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Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Eighth Edition
Additional resources:

January 2017 | 544 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

This Eighth Edition of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society continues to emphasize intuition and common sense, while demonstrating that social science is a constant interplay between methods of inquiry and important social issues. Recognizing that today’s students live in a world of growing diversity and richness of social differences, authors Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Anna Leon-Guerrero use research examples that show how statistics is a tool for understanding the ways in which race, class, gender, and other categories of experience shape our social world and influence social behavior. In addition, guides for reading and interpreting the research literature help students acquire statistical literacy, while SPSS demonstrations and a rich variety of exercises help them hone their problem-solving skills.

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About the Authors
CHAPTER 1 • The What and the Why of Statistics
The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hypotheses

Collecting Data

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Examining a Diverse Society

Learning Statistics

CHAPTER 2 • The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data
Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions


Reading the Research Literature: Access to Public Benefits

Graphic Presentation of Data

The Pie Chart

The Bar Graph

The Histogram

The Statistical Map

The Line Graph

The Time-Series Chart

Statistics in Practice: Foreign-Born Population 65 Years and Over

CHAPTER 3 • Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode

The Median

The Mean

Reading the Research Literature: The Case of Reporting Income

Statistics in Practice: The Shape of the Distribution

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

CHAPTER 4 • Measures of Variability
The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Index of Qualitative Variation

Statistics in Practice: Diversity in U.S. Society

The Range

The Interquartile Range

The Box Plot

The Variance and the Standard Deviation

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Community College Mentoring

CHAPTER 5 • The Normal Distribution
Properties of the Normal Distribution

An Application of the Normal Curve

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

Reading the Research Literature: Child Health and Academic Achievement

CHAPTER 6 • Sampling and Sampling Distributions
Aims of Sampling

Basic Probability Principles

Probability Sampling

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

Statistics in Practice: A Sampling Lesson

CHAPTER 7 • Estimation
Point and Interval Estimation

Confidence Intervals for Means

Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Women Victims of Intimate Violence

CHAPTER 8 • Testing Hypotheses
Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing With One Sample and Population Variance Unknown

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Means

The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: Cigarette Use Among Teens

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Hypothesis Testing

CHAPTER 9 • Bivariate Tables
How to Construct a Bivariate Table

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

Reading the Research Literature: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Homeless Populations

The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship


Reading the Research Literature: The Digital Divide

CHAPTER 10 • The Chi-Square Test and Measures of Association
The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square

Statistics in Practice: Respondent and Father Education

Proportional Reduction of Error

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Cramer’s V: A Chi-Square–Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Gamma and Kendall’s Tau-b: Symmetrical Measures of Association for Ordinal Variables

Reading the Research Literature: India’s Internet-Using Population

CHAPTER 11 • Analysis of Variance
Understanding Analysis of Variance

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Ethical Consumer

Reading the Research Literature: Emerging Adulthood

CHAPTER 12 • Regression and Correlation
The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relationships and Prediction Rules

A Negative Relationship: Age and Internet Hours per Week

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Testing the Significance of r2 Using ANOVA

Statistics in Practice: Multiple Regression

ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regression

Reading the Research Literature: Academic Intentions and Support

Appendix A. Table of Random Numbers
Appendix B. The Standard Normal Table
Appendix C. Distribution of t
Appendix D. Distribution of Chi-Square
Appendix E. Distribution of F
Appendix F. A Basic Math Review
Learning Check Solutions
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises


Instructor Resource Site
  • A Microsoft® Word test bank, is available containing multiple choice and short answer questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork from the book.
  • Solutions to all in-text exercises.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation.
  • Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning.


Student Study Site
  • mobile-friendly eFlashcards and quizzes to strengthen your understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • a complete online action plan that includes tips and feedback on your progress and allows you to individualize your learning experience.
  • chapter summaries that reinforce the most important material.
  • EXCLUSIVE access to full-text SAGE journal articles—carefully chosen to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter.
  • Study questions reinforce key concepts in each chapter for self-review.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Datasets and Codebooks are available for you to use while answering the SPSS exercises in the text.
  • Appendices from the text are included for your reference. 

"Great text with great examples that relate to the diversity/inequality.  Our department has a strong focus on inequality – that is exactly why I use this text.  I have reviewed a lot of other books and this is the only one I would ever assign/use. "

Heather Macpherson Parrott
Long Island University

"We go over the computer-generated SPSS output [in the text] because students are required to take a data analysis course after this course [where they] use SPSS to analyze their own data. So, it is helpful to the students to know what SPSS is and what it looks like."

David A. Gay
University of Central Florida

"The writing style of this book is straightforward, comprehensive, approachable. It does not talk down to the students, but meets them halfway between having high expectations and pandering to them like so many textbooks are doing these days."

Lindsey Peterson
Mississippi State University

The authors are very skilled at introducing students to relevant examples of social scientific literature that utilize the concepts and statistics covered in the text. The book also serves as a great reference tool for interpreting social scientific literature.

Christopher Donoghue
Montclair State University
Key features
  • New real world examples and data are drawn from a wide range of sources including news stories, government reports, and scholarly research to help students increase their understanding of both statistics and social issues.
  • New Reading the Research Literature and Statistics in Practice features in numerous chapters introduce discussions on the interpretation of statistical information and/or SPSS output, encouraging students to focus on the meaning and importance of the calculated statistics.
  • New Data at Work boxes profile individuals who use quantitative data and methods on the job.
  • The authors provide two new 2014 General Social Survey SPSS datasets.
  • Chapter 2 now combines material from Chapter 2 (“Organization of Information”) and Chapter 3 (“Graphic Presentation”) in the previous edition.
  • Chapter 5, “Normal Distribution,” includes new in-chapter examples based on SAT data.
  • Chapter 12 includes extended discussion on regression, correlation, and multiple regression.
  • New end-of-chapter exercises utilize data and polling based on current events.


  • An informal writing style–coupled with the use of real-world examples–makes this book more accessible and engaging for students.
  • An emphasis on race, class, gender and other aspects of social diversity sets the book apart from others in the field and mirrors the major emphasis in the social sciences today.
  • Learning Checks keyed to the most important topics are carefully placed in the chapters to aid students’ self-assessment.
  • Statistics In Practice inserts throughout the book show the real-world application of the techniques and concepts introduced.
  • A Closer Look boxes highlight statistical issues that are important for future researchers.
  • Reading the Research Literature sections in most chapters help students read and interpret statistical information in professional and scholarly publications.
  • A wealth of real-world exercises at the end of chapters provide students with opportunities to practice both calculating and interpreting statistics.
  • The text is accompanied by four our SPSS datasets, including a global dataset measuring social, economic and political characteristics of 70 countries.  
  • Answers to odd numbered exercises are provided at the back of the text.
  • Optional SPSS examples and output are used throughout the book in conjunction with General Social Survey data.
  • A demonstration of a related SPSS procedure, along with a set of exercises, appears at the end of each chapter.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 5

Chapter 12

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