You are here

Educational Research
Share

Educational Research
Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches

Sixth Edition
Additional resources:


September 2016 | 744 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Assuming no prior knowledge, Educational Research by R. Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introductory research methods textbook for undergraduate and graduate students.  Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields; how to read and critically evaluate published research; and the ability to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own. Students rave about the clarity of this best seller and its usefulness for their studies, enabling them to become critical consumers and users of research. 

Available with Perusall—an eBook that makes it easier to prepare for class
Perusall is an award-winning eBook platform featuring social annotation tools that allow students and instructors to collaboratively mark up and discuss their SAGE textbook. Backed by research and supported by technological innovations developed at Harvard University, this process of learning through collaborative annotation keeps your students engaged and makes teaching easier and more effective. Learn more

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
Part I: Introduction
 
1 Introduction to Educational Research
Why Study Educational Research?

 
Areas of Educational Research

 
Examples of Educational Research

 
General Kinds of Research

 
Basic and Applied Research

 
Evaluation Research

 
Action Research

 
Orientational Research

 
Sources of Knowledge

 
Experience

 
Reasoning

 
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation

 
Dynamics of Science

 
Basic Assumptions of Science

 
Scientific Methods

 
Theory

 
The Principle of Evidence

 
Objectives of Educational Research

 
Overview of This Book

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms

 
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research

 
Variables

 
Experimental Research

 
Nonexperimental Research

 
Qualitative Research Methods

 
Phenomenology

 
Ethnography

 
Narrative Inquiry

 
Case Study Research

 
Grounded Theory

 
Mixed Research (or Mixed Methods Research)

 
The Advantages of Mixed Research

 
Our Research Typology

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
3 Action Research for Lifelong Learning
Defining Action Research

 
Origins of Action Research

 
Basic Scientific Research Versus Action Research

 
Types of Action Research

 
The Cycle of Action Research

 
Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research

 
Action Research Journaling

 
Action Research in the Remaining Chapters of This Book

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Note

 
 
Part II: Planning the Research Study
 
4 How to Review the Literature and Develop Research Questions
Sources of Research Ideas

 
Everyday Life

 
Practical Issues

 
Past Research

 
Theory

 
Ideas That Can’t Be Resolved Through Empirical Research

 
Review of the Literature

 
Literature Review for Quantitative Research Studies

 
Literature Review for Qualitative Research Studies

 
Literature Review for Mixed Research Studies

 
Sources of Information

 
Feasibility of the Study

 
Statement of the Research Problem

 
Stating a Quantitative Research Problem

 
Stating a Qualitative Research Problem

 
Stating a Mixed Research Problem

 
Statement of the Purpose of the Study

 
Statement of Purpose in a Quantitative Study

 
Statement of Purpose in a Qualitative Study

 
Statement of Purpose in a Mixed Methods Study

 
Statement of Research Questions

 
Statement of a Quantitative Research Question

 
Statement of a Qualitative Research Question

 
Statement of Research Questions in Mixed Research

 
Formulating Hypotheses

 
Consumer Use of the Literature

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
5 How to Write a Research Proposal
Framework of the Research Proposal

 
Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal

 
Introduction

 
Method

 
Research Participants

 
Design

 
Apparatus and/or Instruments

 
Procedure

 
Data Analysis

 
Abstract

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Proposal Exercise

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
6 Research Ethics
What Are Research Ethics?

