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The SAGE Handbook of Participatory Research and Inquiry

The SAGE Handbook of Participatory Research and Inquiry

Two Volume Set
Edited by:

Research Methods

February 2022 | 1 168 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd
This SAGE Handbook presents contemporary, cutting-edge approaches to participatory research and inquiry. It has been designed for the community of researchers, professionals and activists engaged in interventions and action for social transformation, and for readers interested in understanding the state of the art in this domain. The Handbook offers an overview of different influences on participatory research, explores in detail how to address critical issues and design effective participatory research processes, and provides detailed accounts of how to use a wide range of participatory research methods. Chapters cover pioneering new participatory research techniques including methods that can be operationalised at scale, approaches to engaging the poorest and most marginalised, and ways of harnessing technologies to increase the scope of participation, amongst others.

Drawing upon a wide range of disciplines, and bringing together contributing authors from across the globe, this Handbook will be of interest to an international readership from across the broad spectrum of social sciences, including social policy, development studies, geography, sociology, criminology, political science, health and social care, education, psychology, business & management. It will also be an insightful and practical resource for facilitators, community workers, and activists for social change.

Part 1: Introduction

Part 2: Key Influences and Foundations of Participatory Research

Part 3: Critical Issues in the Practice of Participatory Research

Part 4: Methods and Tools

Part 4.1: Dialogic and Deliberative Processes

Part 4.2: Digital Technologies in Participatory Research

Part 4.3: Participatory Forms of Action Orientated Research

Part 4.4: Visual and Performative Methods
Part 4.5: Participatory Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning 

Part 4.6: Mixing and Mashing Participatory and Formal Research

Part 5: Final Reflections

Volume 1

Part 1: Introduction
Sonia M. Ospina, Danny Burns, & Jo Howard
Chapter 1: Introduction: Navigating the complex and dynamic landscape of participatory research and inquiry
Danny Burns, Jo Howard, & Sonia M. Ospina
Chapter 2: Challenges in the practice of participatory research and inquiry
Part 2: Key Influences and Foundations of Participatory Research
Sonia M. Ospina
Chapter 3: Key Influences and Foundations of Participatory Research
Fabio C. Campos & Gary L. Anderson
Chapter 4: Paulo Freire's Influence on Participatory Action Research
Alex Pereira & Joanne Rappaport
Chapter 5: Tropical Empathy: Orlando Fals Borda and Participatory Action Research
Effie Makepeace
Chapter 6: Theatre is Knowledge: Augusto Boal's theatre of the oppressed and participatory research
Davydd J. Greenwood
Chapter 7: Pragmatism: Linking systems, evolution, and democratization in participatory and action research
Batsheva Guy & Brittany Arthur
Chapter 8: Feminism and participatory research: Exploring intersectionality, relationships, and voice in participatory research from a feminist perspective
Fiona Cram & Anna Adcock
Chapter 9: Indigenous ways of knowing and participatory research
Mariah Cannon, Tessa Lewin, & Robert Chambers
Chapter 10: The history, legacy and future of participatory rural appraisal 
Erik Lindhult
Chapter 11: Achieving scope and broad participation in participatory research: The 'dialogue democratic' network-based approach of Björn Gustavsen
Cathy Sharp & Ruth Balogh
Chapter 12: Becoming participatory: Some contributions to action research in the UK
Patricia Carolina Gayá
Chapter 13: Towards ever more extended epistemologies: Pluriversality and decolonisation of knowledges in participatory inquiry
Hilary Bradbury
Chapter 14: Action research - participative self in transformative action
Part 3: Critical Issues in the Practice of Participatory Research
Jo Howard & Danny Burns
Chapter 15: Critical Issues in the practice of participatory research
Bob Dick
Chapter 16: Facilitating participatory research
Patta Scott-Villiers
Chapter 17: Reflexivity and reflection in action research: ‘To locate, again, a through line to the future’
Jekatyerina Dunajeva & Violeta Vajda
Chapter 18: Positionality, academic research and cooperative inquiry: Lessons from participatory research with Roma
Mary Brydon-Miller, Alfredo Ortiz Aragón, & Victor J. Friedman
Chapter 19: The fine art of getting lost: Ethics as a guide to transformative learning in participatory research
Liv Kaya Aabye, Gioel Gioacchino, & Fiammetta Wegner
Chapter 20: Holding space for emotions in participatory action research: Reflections from the experiences of a youth organisation exploring PAR through creative practices
Jethro Pettit
Chapter 21: Power analysis for social change: Participatory learning and action
Helen Thomas-Hughes & Morag McDermont
Chapter 22: The ethics of co-production in practice: Reflections
Vicky Johnson & Andy West
Chapter 23: Approaches and creative research methods with children and youth
Mary Wickenden & Erika Lopez Franco
Chapter 24: Don't leave us out: Disability inclusive participatory research - why and how?
Daniel Hyslop
Chapter 25: Interpeace’s experience with participatory action research in contexts of active and post-conflict
Part 4: Methods and Tools
Part 4.1: Dialogic and Deliberative Processes
Mariana de Santibañes & Sonia M. Ospina
Chapter 26: Reflections on the Role of Dialogue in Participatory Research and Inquiry
David Archer
Chapter 27: Reflections on the reflect approach and its multiple evolutions
Gustavo Esteva
Chapter 28: A dialogical approach to knowledge: Grassroots experiences from the south of Mexico
Juan Carlos Giles M.
Chapter 29: Feeling-body-thinking approach and methodologies: Towards transformations in intercultural justice
Jodi R. Sandfort & Trupti Sarode
Chapter 30: Art of Hosting frameworks and methods as participatory research
Jo Howard, Sonia M. Ospina, & Lyle Yorks
Chapter 31: Cooperative inquiry as dialogic process
Barry Percy-Smith
Chapter 32: Creating spaces for participatory social learning and change with young people
Erika Lopez Franco & Matt Davies
Chapter 33: Influencing global policy processes through participatory approaches
Part 4.2: Digital Technologies in Participatory Research
Tony Roberts
Chapter 34: Digital affordances for participation and the participation-cube
Maria Aristeidou, Eileen Scanlon, & Mike Sharples
Chapter 35: Technologies for citizen inquiry: Participatory research in online communities
Anna Colom
Chapter 36: Interactive radio as a participatory digital research method
Japleen Pasricha & Annette JE Fisher
Chapter 37: Writing women into Wikipedia
Simone Lombardini & Emily Tomkys Valteri
Chapter 38: Real-time statistics: Working towards community participation with mobile data collection in Oxfam
Jon Corbett, Logan Cochrane, & Yasmine Zeid
Chapter 39: Participatory digital mapping as a research method
Volume 2

