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Organizational Research Methods

Organizational Research Methods

eISSN: 15527425 | ISSN: 10944281 | Current volume: 27 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Quarterly

Organizational Research Methods, Sage Publications, Inc. ( Sponsored by the Research Methods Division, Academy of Management (

Organizational Research Methods (ORM) was established to bring relevant methodological developments to researchers working in organizational sciences. ORM’s goal is to enhance the use of current and new methodologies to advance theory and research practice. Articles should be understandable to readers with background knowledge consistent with methodological and statistical training provided in contemporary organizational sciences doctoral programs. Text should be written in ways that help make material accessible. For instance, highly technical material should be relegated to appendices, and example data and computer code should be included when relevant. Authors should also clearly articulate how the contribution has the potential to advance organizational theory and research practice.


Several types of articles are appropriate for ORM. One type addresses questions about existing quantitative and qualitative methods and research designs currently used by organizational researchers and may involve a comparison of alternative methods. Articles of this nature should focus on the relative strengths and weaknesses of the analytical technique(s) presented. A second type demonstrates how refinements to existing quantitative or qualitative methods might lead to advances in researchers' ability to test and propose theory. For submissions of this type, authors should clearly delineate how the refinement differs from current practice and how the refinement has the potential to advance theory. A third type introduces methodological developments or techniques from other disciplines to organizational researchers. For these articles, the relative advantages of the new techniques should be clearly discussed. A fourth type may introduce new methodological and statistical procedures and concepts. Manuscripts that primarily apply research methods to substantive problems are not encouraged.

In general, articles that report results from measurement validation studies are not encouraged; however, ORM is receptive to the idea that improvements in measurement represent a methodological advance that supports subsequent research. As such, ORM will consider measurement validation studies that make a compelling theoretical case for new or modified constructs, and that use state-of-the art validation procedures. Submissions that simply report results without strong theoretical framing, robust methodology, and empirical evidence will not be considered.

ORM will also consider short methodological reports (typically submissions with 18 pages or less of text in the body of the manuscript). Several topics may be particularly appropriate. One type would be an article that consolidates material into a single, practical source. Often information known to experts is spread out across multiple sources in ways that may not be accessible to non-experts. A second type of article may be one that provides best practices for an area of research. Articles that provide best practices should acknowledge that best practices are a moving target that may change as knowledge accumulates, but having resources that detail best practices can be helpful in terms of enhancing accessibility. A third type may be an article that details major advances in computational ease for a method that is known, but for which computational methods remain cumbersome. Note that each of the examples above could also qualify as feature-length submissions, so the primary differentiator is the topic scope. The goal, however, is to offer a venue for shorter articles that may have a narrower scope but otherwise meet the journal’s goals.

