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The Essentials

Fourth Edition
Additional resources:

January 2021 | 464 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

About the Authors
Chapter 1: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?

From Arrest to Punishment

The Major Punishment Justifications

The Due Process and Crime Control Models and Cultural Comparisons


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 2: Early Corrections: From Ancient Times to Correctional Institutions
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections and the Grand Reforms

Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

Colonial Jails and Prisons

Early Modern Prisons

Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

The Renewed Promise of Reform

American Corrections in the 20th and 21st Centuries

Themes That Prevail in Correctional History


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 3: Ethics and Corrections
Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Why People Behave Unethically

How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 4: Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
Introduction: What Is Sentencing?

Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Noncustodial Sentences

Problem-Solving Courts

Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

The Future of Sentencing Guidelines


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 5: Jails and Detention Centers
Introduction: The Community Institution

Jail Inmates and Their Processing

Trends in Jail Populations

Medical Problems

Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

Innovations in Jails


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 6: Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
Introduction: The Origins of Probation

Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

The Probation Officer Role and Models of Probation Supervision

Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Probation Officer Stress

Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

Intermediate Sanctions


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 7: Prisons and the Correctional Client
Introduction: The State of Prisons

Prison Organizations

Prison Value?

Attributes of a Prison That Shape the Experience

The Prison Subculture


Older People and People with Physical and Mental Illnesses

LGBTQ+ Inmates

Immigration Prisons


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 8: The Corrections Experience for Staff
Introduction: What Is a Profession?

The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

Why Require More Education and Training?

Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Correctional Roles

The Subculture and Socialization

Staff Interactions With Inmates


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 9: Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
Introduction: What Is Parole?

The Modern Parole System

Parole Boards

What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Legal Issues in Parole


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 10: Women and Corrections
Introduction: Women and Corrections

Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

Female Correctional Officers


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 11: People of Color and Corrections
Introduction: People of Color and Corrections

A Legacy of Racism

The Connection Between Class and Race or Ethnicity

People of Color: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

People of Color: Adjustment to Incarceration

People of Color Working in Corrections


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 12: Juveniles and Corrections
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

Processing Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Community Corrections

Intensive Probation

Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 13: Legal Issues in Corrections and the Death Penalty
Introduction: The History of Law in Corrections

Application of the Amendments to the Constitution to Convicted Felons

Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

Does the Death Penalty Deter?

Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

Disparity in Death Sentences

The Innocence Revolution


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 14: Correctional Programming and Treatment
Introduction: The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

Evidence-Based Practices

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Substance Abuse Programming

Anger Management

Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

Offenders with Mental Illnesses


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Chapter 15: Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have



Corrections Is a Relationship Business


Concluding Thoughts


Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Answers to Test Your Knowledge

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