 
Ethical Concerns

 
Relationship Between Society and Science

 
Professional Issues

 
Treatment of Research Participants

 
Ethical Guidelines for Research With Humans

 
Informed Consent

 
Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants

 
Passive Versus Active Consent

 
Additional Consent

 
Deception

 
Freedom to Withdraw

 
Protection From Mental and Physical Harm

 
Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy

 
Institutional Review Board

 
Ethical Issues in Electronic Research

 
Informed Consent and Internet Research

 
Privacy and Internet Research

 
Debriefing and Internet Research

 
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report

 
Authorship

 
Writing the Research Report

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Part III: Foundations of Research
 
7 Standardized Measurement and Assessment
Defining Measurement

 
Scales of Measurement

 
Nominal Scale

 
Ordinal Scale

 
Interval Scale

 
Ratio Scale

 
Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment

 
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure

 
Overview of Reliability and Validity

 
Reliability

 
Validity

 
Using Reliability and Validity Information in Your Research

 
Educational and Psychological Tests

 
Intelligence Tests

 
Personality Tests

 
Educational Assessment Tests

 
Sources of Information About Tests

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
8 How to Construct a Questionnaire
What Is a Questionnaire?

 
Principles of Questionnaire Construction

 
Principle 1. Make sure the questionnaire items match your research objectives.

 
Principle 2. Understand your research participants.

 
Principle 3. Use natural and familiar language.

 
Principle 4. Write items that are clear, precise, and relatively short.

 
Principle 5. Do not use “leading” or “loaded” questions.

 
Principle 6. Avoid double-barreled questions.

 
Principle 7. Avoid double negatives.

 
Principle 8. Determine whether an open-ended or a closed-ended question is needed.

 
Principle 9. Use mutually exclusive and exhaustive response categories for closed-ended questions.

 
Principle 10. Consider the different types of response categories available for closed-ended questionnaire items.

 
Principle 11. Use multiple items to measure abstract constructs.

 
Principle 12. Consider using multiple methods when measuring abstract constructs.

 
Principle 13. Use caution if you reverse the wording in some of the items to prevent response sets in multi-item scales.

 
Principle 14. Develop a questionnaire that is properly organized and easy for the participant to use.

 
Principle 15. Always pilot test your questionnaire.

 
Putting It All Together

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercise

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
9 Methods of Data Collection
Tests

 
Technology and Tests

 
Questionnaires

 
Technology and Questionnaires

 
Interviews

 
Technology and Interviews

 
Quantitative Interviews

 
Qualitative Interviews

 
Focus Groups

 
Technology and Focus Groups

 
Observation

 
Quantitative Observation

 
Qualitative Observation

 
Visual Data

 
Constructed and Secondary or Existing Data

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
10 Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Terminology Used in Sampling

 
Random Sampling Techniques

 
Simple Random Sampling

 
Systematic Sampling

 
Stratified Random Sampling

 
Cluster Random Sampling

 
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques

 
Convenience Sampling

 
Quota Sampling

 
Purposive Sampling

 
Snowball Sampling

 
Random Selection and Random Assignment

 
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used

 
Sampling in Qualitative Research

 
Sampling in Mixed Research

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
11 Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research

 
Internal Validity (i.e., Causal Validity)

 
Two Major Types of Causal Relationships

 
Criteria for Inferring Causation

 
Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Group Designs

 
Threats to Internal Validity in Multigroup Designs

 
External Validity (i.e., Generalizing Validity)

 
Population Validity

 
Ecological Validity

 
Temporal Validity

 
Treatment Variation Validity

 
Outcome Validity

 
Construct Validity

 
Treatment Diffusion

 
Statistical Conclusion Validity

 
Research Validity (or “Trustworthiness”) in Qualitative Research Descriptive Validity

 
Interpretive or Emic Validity

 
Theoretical Validity

 
Internal Validity

 
External Validity

 
Research Validity (or “Legitimation”) in Mixed Research

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
Part IV: Selecting a Research Method
 
Section A: Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
 
12 Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs
The Experiment

 
Experimental Research Settings

 
Field Experiment

 
Laboratory Experiment

 
Internet Experiment

 
Independent Variable Manipulation

 
Ways to Manipulate an Independent Variable

 
Control of Confounding Variables

 
Random Assignment

 
Matching

 
Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant

 
Building the Extraneous Variable Into the Research Design

 
Analysis of Covariance

 
Counterbalancing

 
Experimental Research Designs

 
Weak Experimental Research Designs

 
Strong Experimental Research Designs

 
Factorial Designs

 
Repeated-Measures Designs

 
Factorial Designs Based on a Mixed Model

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
13 Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs

