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Introduction to Intelligence

Introduction to Intelligence
Institutions, Operations, and Analysis

February 2021 | 440 pages | CQ Press
Introduction to Intelligence: Institutions, Operations, and Analysis offers a strategic, international, and comparative approach to covering intelligence organizations and domestic security issues. Written by multiple authors, each chapter draws on the author's professional and scholarly expertise in the subject matter. As a core text for an introductory survey course in intelligence, this text provides readers with a comprehensive introduction to intelligence, including institutions and processes, collection, communications, and common analytic methods.

About the Authors
Chapter 1. Introduction
What Is Intelligence?

The Purpose of Intelligence

Conclusion: The Promise and the Limitations of Intelligence

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 2. Intelligence History
Intelligence From Antiquity to the Westphalian State System

Intelligence in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe

Intelligence in America From the Revolution to Pearl Harbor

World War II and the Birth of the Modern

The Cold War

Intelligence in the 21st Century: 9/11 and Its Aftermath

Conclusion: Assessing Over 3,000 Years of Intelligence History

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 3. Intelligence and Security Institutions: Organizations and Processes
An Illustration of Intelligence Support

The National Security Framework in the US System

The Growth of the National Security Bureaucracy

Intelligence Organizations in the US System of Government

The Intelligence Cycle and Its Critics

Conclusion: Critiques and Alternative Approaches

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 4. Comparative Intelligence Systems
Cases in Intelligence Studies

The United Kingdom

French Republic

Federal Republic of Germany


Russian Federation

People’s Republic of China

Conclusion: Similarities and Differences of Foreign

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 5. Intelligence Operations
How Do We Collect Intelligence?

Complexity and Challenges of Contemporary Intelligence Operations

Intelligence Collection Planning

The Five Principal Intelligence Collection Disciplines and Beyond

Military Intelligence

Conclusion: Intelligence Operations Summary

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 6. Counterintelligence
The World of Espionage and Intrigue

Counterintelligence Roles and Missions

Defensive Counterintelligence

Offensive Counterintelligence

Contemporary Challenges for Counterintelligence

Conclusion: Counterintelligence Summary

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 7. Covert Action
Types of Covert Action

Oversight of Covert Action in the United States

The US Military and Covert Action

Conclusion: Considerations in Covert Action

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 8. Cyberspace Operations and the Information Environment
Convergence of Technology

Peeling Back the Layers of Cyberspace

The US Cyber Strategy

Analyzing Cyber Threats

Conclusion: The Complexity of Threats in the Cyberspace Domain

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 9. Intelligence Regulation and Governance
McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare

Domestic Intelligence and COINTELPRO

The Watergate Scandal

The Church and Pike Committees

Intelligence Oversight After Watergate

Intelligence Oversight in Practice

The Separation of Powers in Intelligence Oversight

Conclusion: An Imperfect but Indispensable System

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 10. Inter-Agency Communications
The Inherent Tensions in Intelligence Communications

Communications Challenges in Intra-Agency Settings

Communications Challenges in Inter-Agency Settings

Products for Intelligence Consumers

Getting the Attention of Intelligence Consumers

Retaining the Attention of Intelligence Consumers

Conclusion: Making Intelligence Useful

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 11. Intelligence Analysis
Epistemology and Intelligence Analysis

Forecasting and the Challenges of Prediction

Psychological Biases and Intelligence Analysis

Conclusion: From the Philosophy of Science to Practice

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 12. Analytic Methods
The Contemporary Context of Intelligence Analysis

Methods Used to Analyze Intelligence Targets

Presenting Findings: The Structure and Voice of Written

Conclusion: Patterns of Recruitment and Training of Intelligence Analysts in the US Intelligence Community

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 13. The Ethics of Intelligence
Of Ethics and Moral Systems

Case Studies

Conclusion: The Ethical Demands of National Service

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Chapter 14. Threats to the United States and Its Interests
Strategic Competitors


Climate Change as a Driver of International Instability

Cyber Threats in the 21st Century

Inter-state War

Ethnic Conflict, Revolution, and State Destabilization

Weapons of Mass Destruction


Criminal Networks

Conclusion: Of Threats and Priorities

Key Concepts

Additional Reading

Key features


  • Spotlight on Careers introduces students to the numerous roles and responsibilities associated with different intelligence activities that can be found within the International Association for Intelligence Education’s (IAFIE) Standards for Intelligence Education (2011).
  • Several Case Studies embrace both historical content and more recent controversies subject to national interest, demonstrating the myriad of applications for Intelligence Studies in the real world.
  • To help reinforce students’ understanding of the content, a Conclusion, Key Concepts, and Additional Reading section can be found at the end of each chapter.
  • The text includes two standalone chapters on ethics and cyber intelligence to give students a stronger understanding of two topics that have become increasingly important in Intelligence Studies.
  • Discussions around Homeland Security and law enforcement intelligence encourage students to think critically about the medium- to long-term threats facing the United States.

For instructors

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ISBN: 9781544374703

ISBN: 9781544374673