman font unless otherwise indicated below (e.g., References, Endnotes).

    Manuscript text should be left justified unless otherwise indicated (e.g., block quotes).

    Blockquotes should be single-spaced and indented; see APA 7th ed. Sections 8.23 – 8.28 for setup.

    Headers/Footers of any type, including page numbers, are not permitted.

    Table data must be presented in a MS Word or MS Excel spreadsheet, or as a .jpg or .png; do not use the spacebar to place data in a ‘table’ on the page! See APA 7th ed. Section 7.8 – 7.21 for setup.

    Figure elements must be ‘grouped,’ a .jpg, a .png, or otherwise ‘locked’ into the appropriate format for publication. If Figure elements are not ‘grouped, the manuscript will be returned immediately to the author. Figure resolution should be 300dpi at the time of submission. See APA 7th ed. Section 7.22 – 7.36 for setup.

    References and Endnotes must be 10.5-point Times New Roman font with 1.5 line spacing.

    Manuscript Submission Components (Minimum of TWO to upload)

      • Article title
      • Abstract (maximum 150 words)
      • Keywords (maximum of seven)
      • Author(s)' name(s)
      • Author(s)' brief biography(ies)
      • Author(s)' institutional affiliation(s) with mailing address(es)
      • Corresponding author’s e-mail
      • Acknowledgments
      • Disclosures: Authors who are governmental employees must disclose if the preparation of the submitted manuscript is within the scope of their employment. Please include a statement such as "Co-author (name) prepared this work within the scope of their employment with (governmental agency)." 
    • MAIN DOCUMENT [Manuscript] – Proper Order of Sections
      • Article title, Abstract (maximum 150 words), Keywords (maximum of seven) on first page (all three of these elements on first page)
      • Text (begins on a new page) Note: The first paragraphs are understood to be introductory; do not begin with a section heading “Introduction.” If you have subheadings within the initial paragraphs, begin with Second Level per below.
      • Tables (begin on a new page and are in numerical order with a placeholder [Insert Table # here] in the text)
      • Figures (begin on a new page and are in numerical order with a placeholder [Insert Figure # here] in the text)
      • References (begin on a new page)
      • Endnotes (begin on a new page)
      • Appendices (begin on a new page) Note: Appendices that are extensive and/or supplemental will be published online only and tied to the article via hotlink.

    Heading & Subheading Structure (See APA 7th ed. Sections 2.26 – 2.27)

    Headings and subheadings should be informative, clear, and brief. They provide an ‘outline’ of the section and distinction between main concepts or components presented.

    APA Style provides for five levels, although three usually suffice. They should be formatted precisely as follows:

    First Level Headings, Centered, Bold, Title Case

    Text should be indented like this…

    Second Level Headings, Flush Left, Bold, Title Case

                Text should be indented like this… 

    Third Level Headings, Bold Italic, Title Case

                Text should be indented like this…

    Fourth Level Headings, Indented, Bold, Title Case ending with a period. Text then immediately begins like this… 

    Fifth Level Headings, Indented, Bold, Italic, Title Case ending with a period. Text then immediately begins like this…

    Citations (See APA 7th ed. Sections 8.10 – 8.36.)

    • For each citation, there must be a corresponding citation in the References AND for each Reference in the list, there must be a corresponding text citation.
    • Paraphrasing - See APA 7th ed. Sections 8.23 & 8.24.
    • Quotations - See APA 7th ed. Sections 8.25 – 8.34.
    • Always use in-text citations.
      • Parenthetical:
        • One author: “…processes and people has become normalized (Meštrović, 2015).”
        • Two Authors: “…suitable conditions for pursuing our end goals – well-being, happiness, flourishing (Zavaliy & Aristidou, 2014).
        • Three or more authors: “…armed forces are expected to kill or support a killing machine (Baggaley et al., 2019).
      • Narrative:
        • One author: Tronto (2017) further suggests…
        • Two authors: Allison and Risman (2014, p. 118) state, “…”
        • Three or more authors: Connor et al. (2019) asserts that loyalty relationships…


    If explanatory endnotes are required for your manuscript, use MS Word’s References > Insert Endnote feature.

    • Use Arabic numbers (i.e., 1, 2, 3…).
    • Citations used in endnotes must be included in References.
    • Endnotes must be 1.5 spaced in 10.5 point Times New Roman and hanging indented.
    • Must begin on a separate page with “Notes” as the first level heading AFTER “References.”  

    References (See APA 7th ed. Chapters 9 & 10; visit

    • Arrange references alphabetically by authors’ last names.
    • If there is more than one work by the same author, order according to publication date oldest to most recent.

    Examples of Common References


    Journal article with one author
    Smith, A. (2015). Effects of multiple deployments on families and unit readiness. Armed
    Forces & Society, 13(6), 578-583.

    Journal article with two authors
    Woods, P. R., & Lamond, D. A. (2011). What would Confucius do? – Confucian ethics and self-
    regulation in management. Journal of Business Ethics 102(4), 669-683.

    Journal article with three or more authors
    Valentine, G., Holloway, S., Knell, C., & Jayne, M. (2008). Drinking places: young people and
    cultures of alcohol consumption in rural environments. Journal of Rural Studies 24, 28-40.


    Book with one author
    Peters, M. A. (2001). Poststructuralism, Marxism, and Neoliberalism: Between theory and politics.
    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

    Book chapter in an edited volume
    Kier, E. (1999). Discrimination and military cohesion: an organizational per­spective. In M. F.
    Katzenstein & J. Perry (Eds.), Beyond Zero Tolerance: Discrimination in Military Culture
    (pp. 25-52). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

    Book with multiple editors
    Wardrip-Fruin, N., & Montfort, N. (Eds.). (2003). The new media reader. MIT Press.

    Government Agency Reports

    National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No.
    18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

    Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists
    of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space

    Dissertation (Published)

    Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level
    degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No.
    27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open.

    Conference Paper Presentation

    Evans, A. C., Jr., Garbarino, J., Bocanegra, E., Kinscherff, R. T., & Márquez-Greene, N. (2019,
    August 8–11). Gun violence: An event on the power of community [Conference presentation].
    APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States.  


    Meraji, S. M., & Demby, G. (Hosts). (2016–present). Code switch [Audio
    podcast]. National Public Radio.

    Copyrighted Materials

    Author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published in Armed Forces & Society.

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