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Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science
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Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science

Second Edition


456 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgements
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1: Concepts, Variables and Measurement
Introduction  
Concepts  
Scientific Revolutions  
Emile Durkheim, Structural Strain, Suicide, and Anomie  
Why statistics?  
Variables  
Conceptual Definitions of Variables  
Independent and Dependent Variables  
Operational Definitions of Concepts  
Measurement  
Levels of Measurement  
Graphical Representation Of Data (What Data “Look” Like)  
Validity And Reliability  
Individual Data  
Ecological Data  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 2: Frequency Tables
Introduction  
Toxic Waste And “Superfund”  
Individual and Ecological Data  
Frequency Tables  
Proportions, Percentages, and Ratios  
Superfund Sites: Frequency Table For A Nominal Variable  
Frequency Table For An Ordinal Variable  
Frequency Table For An Interval/Ratio Variable  
Constructing Frequency Tables from Raw Data  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 3: Measures of Central Tendency
Introduction  
Averages And Energy Consumption  
Definitions Of Mode, Median, And Mean  
Calculating Measures Of Central Tendency With Raw Data  
Calculating Measures Of Central Tendency With Grouped Data  
Education and Central Tendency  
Central Tendency, Education, and Your Health  
Income and Central Tendency: The Effect of Outliers  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 4: Measures of Dispersion
Introduction  
The Distribution Of Education In The U.S.  
Range  
Interquartile range  
Mean deviation  
Mean Deviation Using Raw Data  
Variance And Standard Deviation  
Variance (s²)  
Calculating The Variance Using Raw Data  
Standard Deviation (s)  
Calculating The Standard Deviation Using the Variance  
Calculating The Standard Deviation Using Raw Data  
Calculating Variance and Standard Deviation Using Grouped Data  
Standard Deviation And The Normal Curve  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 5: Probability and the Normal Curve
Introduction  
Intelligence, Life Chances, And Inequality  
The Fundamentals Of Probability  
The Addition Rule of Probability  
The Multiplication Rule of Probability  
Probability Using Frequency Tables  
Education, Race and Life Chances  
Probability And The Normal Curve  
Z-Scores  
Calculating Probabilities with the Normal Curve  
Using Z-Scores To Find Percentiles  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 6: Probability – From Samples to Statistics
Introduction  
The Politics Of Sampling: Global Warming And Political Party Affiliation  
Sampling And Statistics  
Random And Nonrandom Samples  
The Standard Error Of The Mean  
The Standard Error Of The Proportion  
Other Confidence Intervals  
The t Distribution  
Hypotheses And Testing Differences Between Means  
Research Hypotheses  
Null Hypotheses  
Potential Errors: Type I and type II  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 7: Cross-tabulation and Chi-Square
Introduction  
The “Environmental Decade”  
Cross-Tabulation Tables  
Reading Cross-tabulation Tables  
Generating Cross-tabulation Tables Using Raw Data  
Other (Less Common) Statistics in a Cross-tabulation Table  
A Final Thought on Environmental Spending  
The Next Step: From Descriptive to Inferential Statistics  
Cross-Tabulation And The Chi-Square Test Of Statistical Significance  
One-Way Chi-Square  
Two-Way Chi-Square  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 8: Measures of Association for Categorical Variables
Introduction  
Social Institutions And Social Control  
Nominal Measures Of Association  
Chi-Square Based Measures of Association  
Lambda (?)  
Ordinal Measures Of Association  
The Concept of Ordered Pairs  
Gamma  
Somer’s d (d)  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 9: Analysis of Variance
Introduction  
Smoking On Campus  
Analysis Of Variance  
The Sum of Squares: The Basis for ANOVA  
The Eta2 Statistic  
Chapter Summary  
 
Chapter 10: Correlation and Regression
Introduction  
Unequal America  
Scatterplots: The Underlying Logic Behind Correlation  
Correlation  
Education and American Class Structure  
Calculating and Interpreting Pearson’s r  
Linear Regression  
Lines and the Regression Model  
Chapter Summary  
 
Index

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ISBN: 9781544352657
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