You are here

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
An Integrative Approach

Third Edition
  • Elsie Jones-Smith - Diplomate in Counseling Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology
Additional resources:

January 2020 | 704 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
A step forward from the traditional textbook on counseling theories, Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach offers students a comprehensive overview of past and current approaches to psychotherapy and counseling, with a modern approach to theories of psychotherapy. An extensive array of mainstream theories, as well as contemporary approaches such as narrative, feminist, LGBT, and post-modern, are covered. Author Elsie Jones-Smith helps readers to construct their integrated approach to psychotherapy by learning how to develop a broad range of therapeutic expertise to meet the needs of a culturally diverse clientele. In addition to listing and describing theories, this text compares and contrasts them to show their strengths and weaknesses. The Third Edition includes a new chapter on trauma-informed counseling/psychotherapy and provides updated references, sections, and studies reflecting the latest developments within the helping professions.


SAGE Edge gives instructors and students the edge they need to succeed with an array of teaching and learning tools in one easy-to-navigate website. Learn more:

CHAPTER 1: Introduction: Journey Toward Theory Integration
Integrative Psychotherapy: The Focus of This Book

Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory


PART I The First Force in Psychotherapy: Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Theories
Psychology’s Indebtedness to Sigmund Freud

Some Distinctions Between Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Theories

Integration of Freudian Concepts: The Unconscious and Transference

New Forms of Psychoanalysis

CHAPTER 2 Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories
Brief Overview

Psychoanalytic Therapy

Key Concepts of Sigmund Freud

The Therapeutic Process

The Movement Toward Contemporary Psychodynamic Therapy

Ego Psychology

Object Relations Theory

Self Psychology

Comparison and Contrast of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories

Other Theorists and Therapy Approaches

Brief Psychodynamic Therapy

Key Concepts of Carl Jung

Research and Evaluation of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Approaches


CHAPTER 3 Adlerian Psychotherapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Alfred Adler (1870–1937)

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


PART II The Second Force in Psychotherapy: Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy
Definition of Behavior Therapy

The Three Waves of Behavior Therapy

CHAPTER 4 Behavior Therapy and Integrated Psychopharmacology
Brief Overview

Behavior Therapy

Key Concepts of Behavior Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Current Trends in Behavior Therapy

Applied Behavioral Analysis

Behavioral Activation: A Promising Treatment for Depression

The Behavior Activation Model and Treatment for Depression

Behavior Activation Techniques

Integrated Psychopharmacology

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 5 Cognitive Approaches to Psychotherapy
Brief Overview

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Key Concepts of REBT

The Therapeutic Process and REBT

Social Modeling, Observational Learning, and Self-Efficacy

Cognitive Therapy and Depression

Key Concepts of Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Cognitive Neuroscience

The Third Wave in Behavior Therapy: Mindfulness Integrated Into Cognitive-Behavior

Therapies (DBT, ACT, and MBCT)

Differences Between ACT, CBT, DBT, and MBCT


CHAPTER 6 Reality/Choice Therapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: William Glasser (1925–2013)

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


The Existential and Humanistic Theories

The Existential Worldview

The Humanistic Worldview

Merger of Existentialism and Humanism

New Developments in Humanism: Motivational Interviewing, The Stages of Change Theory

Interpersonal Therapy, and Emotion-Focused Therapy

Challenges Facing the Existential-Humanistic School

CHAPTER 7 Existential Therapy

Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Rollo May (1904–1994): The First Major American Existentialist

Key Concepts of Existential Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Major Contributor: Viktor Frankl (1905–1997) and Logotherapy

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 8 Person-Centered Therapy and Interpersonal Therapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Carl Rogers (1902–1987)

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 9 Gestalt Therapy and Emotion-Focused Therapy: Two Experiential Therapies
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Fritz Perls (1893–1970)

Philosophical Roots for Gestalt Therapy

Influence of Existentialism on Gestalt Therapy

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 10 Motivational Interviewing and the Stages of Change Theory
Brief Overview

Motivational Interviewing

Key Concepts of Motivational Interviewing

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing

The Transtheoretical Model of Change or the Stages of Change Theory

Key Concepts of the Transtheoretical Model of Change

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation of TTM


CHAPTER 11 The Expressive Arts and Counseling
Brief Overview

Expressive Arts: A Human Tradition

Key Concepts

Three Expressive Arts Therapeutic Approaches

Art Therapy and Neuroscience

Research and Evaluation


Postmodernism and the Road to Social Constructivism

Differences Between Modern and Postmodern/Constructivist Psychotherapies

The Postmodern Psychotherapies

Outline of Chapters in Part IV

CHAPTER 12 Multicultural Counseling: Theories and Practice
Brief Overview

APA’s New 2017 (10) Multicultural Guidelines

What Is Multicultural Counseling?

Multicultural Counseling: Two Emerging Theories

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 13 Transcultural and International Approaches to Counseling and Psychotherapy: Bridges to Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East
Brief Overview

Commonalities Among Asian Theories of Personality and Psychotherapy

Japanese Approaches to Psychotherapy

Chinese Contributions to Psychotherapy: Mindfulness

Cultural Value Challenges for Counseling in India

African Approaches to Healing and Psychotherapy: Nigeria

Arab Approaches to Psychotherapy

Research and Evaluation of Transcultural Psychotherapy


CHAPTER 14 Feminist Therapy and LGBTQ Therapy
Feminist Therapy

Key Concepts of Feminist Therapy

The Therapeutic Process in Feminist Therapy

Research and Evaluation in Feminist Therapy

Gay and Lesbian Therapy

Key Concepts of LGBTQ Therapy

The Therapeutic Process in Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy


Brief Overview

American Counseling Association’s Spiritual and Religious Competencies for Professional Counselors