Tine Köhler University of Melbourne, Australia
Lisa Schurer Lambert Oklahoma State University, USA
Associate Editors
Jeremy F. Dawson University of Sheffield, UK
Justin DeSimone University of Alabama, USA
Thomas Greckhamer Louisiana State University, USA
Dina V. Krasikova University of Texas at San Antonio, USA
Jane K. Lê WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Germany
Mikko Rönkkö University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Jeffrey Stanton Syracuse University, USA
Catherine Welch Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Michael Withers Texas A&M University, USA
Outreach Officer
Elizabeth Clayton Indiana University Kokomo, USA
Editorial Board
Chahrazad Abdallah Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore
Herman Aguinis The George Washington University
Todd M. Alessandri Northeastern University, USA
Mats Alvesson Lund University, Sweden
John Amis University of Edinburgh, UK
John Antonakis University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Boris B. Baltes Wayne State University, USA
George Banks University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA
Daniel J. Beal Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
Rebecca Bednarek Victoria University, NZ
Donald D. Bergh University of Denver, USA
Paul Bliese Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, USA
Boris F Blumberg Maastricht University, Netherlands
Todd Bodner Portland State University, USA
Stephanie A. Bohon University of Tennessee-Knoxville
Harry Bowen Queens University of Charlotte, USA
Michael T. Braun DePaul University, USA
Heiko Breitsohl Universitat Klagenfurt
Anna Brown Kent University, UK
John Busenbark University of Notre Dame, USA
Marcus Butts Southern Methodist University, USA
Kevin Carlson Virginia Tech University, USA
Nathan T. Carter Michigan State University, USA
Catherine Cassell University of Durham, UK
S. Trevis Certo Arizona State University, USA
Gilad Chen University of Maryland, USA
Gordon W. Cheung The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Sebnem Cilesiz University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA
Michael Cole Texas Christian University, USA
Kevin Corley Imperial College London, UK
Jose M. Cortina Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Kai S. Cortina University of Michigan, USA
Steven Culpepper University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Ann Cunliffe FGV-EAESP, Brazil
Dev Dalal University at Albany, State University of New York, USA
Per Davidsson Queensland University of Technology, Australia
H. Kristl Davison Appalachian State University, USA
Jeremy F. Dawson University of Sheffield, UK
Rich DeJordy Saunders College of Business, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA
Richard P. DeShon Michigan State University, USA
Justin DeSimone University of Alabama, USA
Joerg Dietz University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Fritz Drasgow University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Jan Dul RSM Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Rory Eckardt State University of New York at Binghamton, USA
Jeffrey R. Edwards University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
Peer Fiss University of Southern California, USA
Michael J. Gill University of Oxford, UK
Jodi S. Goodman West Virginia University, USA
Janaki Gooty UNC, Charlotte
Stephen Gove University of Vermont, USA
Scott Graffin University of Georgia, USA
Thomas Greckhamer Louisiana State University, USA
Hans Hansen Texas Tech University, USA
Bill Harley University of Melbourne, Australia
Ivan Hernandez Virginia Tech University, USA
Paul Hibbert University of St. Andrews, UK
Louis Hickman Virginia Tech, USA
Joeri Hofmans Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
Gazi Islam Grenoble Ecole de Management, France
Russell Johnson Michigan State University, USA
Scott Johnson Iowa State University, USA
Harry Joo Indiana University, USA
Arturs Kalnins University of Iowa, USA
John Kammeyer-Mueller University of Minnesota, USA
Seth A. Kaplan George Mason University, USA
Tine Köhler University of Melbourne, Australia
Dina V. Krasikova University of Texas at San Antonio, USA
Ryan Krause Neeley School of Business, Texas Christian Univeristy, USA
Sven Kunisch Aarhus University, Denmark
David M. LaHuis Wright State University, USA
Lisa Schurer Lambert Oklahoma State University, USA
Charles E. Lance Organizational Research & Development, LLC, USA
Ronald S. Landis Millan Chicago LLC, USA
Jonas Lang University of Exeter Business School, UK
Jane K. Lê WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Germany
James LeBreton Pennsylvania State University, USA
Songqi Liu Georgia State University, USA
Franz Lohrke Samford University, USA
Joseph Luchman Fors Marsh Group LLC, USA
Mark Maltarich University of South Carolina, USA
John E. Mathieu University of Connecticut, USA
Aaron McKenny Indiana University Bloomington, USA
Dan McNeish Arizona State University, USA
Adam W. Meade North Carolina State University, USA
Erik Monsen University of Vermont, USA
Daniel Newman Cardiff University, UK
Chris Nye Michigan State University, USA
Paula O'Kane University of Otago, New Zealand
Ernest O'Boyle Indiana University, USA
In-Sue Oh Temple University, USA
Frederick Oswald Rice University, USA
Sotirios Paroutis University of Warwick, UK
Rebecca Piekkari Aalto University School of Business, Finland
Robert E. Ployhart University of South Carolina, USA
Nathan Podsakoff University of Arizona, USA
Kristopher Preacher Vanderbilt University, USA
Dan J. Putka Human Resource Research Organization, USA
Christine Quinn Trank Vanderbilt University, USA
Rhonda K. Reger University of Tennessee, USA
Hettie Richardson Texas Christian University, USA
Patrick Rosopa Clemson University, USA
Hannah R. Rothstein Baruch College-CUNY, Zicklin School of Business
Linda Rouleau HEC Montréal, Canada
Terri Scandura University of Miami, USA
Charles Scherbaum Baruch College, City University of New York, USA
Jeremy Schoen University of Auckland, New Zealand
Andreas Schwab Iowa State University, USA
Dean A. Shepherd Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, USA
Jeremy C. Short University of Oklahoma, USA
Hock-Peng Sin Florida International University, USA
Anne Smith University of Tennessee, USA
Chelsea Song Indiana University, USA
Seth Spain Concordia University, Canada
Andreas P. Spee University of Queensland, Australia
Christiane Spitzmüller University of Houston, USA
Michael C. Sturman Rutgers University, USA
Tianjun Sun Kansas State University, USA
Louis Tay Purdue University, USA
Scott Tonidandel University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA
Jeffrey Vancouver Ohio University, USA
Robert J. Vandenberg University of Georgia, USA
Mo Wang University of Florida, USA
Bert Weijters Ghent University, Belgium
Catherine Welch Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Annika Wilhelmy University of Zurich, Switzerland
Larry J. Williams University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
Michael Withers Texas A&M University, USA
David J. Woehr University of North Carolina-Charlotte, USA
Hyun-Soo Woo University of Mississippi, USA
Sang Eun Woo Purdue University, USA
April Wright Warwick Business School, UK
Robert Wright Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Francis Yammarino State University of New York at Binghamton, USA
Bo Zhang University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigne, USA
Le (Betty) Zhou University of Minnesota, USA
Michael J. Zickar Bowling Green State University, USA
Michael J. Zyphur The University of Melbourne, Australia
Founding Editor
Larry J. Williams University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
Past Editors
Paul Bliese (2018-2021) University of South Carolina, USA
Herman Aguinis The George Washington University
Robert J. Vandenberg (2008-2010) University of Georgia, USA
José M. Cortina (2011-2013) Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
James M. LeBreton (2014-2017) Pennsylvania State University, USA
  • Biological Sciences Abstracts
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  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Organizational Research Methods will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    Authors have an obligation to inform editors if a paper has been previously rejected from ORM.

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Organizational Research Methods, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article types

    Regular submissions that fit the aims and scope of the journal have no formal word count limit nor limit on the number of references; however, authors are encouraged to limit manuscripts to no more 35 pages of text excluding the title page, abstract, references, tables and figures.

    Short methodological reports that fit the aims and scope of the journal are limited to 18 pages of text excluding the title page, abstract, references, tables and figure. Short reports have no limit on the number of references.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.


    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance”).

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.


    2.4 Declaration of conflicting interests

    Organizational Research Methods encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the Sage Journal Author Gateway


    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Organizational Research Methods and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Organizational Research Methods offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.


    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word using APA 7th Edition format (see for examples).

    Please do not use the Overleaf Sage Journal publication template when formatting your submission.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines. Please ONLY refer to Sage's guidelines for illustrations, pictures and graphs and NOT for manuscript formatting.

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    4.4 Reference style

    Organizational Research Methods adheres to the APA 7th Edition reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Harvard EndNote output file or the Sage Vancouver EndNote output file

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Organizational Research Methods is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.


    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.


    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Organizational Research Methods editorial office as follows:

    Tine Köhler and Lisa Schurer Lambert, Co-Editors
    Organizational Research Methods
    Sage Publications, Inc. (
    Sponsored by the Research Methods Division,

    Academy of Management (



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