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Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications
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Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications

Second Edition
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February 2018 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This updated Second Edition consistently integrates methods and statistics to prepare students for both graduate work and critical analysis of research as professionals and informed citizens. Maintaining the conversational writing style, multiple examples, and hands-on applications of key concepts that made the first edition so accessible, the authors enhance the new edition with additional coverage of online data collection, inferential statistics, and regression and ANOVA, as well as a wide range of diverse examples. 

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Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications, 2e + Student Study Guide With IBM® SPSS® Workbook – Bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-3016-7

Research Methods, Statistics, and Applications, 2e + SAGE IBM® SPSS® Statistics v24.0 Student Version – Bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-3265-9

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Preface
 
About The Authors
 
Chapter 1: Thinking Like A Researcher
Critical Thinking

 
Thinking Critically About Ethics

 
The Scientific Approach

 
Overview of the Research Process (a.k.a. the Scientific Method)

 
The Big Picture: Proof and Progress in Science

 
 
Chapter 2: Build a Solid Foundation for Your Study Based On Past Research
Types of Sources

 
Types of Scholarly Works

 
Strategies to Identify and Find Past Research

 
Reading and Evaluating Primary Research Articles

 
Develop Study Ideas Based on Past Research

 
APA Format for References

 
The Big Picture: Use the Past to Inform the Present

 
 
Chapter 3: The Cornerstones of Good Research: Reliability and Validity
Using Data Analysis Programs: Measurement Reliability

 
Reliability and Validity Broadly Defined

 
Reliability and Validity of Measurement

 
Constructs and Operational Definitions

 
Types of Measures

 
Assessing Reliability of Measures

 
Assessing Validity of Measures

 
Reliability and Validity at the Study Level

 
The Big Picture: Consistency and Accuracy

 
 
Chapter 4: Basics of Research Design: Description, Measurement, and Sampling
When Is a Descriptive Study Appropriate?

 
Validity in Descriptive Studies

 
Measurement Methods

 
Defining the Population and Obtaining a Sample

 
The Big Picture: Beyond Description

 
 
Chapter 5: Describing Your Sample
Ethical Issues in Describing Your Sample

 
Practical Issues in Describing Your Sample

 
Descriptive Statistics

 
Choosing the Appropriate Descriptive Statistics

 
Using Data Analysis Programs: Descriptive Statistics

 
Comparing Interval/Ratio Scores with z Scores and Percentiles

 
The Big Picture: Know Your Data and Your Sample

 
 
Chapter 6: Beyond Descriptives: Making Inferences Based on Your Sample
Inferential Statistics

 
Hypothesis Testing

 
Errors in Hypothesis Testing

 
Effect Size, Confidence Intervals, and Practical Significance

 
Determining the Effect Size, Confidence Interval, and Practical Significance in a Study

 
The Big Picture: Making Sense of Results

 
 
Chapter 7: Comparing Your Sample to a Known or Expected Score
Choosing the Appropriate Test

 
One-Sample t Tests

 
Formulas and Calculations: One-Sample t Test

 
Using Data Analysis Programs: One-Sample t Test

 
Results

 
Discussion

 
The Big Picture: Examining One Variable at a Time

 
 
Chapter 8: Examining Relationships among Your Variables: Correlational Design
Correlational Design

 
Basic Statistics to Evaluate Correlational Research

 
Using Data Analysis Programs: Pearson's r and Point-Biserial r

 
Regression

 
Formulas and Calculations: Simple Linear Regression

 
Using Data Analysis Programs: Regression

 
The Big Picture: Correlational Designs Versus Correlational Analyses

 
 
Chapter 9: Examining Causality
Testing Cause and Effect

 
Threats to Internal Validity

 
Basic Issues in Designing an Experiment

 
Other Threats to Internal Validity

 
Balancing Internal and External Validity

 
The Big Picture: Benefits and Limits of Experimental Design

 
 
Chapter 10: Independent-Groups Designs
Designs with Independent Groups

 
Designing a Simple Experiment

 
Independent-Samples t Tests

 
Formulas and calculations: independent-samples t test

 
Using data analysis programs: independent-samples t test

 
Designs With More Than Two Independent Groups

 
Formulas and calculations: one-way independent-samples anova

 
Using data analysis programs: one-way independent-samples anova

 
The big picture: identifying and analyzing independent-groups designs

 
 
Chapter 11: Dependent-Groups Designs
Designs with dependent groups

 
Formulas and Calculations: Dependent-Samples t Test

 
Using data analysis programs: dependent-samples t test

 
Designs with more than two dependent groups

 
Formulas and calculations: within-subjects ANOVA

 
Using data analysis programs: within-subjects ANOVA

 
The big picture: selecting analyses and interpreting results for dependent-groups designs

 
 
Chapter 12: Factorial Designs
Basic Concepts in Factorial Design

 
Rationale for Factorial Designs

 
2 x 2 Designs

 
Analyzing Factorial Designs

 
Analyzing Independent-Groups Factorial Designs

 
Formulas and Calculations: Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA

 
Using Data Analysis Programs: Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA

 
Reporting and Interpreting Results of a Two-Way ANOVA

 
Dependent-Groups Factorial Designs

 
Mixed Designs

 
The Big Picture: Embracing Complexity

 
 