Part 4.3: Participatory Forms of Action Orientated Research
Alfredo Ortiz Aragón & Mary Brydon-Miller
Chapter 40: Show me the action! Understanding action as a way of knowing in participatory research
Bo Reimer
Chapter 41: Tools for action: Media research as collaborative action research
Iñigo Retolaza Eguren
Chapter 42: Memorialab: Dialogue, memory and social healing in Basque Country
Hanna Kurland, Victor J. Friedman, Israel Sykes, Ruth Danino Lichtenstein, & Tilda Melamed
Chapter 43: A participatory self-in-field inquiry method
Nathalis Wamba
Chapter 44: The “action” turn: People’s Praxis
Otto Scharmer, Eva Pomeroy, & Katrin Kaufer
Chapter 45: Awareness-based action research: Making systems sense and see themselves
Joanna Wheeler & Felix Bivens
Chapter 46: Storytelling as participatory research
Nina Wallerstein, Lorenda Belone, Ellen Burgess, Elizabeth Dickson, Lisa Gibbs, Laura Chanchien Parajon, Margareta Ramgard, Payam Sheikhattari, & Gillian Silver
Chapter 47: Community based participatory research: Embracing Praxis for transformation
Alexa Kasdan
Chapter 48: Research, organizing and policy change: Methods and lessons on the path from participatory action research to a right to counsel in New York City
Danny Burns
Chapter 49: The role of collective analysis in generating ownership and action in Systemic Action Research
Part 4.4: Visual and Performative Methods
Tessa Lewin & Jackie Shaw
Chapter 50: Collective becoming: Visual and performative methodologies for participatory research
Sara Kindon, Katia Guiloff, Ximena Riquelme, Fernanda Piraud, Marcela Palomino-Schalscha, Carla Batista, Katia Cisternas, Maribel Marquez-Satyanand, Nadia Batista, Maria-Fernanda Bernal, & Ines Marquez, with Marlena Angermann
Chapter 51: Arpilleras as participatory research
Samia Afroz Rahim, Sahida Khondaker, & Maheen Sultan
Chapter 52: Digital story telling and researching women's empowerment in Bangladesh
Cathy Vaughan & Sarah Khaw
Chapter 53: Photovoice
Elizabeth Lightfoot, Jennifer Blevins, & Amano Dube
Chapter 54: Asset mapping as a participatory research approach
Oga Steve Abah
Chapter 55: Theatre for development as a participatory research tool
Catalina Alzate
Chapter 56: The Method of Enactment and the framework of Design: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Participatory Research
Jackie Shaw
Chapter 57: Extended participatory video processes
Part 4.5: Participatory Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning
Marina Apgar & Will Allen
Chapter 58: Participatory monitoring, evaluation and learning: Taking stock and breaking new ground
Jan Van Ongevalle, Ana Kvintradze, David Miller, Gaël Rennesson, & Jeanette Lundberg
Chapter 59: Promoting adaptive programming through outcome mapping - The ‘Resilient Adolescents in the Syria Crisis’ programme (SAP)
Jess Dart, Sophie Pinwill, & Avega Bishop
Chapter 60: The Most Significant Change Technique (MSC): A case study of how MSC helps communities unpack intangible outcomes
Marina Apgar & Boru Douthwaite
Chapter 61: Participatory Theory of Change: Reflecting on multiple views of how change happens
Steff Deprez & Irene Guijt
Chapter 62: Can voices at scale really be heard? Reflections from ten years of innovation with SenseMaker
Rebecca Sero, Debra Hansen, Scott Chazdon, Laura Bohen, Lorie Higgins & Mary Emery
Chapter 63: Ripple Effects Mapping: A participatory strategy for measuring program impacts
Dee Jupp
Chapter 64: Reality Check Approach and Immersion Research
Part 4.6: Mixing and Mashing Participatory and Formal Research
Pauline Oosterhoff
Chapter 65: Mixing and mashing participatory and formal research methods
Tu-Anh Hoang
Chapter 66: Mixed participatory and formal methods in studying violence towards men who have sex with men in Viet Nam
Angela Santamaria
Chapter 67: Transitional ethnic female bodies and kaleidoscopic methodologies: Participatory research, feminist geographies and multi-sited ethnography
Maria van den Muijsenbergh, Tomas de Brún, & Mary O’Reilly-de Brún
Chapter 68: Participatory research in healthcare
Sowmyaa Bharadwaj, Stanley Joseph, Anusha Chandrasekharan, & Pradeep Narayanan
Chapter 69: Building in complementarity: Participatory mixed methods in research, monitoring and learning in modern slavery in India
Christian Stein & Lena J. Jaspersen
Chapter 70: Participatory network research: Using visual methods and participatory statistics for value chain analysis
Part 5: Final Reflections
Jo Howard, Sonia M. Ospina, & Danny Burns
Chapter 71: Participatory research and the need for transformations in a world in crisis