 
Nonequivalent Comparison-Group Design

 
Interrupted Time-Series Design

 
Regression-Discontinuity Design

 
Single-Case Experimental Designs

 
A-B-A and A-B-A-B Designs

 
Multiple-Baseline Design

 
Changing-Criterion Design

 
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Note

 
 
14 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
Steps in Nonexperimental Research

 
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research

 
Simple Cases of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research

 
Three Required Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships

 
Applying the Three Required Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research

 
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research)

 
Matching

 
Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant

 
Statistical Control

 
Interlude (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology)

 
Classifying Nonexperimental Research by Time and Research Objective

 
The Time Dimension in Nonexperimental Research

 
Cross-Sectional Research

 
Longitudinal Research

 
Retrospective Research

 
The Research Objective Dimension in Nonexperimental Research

 
Descriptive Nonexperimental Research

 
Predictive Nonexperimental Research

 
Explanatory Nonexperimental Research

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
Section B: Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
 
15 Narrative Inquiry and Case Study Research
Narrative Inquiry

 
I. Introduction: The Importance of Coming to Terms and Definitions

 
II. Designing a Narrative Study

 
III. Narrative Inquiry: So Much More Than Telling Stories

 
Case Study Research

 
What Is a Case?

 
Types of Case Study Research Designs

 
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Note

 
 
16 Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory
Phenomenology

 
Examples of Phenomenology

 
Types of Phenomenology

 
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing

 
Ethnography

 
The Idea of Culture

 
Examples of Ethnographic Research

 
Types of Ethnographic Research

 
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing

 
Grounded Theory

 
Characteristics of a Grounded Theory

 
Example of a Grounded Theory

 
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Note

 
 
Section C: Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches
 
17 Mixed Research
The Research Continuum

 
Types of Mixed Research Designs

 
Examples of Qualitatively Driven, Quantitatively Driven, and Equal-Status or Interactive Studies

 
Stages of the Mixed Research Process

 
Step 1. Determine Whether a Mixed Design Is Appropriate

 
Step 2. Determine the Rationale for Using a Mixed Design

 
Step 3. Select or Construct the Mixed Research Design and Mixed Sampling Design

 
Step 4. Collect Data

 
Step 5. Analyze the Data

 
Step 6. Continually Validate the Data

 
Step 7. Continually Interpret the Data and Findings

 
Step 8. Write the Research Report

 
Limitations of Mixed Research

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Part V: Analyzing the Data
 
18 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics

 
Frequency Distributions

 
Graphic Representations of Data

 
Bar Graphs

 
Histograms

 
Line Graphs

 
Scatter Plots

 
Measures of Central Tendency

 
Mode

 
Median

 
Mean

 
A Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode

 
Measures of Variability

 
Range

 
Variance and Standard Deviation

 
Standard Deviation and the Normal Distribution

 
Measures of Relative Standing

 
Percentile Ranks

 
z Scores

 
Examining Relationships Among Variables

 
Contingency Tables

 
Regression Analysis

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
19 Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions

