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Police in America - Interactive eBook
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Police in America - Interactive eBook

Second Edition


January 2020 | SAGE Publications, Inc
This Interactive eBook includes access to SAGE Premium Video and much more!

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This dynamic, mobile-friendly Interactive eBook version of Police in America, Second Edition goes way beyond highlighting and note-taking, giving you access to SAGE Premium Video—curated specifically for this text. Simply click on icons in the eBook to experience a broad array of multimedia features, including: 

  • VIDEO: Boost learning and bolster analysis with SAGE Premium Video. Recapping the fundamentals in every chapter, each video activity is paired with chapter learning objectives and tied to assessment via SAGE Coursepacks.
  • OFFLINE READING: Using the VitalSource Bookshelf® platform, download your book to a personal computer and read it offline.
  • SOCIAL SHARING AND FOLLOWING: Share notes and highlights with instructors and classmates who are using the same eBook, and “follow” friends and instructors as they make their own notes and highlights.
  • ONLINE CONTENT: Access more online content via links to important data, relevant background, and profiles that enrich key concepts in the text.

 
I. FOUNDATIONS FOR THE STUDY OF THE POLICE
 
Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Police in America
Introduction

 
The Challenge of Policing a Free Society

 
The Controversies and Difficulties of Policing

 
Ethics and Morals in Policing

 
 
Chapter 2: The History of the Police in America
Introduction: Why Study the History of the Police?

 
The Pre-Police Era in America

 
The First American Police Departments: The Political Era of Policing

 
Early 1900s to 1960s: The Reform Era of Policing

 
The 1970s to the Present: The Community Problem-Solving Era of Policing

 
 
Chapter 3: The Characteristics and Structure of Police Organizations
Characteristics of Police Organizations

 
The Challenges of Managing Police Organizations

 
The Structure of Police Departments

 
Major Operating Units in Police Departments

 
Types and Levels of Law Enforcement Agencies

 
 
Chapter 4: The Role of the Police
Enforcing the Law

 
Controlling Crime

 
Dealing with Situations Where Force May Need to Be Used

 
Handling Time-Pressing Situations

 
 
II. POLICE WORK
 
Chapter 5: Police Recruitment, Selection, and Training
The Relationship between the Recruitment, Selection, and Training of Police Officers

 
The Recruitment of Police Officers

 
The Selection of Police Officers

 
Minimum Qualifications for Police Officers

 
Selection Procedures for Police Officers

 
The Outcomes of the Recruitment and Selection of Police Officers: Diversity

 
Police Officer Training

 
 
Chapter 6: Police Patrol
Police Patrol and Call Priority

 
Managing Calls for Service

 
Preventive Patrol

 
Hot Spot Policing

 
Police Crackdowns

 
Police Stops of Citizens as a Strategy

 
One- and Two-Officer Squads

 
Foot Patrol

 
Offender-Focused Strategies

 
 
Chapter 7: Crime Detection and Investigation
Criminal Investigation Defined

 
Types of Criminal Investigations

 
Proof in Criminal Investigations

 
How Are Crimes Solved?

 
Forms and Types of Evidence in Criminal Investigations

 
 
Chapter 8: Police Discretion and Its Control
Discretion Defined

 
The Anatomy of a Decision

 
Factors That Influence the Discretion of Police Officers

 
How Is Police Discretion Best Controlled?

 
 
Chapter 9: The Law of Search, Seizure, and Self-Incrimination
Basic Legal Terminology and Concepts

 
The Law of Search and Seizure: The Fourth Amendment

 
The Law of Self-Incrimination: The Fifth and Sixth Amendments

 
 
III. THE HAZARDS OF POLICE WORK
 
Chapter 10: Health and Safety Issues in Police Work
What Is Stress?

 
The Effects of Stress

 
Physical Hazards of Police Work

 
So Is Police Work Dangerous?