This rich, inspiring collection is testament to the extraordinary creativity of those who have brought about a veritable revolution in research through participatory methodologies and approaches. Drawn from across the globe, contributors attest to the power of participatory research and inquiry its enduring value as a catalyst for change

Professor Andrea Cornwall
Pro-Director (Research & Enterprise), SOAS University of London

This Handbook makes a state of the art contribution to this popular field grounded in 50 years of in-depth experience and spanning to some of its newest insightful practitioners. A landmark achievement. 

Yoland Wadsworth
Author of "Do It Yourself Social Research", former President of the International Action Learning Action Research & Process Management Association

Participatory research has become a cornerstone of co-designing respectful and effective cooperation initiatives in the last twenty years. This comprehensive Handbook offers an invaluable compilation and review of how this can be approached in a multi-disciplinary way in different settings, and should be an essential and well-thumbed reference guide for students and practitioners alike.

Paul Ladd
Director, UNRISD (United Nations Research Institute for Social Development)

This new collection of articles on participatory research from new generation of researcher-activists is heartily welcome. With a wide variety of epistemological and contextual locations, the collection will inspire continued creativity and plurality in the elaboration of participatory research. Hopefully, the transformational potential of participatory research will begin to contribute to post-pandemic, resilient and fairer reconstruction of societies around the world.

Rajesh Tandon
Founder and President of PRIA (Participatory Research in Asia) & Co-Chair, UNESCO Chair on Community Based Research and Social Responsibility in Higher Education

Recognising the ever-pressing need for research approaches that can assist, support, or facilitate processes of social transformation across different contexts, problems, inequalities, exclusions, and injustices, the editors and authors of The SAGE Handbook of Participatory Research and Inquiry exhibit the historical trajectories, wealth, diversity, and practicalities of participatory research. In traversing the roots of participatory research through its progression and expansion with theoretical orientations, political and ethical commitments, contextual and disciplinary articulations, and specific methods, readers can find exceptional coverage of past and current iterations of the research practice recognised broadly under the umbrella of participatory research. This text is a valuable guiding resource for researchers, doctoral students, and all who undertake participatory research and its many and varied forms, aims, subtleties, challenges, and potentials. 

Bryan C. Clift
Senior Lecturer and Director of the Centre for Qualitative Research, University of Bath

Achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and meeting commitments to the Paris Agreement requires impactful solutions that reach the poorest and most marginalized to deliver on the promise of the SDGs to leave no one behind. With the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts on rising poverty and hunger, the climate crisis and increasing environmental pressures, we must redouble our efforts to achieve our goals. This requires drawing on the richness of ideas and experiences across communities, including young people, women and girls and indigenous peoples, for a deeper understanding of their challenges and what works in practice to overcome them, so we can act on that knowledge to create a sustainable and inclusive future for all.

Participatory research is an essential tool to deliver on that objective. Participatory research sets out open and inclusive approaches that engage the poorest and most marginalized – so we can gain knowledge and understanding of the issues that affect their lives and turn those into action. Participatory research empowers young people to learn and apply research techniques to discover solutions for their own issues – grounded in the belief that youth are valuable experts and that power between youth and adults should be shared. It can support governments in establishing better ways of listening to people whom they are meant to serve and taking their views into account, especially groups that are frequently overlooked. This is essential to rebuild trust and foster a renewed social contract between governments and their people and within societies.

This Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of different participatory research methods that researchers with varied expertise in the field can use to support the type of social transformation that we need. I encourage all researchers to make full use of it to accelerate achievement of the SDGs and fulfil the Paris Agreement towards a better, more sustainable and peaceful future for our people and planet.

Amina J. Mohammed
Deputy General Secretary of the United Nations

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