 
Sampling Distribution of the Mean

 
Estimation

 
Point Estimation

 
Interval Estimation

 
Hypothesis Testing

 
Null and Alternative Hypotheses

 
Directional Alternative Hypotheses

 
Examining the Probability Value and Making a Decision

 
The Hypothesis-Testing Decision Matrix

 
Controlling the Risk of Errors

 
Hypothesis Testing in Practice

 
t Test for Independent Samples

 
One-Way Analysis of Variance

 
Post Hoc Tests in Analysis of Variance

 
t Test for Correlation Coefficients

 
t Test for Regression Coefficients

 
Chi-Square Test for Contingency Tables

 
Other Significance Tests

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
 
20 Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
Interim Analysis

 
Memoing

 
Analysis of Visual Data

 
Data Entry and Storage

 
Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems

 
Inductive and A Priori Codes

 
Co-Occurring and Facesheet Codes

 
First-Stage and Second-Stage Coding

 
Enumeration

 
“Themeing the Data” and Creating Hierarchical Category Systems

 
Identifying Relationships Among Categories

 
Drawing Diagrams

 
Corroborating and Validating Results

 
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis

 
Data Analysis in Mixed Research

 
Mixed Analysis Matrix

 
Analytical Procedures in Mixed Data Analysis

 
Constructing Joint Displays in Mixed Data Analysis

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercise

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
Notes

 
Chapter 20 Appendix: Additional Types of Codes for Qualitative Research

 
 
Part VI: Writing the Research Report
 
21 How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines
General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report (I)

 
Language (I.1)

 
Editorial Style (I.2)

 
Reference List (I.3)

 
Typing (I.4)

 
Writing an APA-Style Quantitative Research Report (II)

 
Title Page (II.1)

 
Abstract (II.2)

 
Introduction (II.3)

 
Method (II.4)

 
Results (II.5)

 
Discussion (II.6)

 
References (II.7)

 
Footnotes (II.8)

 
Tables (II.9)

 
Figures (II.10)

 
Example of an APA-Style Manuscript

 
Writing Qualitative Research Reports

 
Writing Mixed Research Reports

 
Action Research Reflection

 
Summary

 
Key Term

 
Discussion Questions

 
Research Exercises

 
Proposal Exercises

 
Relevant Internet Sites

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Appendix: Citations for Journal Articles Noted in the Margins
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Instructor Site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

 

  • A Microsoft® Word test bank, is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students' progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific
  • Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content and features.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation with lecture and classroom discussion.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • Author created teaching tips are provided for insights on how to best reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • Suggested answers to review questions in the text are included to help with self-review of the material.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics. When relevant, related questions for discussion are included.
  • Web Resources direct both instructors and students to useful and current web sites, along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics
  • Datasets and SPSS Exercises are provided for additional hands-on practice.
  • Learning Objectives reinforce the most important materials
student site

SAGE edge for students helps improve performance, enhance learning, and offers a personalized approach to coursework in an easy-to-use environment.

 

  • A customized action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Learning Objectives reinforce the most important materials
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course materials.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics. When relevant, related questions for discussion are included.
  • Web Resources direct both instructors and students to useful and current web sites, along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics
  • Suggested answers to review questions in the text are included to help with self-review of the material.
  • Datasets and SPSS Exercises are provided for additional hands-on practice. 
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • The historical research chapter has been moved to the student website to shorten the book while keeping the material available.
  • Includes new sections on purpose statement and research questions for mixed methods research as well as a brief discussion of meta-synthesis.
  • Includes several new sections, including Technology and Tests, Technology and Questionnaires, Technology and Interviews, and Technology and Focus Groups.
  • Emphasizes the need (and how) to control for extraneous variables in nonexperimental quantitative research. ·         Includes more material on how to organize a mixed methods research report. 

KEY FEATURES:

  • Attention-grabbing, current event chapter opening vignettes and examples throughout the book engage student interest.
  • While many texts only offer one method, this book gives a balanced coverage of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research as well as their strengths and appropriateness, showing each has merit when employed properly.
  • A conversational and accessible writing style makes the book fun and easy to read.
  • Review question checkpoints are strategically placed to bolster student comprehension of key topics.
  • All key concepts, definitions, and icons that connect the reader to journal articles and tools and tips provided on the companion website are included in the margins for quick and easy reference. 

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 3

Chapter 8


Preview this book

For instructors

Review and Desk copies for this title are available digitally via VitalSource.

Request e-review copy

If you require a print review copy, please call: (800) 818-7243 ext. 6140 or email textsales@sagepub.com.

Select a Purchasing Option

Electronic version
Prices from
$72.00*
*180 day rental

Loose-leaf
ISBN: 9781506364230
$108.00

Hardcover
ISBN: 9781483391601
$144.00