 
 
Chapter 11: Police Use of Force
Reasonable Force and Use of Force Guidelines

 
Deviations in Use of Force: Unnecessary Force versus Brutality

 
Types of Force

 
Patterns in Police Use of Force: Causes and Control

 
 
Chapter 12: Police Misconduct and Corruption
The Importance of Understanding Police Misconduct and Corruption

 
The Nature and Extent of Police Misconduct and Corruption

 
Causes of Police Misconduct and Corruption

 
The Control of Police Misconduct and Corruption

 
 
IV. POLICE STRATEGIES AND THE FUTURE OF THE POLICE IN AMERICA
 
Chapter 13: Community and Problem-Oriented Policing
The Rise of Community Policing

 
Problem-Oriented Policing: The Details

 
 
Chapter 14: Evidence-Based and Intelligence-Led Policing
Smart Policing

 
Data-Driven and Evidence-Based Policing

 
COMPSTAT

 
Predictive Policing

 
Intelligence-Led Policing

 
 
Chapter 15: Terrorism, Technology, Accountability, and the Future of American Policing
History as a Guide to the Future

 
New Demands on the Police

 
The New Police

 
The New Technology of Crime Detection and Accountability

 
 
Appendix: The Bill of Rights, United States Constitution

Chapter 1

·         New information on police-citizen contacts

·         New information on body-worn cameras (BWCs)

·         New information on police-citizen cooperation (and lack thereof) as a challenge of policing

·         New “A Research Question” (media and citizens’ attitudes toward the police)

Chapter 2

·         New information on women and people of color police officers

·         New “Good Policing” (good policing changes over time)

·         New/revised “A Research Question” (current state of police research)

·         New information about changes in policing during the community problem-solving era

Chapter 3

·         New “Police Spotlight” (police officer salaries and consequences)

·         New “Good Policing” (police as warriors vs. guardians)

Chapter 4

·         New “Police Spotlight” (“Scoop and Run” in the Philadelphia PD, nontraditional police task)

·         New “Good Policing” (the need for new measures of police effectiveness)

·         New section on police responding to people in need, people with mental illness, crisis intervention teams)

·         New section on police use of Narcan

 

Chapter 5

 

·         New “Police Spotlight” (San Diego PD recruitment efforts)

·         New information on police salaries

·         New “Research Question” (how male and female college students perceive a police career)

·         New information about diversity of police officers

·         New “Good Policing” (Tulsa PD recruit training)

Chapter 6

·         New information on foot patrol

·         New “A Research Question” (CCTV and directed patrol)

·         New information on traffic stops

·         New information on stop, question, and frisk

Chapter 7

·         New “Police Spotlight” (ancestry DNA and the Golden State Killer)

·         Moved material on “proof” to Chapter 9

·         New “A Research Question” (secondary transfer of DNA)

·         New information on DNA and DNA analysis

·         New information as video as evidence

Chapter 8

·         New information on BWCs

·         New information/section on race and implicit bias

·         New information on de-policing and Ferguson Effect

·         New “A Research Question” (BWCs)

·         New “Good Policing” (BWCs)

Chapter 9

·         New discussion of proof and probable cause

·         Many revised discussions to shorten the chapter

·         New section on juveniles and the Miranda requirement

Chapter 10

·         New “Police Spotlight” (dealing with event trauma)

·         New “A Research Question” (shiftwork, fatigue, and gender)

·         New information on body armor

Chapter 11

·         New “Police Spotlight” (de-escalation)

·         New “Good Policing” (transparency in police use of force)

·         New information on police use of force

·         New “A Research Question” (but still suicide by cop)

·         New information on police use of robots and drones

·         New reorganized section on the control of police use of force

·         New information/sections on de-escalation, early intervention systems, BWCs

Chapter 12

·         New “Police Spotlight” (still Denver PD police complaint mediation program

·         New information on numerous chapter topics

·         New information on perceptions of police honesty and ethics

Chapter 13

·         Added many examples of community policing in various PDs

·         New information on law enforcement use of social media

·         New information on community policing vs. problem-oriented policing

·         New “A Research Question” (procedural justice)

·         Added many examples of problem-oriented policing (with a new diagram)

Chapter 14

·         New “Police Spotlight” (smart policing in Chicago)

·         New information on smart policing (its meaning changed since the 1e)

·         New information to clarify various strategies discussed in the chapter, including how these strategies may be controversial

·         New “Good Policing” (a problem-oriented approach to CompStat)

·         New “A Research Question” (crime analysis)

Chapter 15

·         Condensed discussion of terrorism

·         New “Research Spotlight” (far-right extremism)

·         New information about future of policing including militarization of the police

·         New “Good Policing” (BWCs and accountability)

·         New information on the future technologies of policing

 

 

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