Chapter 13: Nonparametric Statistics
Parametric Versus Nonparametric Statistics

 
Nonparametric Tests for Nominal Data

 
Formulas and Calculations: Chi-Square Goodness of Fit

 
Using Data Analysis Programs: Chi-Square Goodness of Fit

 
Formulas and calculations: chi-square test for independence

 
Using data analysis programs: chi-square test for independence

 
Nonparametric statistics for ordinal (ranked) data

 
Formulas and calculations: spearman’s rho

 
Using data analysis programs: spearman’s rho

 
The big picture: selecting parametric versus nonparametric tests

 
 
Chapter 14: Focusing on the Individual Case Studies and Single N Designs
Samples Versus Individuals

 
The Case Study

 
Single N Designs

 
The Big Picture: Choosing Between a Sample, Case Study, or Single N Design

 
 
Chapter 15: How to Decide? Choosing a Research Design and Selecting the Correct Analysis
First and Throughout: Base Your Study on Past Research

 
Choosing a Research Design

 
Selecting Your Statistical Analyses

 
The Big Picture: Beyond This Class

 
 
Appendix A: Answers to Practice Questions
 
Appendix B: APA Style and Format Guidelines
 
Appendix C: Statistical Tables
 
Appendix D: Statistical Formulas
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Author index
 
Subject index

Supplements

Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • Multimedia content includes videos that appeal to students with different learning styles plus links to relevant websites for additional resources for further research on important topics.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Datasets for accompanying material in the book are available for download.
Instructor Teaching Site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring your courses.
  • A robust Instructor’s Manual contains a wealth of resources for instructors to draw on for each chapter, including lesson plans, class activities, and homework assignments designed by the authors.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected by the authors to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter, including accompanying exercises.
  • Multimedia content includes videos that appeal to students with different learning styles plus links to relevant websites for additional resources for further research on important topics.
  • Data sets for accompanying material in the book are available for download.
  • Solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises help assess student understanding of the material.

"The authors have constructed a manuscript that utilizes real life research questions and takes the reader through a detailed process of how a researcher would construct a study to answer the question, select the appropriate statistics to answer the question, and disseminate the results in how to write up the results/discussion."

Charles Fountaine
University of Minnesota, Duluth

"It outlines the bare necessities of research. It’s not full of definitions, it more so teaches students about the application of materials. The book comes across as task-oriented."

Derrick Bryan
Morehouse College

"In our sections of research methods & statistics, students are asked to buy two books (methods + stats). I appreciate that this textbook is able to unite the two domains in such a clear way. This book really stands out as a detailed "field manual" for psychological research, and it's the kind of book that students might be more likely to hang on to for future reference. The integration of SPSS & APA style conventions throughout was nice to see. Also nice to see effect sizes and power analysis show up so students don't have a simple view of null hypothesis statistical tests."

Ben Denkinger
Augsburg College

"I like the combination of the methods and stats. I believe that this book would be beneficial for an advanced research methods/stats class at the undergraduate level. I like that the book provides adequate coverage to case studies and single case research design."

Erin Fekete
University of Indianapolis

"Some good thorough discussion of aspects of each kind of research and statistical approach. Workbook pretty thorough."

Kevin E. Lawson
Talbot School of Theology, Biola University

"The simplicity and relevance of the supplemental materials built in to illustrate the concepts are the key strengths of this text."

Malaika Brown
Citrus College

Covered the subject better than others.

Professor James Bishop
Management Dept, New Mexico State University-Las Cruces
May 20, 2019

I can say that this is one of the best textbooks in the market.

Dr Durmus Alper Camlibel
Criminal Justice Dept, Northern Michigan University
December 22, 2017
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION: 

  • New, diverse examples from current research literature in criminal justice, politics, education, and counseling expose students to examples of different research designs in the social sciences and demonstrate commonalities. 
  • New chapter-ending The Big Picture sections with appropriate charts and tables encourage students to consider decisions about specific statistical analyses.
  • Two separate chapters (Inferential Statistics and Comparing your Sample to a Known or Expected Score) now allow instructors to focus on the theoretical concepts associated with inferential statistics before introducing each specific inferential statistic to enhance student understanding.
  • Expanded coverage of inferential statistics includes more discussion of APA guidelines for appropriate statistics and more focus on effect sizes and confidence intervals.
  • New consistent headings make it easy for students to quickly locate information and for instructors to identify sections they may wish to focus on, skip, or present in a different order.
  • An updated, user-friendly SAGE edge companion website provides videos, web resources, and practice datasets, as well flashcards and web quizzes for students, and in-class activities, lecture slides, homework assignments, answers to statistics exercises, and test banks for instructors.

KEY FEATURES:  

  • Thorough integration of research methods and statistics helps students gain a full picture of the research process.
  • Examples from current research literature provide a real-life context for understanding methods and statistics and demonstrate how a research topic can be examined in multiple ways.
  • Directions for calculating statistics using formulas, as well as data analysis programs (specifically SPSS), enhance student understanding of analyses.
  • Ethics are discussed throughout the book— with tips for how to conduct ethical research in every chapter— to reinforce its importance in all stages of the research process.
  • Practice boxes in every chapter and end-of-chapter Review of Key Concepts provide repeated exposure to important ideas, as well as opportunities to apply concepts soon after learning about them.
  • A final “putting it all together” chapter provides a summary of the major questions to answer when designing and carrying out research.
  • A focus on academic honesty is woven throughout the book and reinforced in an APA-style research paper and published manuscript in the appendix. 

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