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Performance Appraisal and Management

Performance Appraisal and Management

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March 2018 | 424 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Organizations of all sizes face the challenge of accurately and fairly evaluating performance in the workplace. Performance Appraisal and Management distills the best available research and translates those findings into practical, concrete strategies. This text explores common obstacles and why certain performance appraisal methods often fail. Using a strategic, evidence-based approach, the authors outline best practices for avoiding common pitfalls and help organizations achieve their maximum potential. Cases, exercises, and spotlight boxes on timely issues like cyberbullying in the workplace and appraising team performance provides readers with opportunities to hone their critical thinking and decision-making skills. 

About the Authors
Section I: Introduction
Chapter 1: Performance Appraisal: Research and Practice
Learning Objectives  
Performance Appraisal: Historical Development and Present Status  
Organization of this Book  
Exercise: Can Organizations Manage Human Resources Without Performance Appraisal?  
Chapter 2: Performance Management and Performance Appraisal
Learning Objectives  
Why Study Performance Appraisal Rather Than Performance Management?  
Performance Management  
Performance Appraisal and Performance Management: Similarities and Differences  
Human Resource Management, Strategic HRM, and Performance Management  
Can Performance Management Be Simplified?  
Can Performance Be Managed?  
Challenges in Evaluating Performance Management  
What Is the Role of Performance Appraisal in Performance Management?  
Performance Appraisal, Performance Management, and Integrated HR Interventions  
Analysis: From Strategy to Performance Goals  
Chapter 3: Defining Job Performance
Learning Objectives  
Defining Performance  
A General Model of Job Performance  
The Distribution of Job Performance  
Dimensions of Job Performance  
Units of Analysis and Methods of Measurement  
Objective Versus Subjective Measures of Performance  
Analysis: Values and Validation—How the Definition of Performance Influences Conclusions Test Validity  
Section II: The Performance Appraisal Process
Chapter 4: The Four Key Challenges to Performance Appraisal
Learning Objectives  
The Structural Causes of Failure  
Exercise: Maintain a Behavior Diary  
Chapter 5: Obtaining Information and Evaluating Performance
Learning Objectives  
Who Should Evaluate Performance  
Cognitive Processes in Performance Evaluation  
Liking and Emotion: Affective Influences on Performance Appraisal  
Standards for Evaluating Performance  
Exercise: Writing Performance Standards  
Chapter 6: Rating Scales and Rater Training
Learning Objectives  
Rating Scales  
Ranking as an Alternative to Rating  
Rater Training  
Exercise: Developing Behavior-Based Rating Scales  
Chapter 7: How Context Influences Performance Appraisal
Learning Objectives  
The Emergence of Context-Oriented Research  
Distal Context  
Proximal Context  
Case Study: Why Rank and Yank Failed at Microsoft  
Chapter 8: How Organizations Use Performance Appraisal
Learning Objectives  
The Purpose of Performance Appraisal  
The Uses of Performance Appraisal  
Informal Uses of Performance Appraisal: Downward and Upward Influence  
Case Study: Even Terrorists Get Performance Appraisals—And Act on Them!  
Section III: Challenges in Implementing and Evaluating Performance Appraisal Systems
Chapter 9: Giving and Receiving Feedback
Learning Objectives  
The Definition and Purpose of Feedback  
Multisource Feedback  
Why is Feedback Hard to Give and Receive?  
Culture, Climate, and Feedback  
The Effects of Feedback and Reactions to Feedback  
Do Employees Want Feedback and Development?  
Exercise: Evaluate Your Company’s Feedback Program  
Chapter 10: Dealing with Reactions and Attitudes
Learning Objectives  
Reactions to Appraisal Systems  
How Reactions Affect Performance Appraisal Processes and Outcomes  
Determinants and Effects of Reactions to Appraisal Systems  
The Death Spiral of Appraisal Systems  
Case Study: Understanding Resistance to Performance Appraisal  
Chapter 11: Evaluating Performance Ratings
Learning Objectives  
Do Raters Agree? The Reliability of Performance Ratings  
Rater Error Measures  
Rating Accuracy  
Construct Validity of Performance Ratings  
Conclusions About the Reliability, Validity, and Accuracy of Performance Ratings  
Exercise: Analyze Rating Data  
Chapter 12: Rater Goals and Rating Distortion
Learning Objectives  
Why are Ratings Inflated?  
Whose Goals?  
Rater Goals  
Analyzing Performance Rating Strategies as a Choice Between Alternatives  
Exercise: Build a Goal Assessment Tool  
Section IV: Improving Performance Appraisal Systems
Chapter 13: The Performance Appraisal Debate
Learning Objectives  
Getting Rid of Performance Appraisal?  
We Can’t Get Rid of Performance Appraisal  
Can Appraisal Systems be Saved?  
Case Study: Can This Performance Appraisal System Be Saved?  
Chapter 14: Building Better Performance Appraisal Systems
Learning Objectives  
Improving Performance Appraisals  
Make Appraisals Easier and Less Risky  
Trust: The Essential Currency of Performance Appraisal  
The Ethical Practice of Performance Appraisal  
Case Study: Implementing a Performance Appraisal System  
Appendix A: Rating Scale Formats