Key Concepts in Spiritual and Religious Counseling Spirituality and the Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


Brief Overview

Major Contributors: Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 17 Narrative Therapy
Brief Overview

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 18 Strengths-Based Therapy

Major Contributor: Elsie Jones-Smith

Key Concepts

Strengths-Based Therapy and Mindsets


CHAPTER 19 Family Therapy Approaches

Multigenerational Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Case Illustration From a Bowenian Family Therapy Approach

Experiential Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Experiential Family Therapy

Case Illustration of the Experiential Approach to Family Therapy

Structural Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Structural Family Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Case Illustration of Structural Family Therapy

Strategic Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Strategic Family Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation



The Promise of Neuroscience

Criteria for Neuroscience to Be the Fifth Force in Psychotherapy

CHAPTER 20 Neuroscience, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Trauma-Informed Counseling

Major Contributors

Toward a Theoretical Framework for Neuropsychotherapy

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Recent Brain-Based Therapies: Interpersonal Neurobiology, Neurocounseling, Trauma-Informed Counseling, and Coherence Therapy

Neuroscience and the DSM-5

Research and Evaluation


CHAPTER 21 Integrative Psychotherapy: Constructing Your Own Integrative Approach to Therapy

Pathways to Psychotherapy Integration

Toward the development of a framework for integrating neuroscience into psychotherapy

Toward Developing Your Own Approach to Integrative Psychotherapy

Worldviews of Theories of Psychotherapy

Key Concepts of Theories of Psychotherapy

The Therapeutic Process

Top Four Ways to Determine Your Theoretical Orientation to Psychotherapy




Instructor Resource Site
SAGE Edge for instructors supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students with:
  • a password-protected site for complete and protected access to all text-specific instructor resources;  
  • test banks that provide a diverse range of ready-to-use options that save you time. You can also easily edit any question and/or insert your own personalized questions;
  • sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses that provide suggested models for structuring your courses;
  • editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course; and
  • lecture notes that summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.

Student Study Site
SAGE Edge for students enhances learning, it’s easy to use, and offers:
  • an open-access site that makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime;
  • eFlashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts;
  • eQuizzes that allow students to practice and assess how much they’ve learned and where they need to focus their attention;
  • learning objectives that reinforce the most important material;
  • chapter-specific study questions that allow students to engage with the material; and
  • exercises and meaningful Web links that facilitate student use of Internet resources, further exploration of topics, and responses to critical thinking questions.

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy is more comprehensive than any other text I have seen. The inner reflections, supplementary aids, and case analysis provide ample opportunities for students to apply, synthesize, and analyze theoretical concepts.”

Lynn Boyd
Troy University

“There is inclusion of multiple techniques for each type of theory.”

Lesley L. Casarez
Angelo State University

“The chapters do a nice job of explaining key concepts.”

Danica Harris
Texas Woman’s University
Key features
  • A new chapter on trauma-informed counseling/psychotherapy explores this area of counseling that has gained momentum and prominence since the 1980s.
  • Theories of psychotherapy are grouped under the headings of five major forces in psychology and psychotherapy:
    • 1. psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories
    • 2. behavior and cognitive therapy theories
    • 3. existential-humanistic theories
    • 4. social constructivist, postmodern, and integrative approaches to therapy
    • 5. neuroscience and psychopharmacology
  • A new section on the “third-wave cognitive-behavioral therapies”—cognitive-behavioral theoretical approaches that have incorporated Eastern perspectives and mindfulness—is added.
  • Three new cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy are presented, including dialectical behavior therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
  • Recent psychotherapy theories are introduced, including interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), emotion-focused therapy, interpersonal neurobiology, trauma-focused counseling, and neuroscience counseling.
  • Author Elsie Jones-Smith modifies Brooks-Harris’s model by adding five other dimensions, including spiritual, relational, strengths (internal and external), evidence-based research, and the change process.
  • Updated developments related to neuroscience include such areas as interpersonal psychotherapy, emotion-focused therapy, interpersonal neurobiology, neurocounseling, and trauma-informed counseling.
  • Part IV (The Fourth Force in Psychotherapy: Social Constructivism and Postmodernism) is highly responsive to CACREP standards and the need to include cultural diversity across the broad spectrum of counseling and psychology courses.
  • This new edition continues its strong emphasis on cultural diversity and includes a new section on cultural positives and cultural blind spots for each major psychotherapy presented.


  • In addition to traditional and social constructivist theories, this text takes a bold step and includes more contemporary approaches to psychotherapy, with individual chapters on spirituality and psychotherapy, strengths-based therapy, neuroscience and neuropsychotherapy, motivational interviewing, and the expressive arts therapies.
  • A strong focus of diversity is apparent throughout, exploring critical issues such as gay and lesbian identity development, counseling from a feminist perspective, Arab Muslim views on psychotherapy, Japanese and Chinese approaches to psychotherapy, and more.
  • A separate chapter on spirituality and psychotherapy provides a section on clinical assessment and questions to bring forth clients’ spiritual life—a major milestone in a counseling theory book.
  • Tables and charts throughout the book compare and contrast theories and clarify key concepts.
  • Brief biographies of each theorist’s life explore the impact of their life on the development of their approach to psychotherapy. The biographical descriptions provide engaging classroom discussions and reveal the personal side of theorists.
  • Extensive question and answer sections at the end of each chapter promote active involvement and reflection.
  • A collection of original videos demonstrating key concepts covered in the text is available to purchase with the text. 

For instructors

Select a Purchasing Option

Electronic version
Prices from
*180 day rental

ISBN: 9781544384559