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Corrections
The Essentials

Fourth Edition
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January 2021 | 464 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

 
Preface
 
About the Authors
 
Chapter 1: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?

 
From Arrest to Punishment

 
The Major Punishment Justifications

 
The Due Process and Crime Control Models and Cultural Comparisons

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 2: Early Corrections: From Ancient Times to Correctional Institutions
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections and the Grand Reforms

 
Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

 
Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

 
Colonial Jails and Prisons

 
Early Modern Prisons

 
Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

 
The Renewed Promise of Reform

 
American Corrections in the 20th and 21st Centuries

 
Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 3: Ethics and Corrections
Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

 
Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

 
Why People Behave Unethically

 
How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

 
War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 4: Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
Introduction: What Is Sentencing?

 
Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

 
Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Noncustodial Sentences

 
Problem-Solving Courts

 
Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

 
Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

 
Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

 
The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 5: Jails and Detention Centers
Introduction: The Community Institution

 
Jail Inmates and Their Processing

 
Trends in Jail Populations

 
Medical Problems

 
Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

 
Innovations in Jails

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 6: Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
Introduction: The Origins of Probation

 
Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

 
Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

 
The Probation Officer Role and Models of Probation Supervision

 
Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

 
Probation Officer Stress

 
Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

 
Intermediate Sanctions

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 7: Prisons and the Correctional Client
Introduction: The State of Prisons

 
Prison Organizations

 
Prison Value?

 
Attributes of a Prison That Shape the Experience

 
The Prison Subculture

 
Violence

 
Older People and People with Physical and Mental Illnesses

 
LGBTQ+ Inmates

 
Immigration Prisons

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 8: The Corrections Experience for Staff
Introduction: What Is a Profession?

 
The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

 
Why Require More Education and Training?

 
Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

 
Correctional Roles

 
The Subculture and Socialization

 
Staff Interactions With Inmates

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 9: Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
Introduction: What Is Parole?

 
The Modern Parole System

 
Parole Boards

 
What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

 
Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

 
Legal Issues in Parole

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 10: Women and Corrections
Introduction: Women and Corrections

 
Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

 
Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

 
Female Correctional Officers

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 11: People of Color and Corrections
Introduction: People of Color and Corrections

 
A Legacy of Racism

 
The Connection Between Class and Race or Ethnicity

 
People of Color: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

 
People of Color: Adjustment to Incarceration

 
People of Color Working in Corrections

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 12: Juveniles and Corrections
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

 
The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

 
History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

 
Processing Juvenile Offenders

 
Juvenile Community Corrections

 
Intensive Probation

 
Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 13: Legal Issues in Corrections and the Death Penalty
Introduction: The History of Law in Corrections

 
Application of the Amendments to the Constitution to Convicted Felons

 
Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

 
The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

 
Does the Death Penalty Deter?

 
Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

 
Disparity in Death Sentences

 
The Innocence Revolution

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 14: Correctional Programming and Treatment
Introduction: The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

 
Evidence-Based Practices

 
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

 
Substance Abuse Programming

 
Anger Management

 
Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

 
Offenders with Mental Illnesses

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Chapter 15: Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have

 
Decarceration

 
Professionalization

 
Corrections Is a Relationship Business

 
Privatization

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Answers to Test Your Knowledge
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

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