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Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course. 

“[This is] a practical, cutting-edge, research-based textbook that bases its conclusions and recommendations on the state-of-the-art science for explaining why performance appraisals fail and how they can be designed for implementing a more successful and sustainable performance appraisal system in organizations. A must-read for students and practitioners alike!”

Uma J. Iyet
Austin Peay State University

“Murphy, Cleveland, and Hanscom have brought together decades of sound research and practice knowledge to shed light on the controversial performance appraisal practices found in almost all organizations. Every designer of PA and HR systems, and those aspiring to be, will run to get and read this book. Don’t abandon Performance Appraisals, re-invent them.”

Mo Cayer
University of New Haven

“Murphy, Cleveland, and Hanscom’s Performance Appraisal: Why Does It Fail and How can it be Fixed? offers a well-grounded in-depth review of current performance appraisal process steps and illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of today’s practices. The focus of the book is on making performance appraisals better for both the employee and supervisor. Case studies allow students to engage in discussing the root-causes of failure and success in the performance appraisal performance process.” 

Bruce E. Winston
Regent University

“Hopefully ‘a bible’ for measuring and evaluating performance.” 

Ann Membel
Southern New Hampshire University

“This book provides a research-based, comprehensive overview of performance appraisals in modern organizations.” 

Sean Valentine
University of North Dakota

“A seminal work for understanding the social psychological processes underpinning performance appraisal process in the workplace.” 

Cort W. Rudolph
Saint Louis University

“This is a very comprehensive tool in explaining the history and value, theorists and models of the performance appraisal process, and it brings the process up to date with a hopeful future.” 

Ann P. Membel
Southern New Hampshire University

“Detailed overview of performance management with relevant and current issues” 

Jennifer E. Fairweather
Regis University

“…The authors provide extensive literature to illustrate their ideas. It is enlightening and worth reading.” 

Jing Zhang
California State University, San Bernardino

“Well-researched, comprehensive, and yet imminently accessible discussion of challenges of performance appraisal.” 

Eric S. Ecklund
Saint Francis University
Key features


  • Using more than 900 references from the most current empirical research to support their arguments, the authors delve into timely issues such as the current debate on the effectiveness of performance appraisal. 
  • Describing the most common performance management challenges provides readers with a realistic and comprehensive look at obstacles they will face such as conflicting goals, leniency, distorted ratings, poor attitudes, and lack of training.
  • Illuminating case studies and hands-on exercises illustrate the connection between research and practice. 
  • Spotlight boxes highlight current debates, trends, and interesting findings in the field to reinforce important concepts while keeping the reader engaged and updated on hot topics.

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