You are here

American Corrections
Share

American Corrections
Concepts and Controversies

Additional resources:


September 2014 | 472 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This comprehensive introduction to corrections presents an incisive view of every aspect of corrections (including jails, probation, sentencing, prisons, and parole), prompting students to think critically about the complex issues involved in responding to the current crisis in the U.S. correctional system. Incorporating theory, research, and the most recent available data, the book takes a contemporary and issues-oriented approach as it explores the most interesting and progressive developments in correctional policy and practice. Students will come away with practical knowledge, as well as a framework for thoughtful analysis of a subject that can seem mysterious or impenetrable. In addition, the book covers subjects many corrections texts treat only minimally, including women in corrections, the death penalty, and special populations. Perhaps most importantly, the book offers a point of view on what is plaguing the American correctional system and a realistic look at the solutions that offer real promise.

 
CHAPTER 1: Introduction
A Legacy of Crisis and Turmoil

 
Corrections as a System

 
Corrections and Society

 
A Critical View of the System

 
A Keen Eye toward the Future

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 2: Punishment and Social Structure
Learning Objectives

 
Discerning Historical Constructs

 
Penance and Fines

 
Social Change in the Later Middle Ages

 
The Discovery of Imprisonment

 
Galley Slavery, Transportation, and the Emergence of Imprisonment

 
The Industrial Revolution and Corrections

 
Solitary Confinement

 
Zebulon Brockway and the Rise of the Adult Reformatory in America

 
Corrections and the Progressive Era (1880-1920)

 
After the Progressive Era (1920-1960)

 
The Era of Civil Rights and Community Corrections (1960-1970)

 
The Prisons Explode (1970-1980)

 
The Demise of Rehabilitation and the Get-Tough Era (1970-Present)

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 3: The Purpose of Punishment and Sentencing Trends
How Sentencing Works

 
The Presentence Report

 
Risk and Needs Assessment

 
Sentencing Theories

 
Retributive Justice

 
Deterrence

 
Rehabilitation

 
Incapacitation

 
Theories of Restorative Justice and Reintegrative Shaming

 
Modern Movements in Sentencing Laws and Policies

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 4: Jails
The Functions of Jails

 
Who Is in Jail?

 
A Word about Jail Data

 
Facts about Jails

 
Jail Administration

 
Jail Procedures

 
In-Custody Programs

 
Alternatives to Incarceration

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 5: Probation and Alternatives to Incarceration
Learning Objectives

 
What is Probation?

 
Who Is on Probation in the US?

 
A Brief History of Probation

 
Two Key Perspectives on Probation

 
Probation Administration

 
The Role of Probation Officers

 
Sentencing and Investigation

 
Supervision

 
Violation, Revocation, and Termination

 
Does Probation Work? Probation Research

 
Alternatives to Incarceration

 
Evaluating Alternatives to Incarceration

 
Cost Savings

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 6: Prisons
Learning Objectives

 
The Means to An End

 
Design of Prisons

 
What the Numbers Say

 
Prison Costs

 
The Federal System

 
State Prisons

 
Military Prisons and the War on Terror

 
Classification Systems

 
Security Levels

 
The Supermax

 
Programs and Services

 
The Prison Environment

 
Discipline

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 7: Reentry and Parole
Learning Objectives

 
Parole as a Form of Community Corrections

 
The Early History of Parole

 
Parole Basics

 
Parole Authorities

 
The Challenges of Reentry

 
Reentry Data

 
Perspectives on the Current Purpose and Practice of Parole

 
What Works in Parole

 
Evidence-Based Practice and Parole

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 8: Juvenile Corrections
Learning Objectives

 
A Brief History

 
The Diverse Landscape of Juvenile Corrections

 
The Structure of the Juvenile Justice System

 
Characteristics of Juveniles in Custody

 
Overrepresentation of Youth of Color

 
Young Women and Juvenile Corrections

 
Recidivism Rates and Juvenile Corrections

 
Juvenile Corrections Fads

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 9: The Corrections Workforce
Corrections Work

 
Service Providers and Treatment in Custody

 
Why Corrections Work?

 
Characteristics of the Corrections Workforce

 
Correctional Staffing

 
Education and Training

 
The Correctional Hierarchy

 
Sustaining a Workforce

 
Job Stress

 
Progressive Developments in Leadership

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 10: Law and Corrections
State Regulatory Bodies

 
Professional Standards

 
Litigating in the Courts to Stop Abusive Practices

 
Legislating Reforms

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 11: Corrections and the Color Line
Learning Objectives

 
Measuring the Extent of the Problem

 
Race and Ethnicity Behind the Walls

 
African American Disproportion in the Criminal Justice System

 
APIs and the Corrections System

 
Native Americans and the Corrections System

 
Latinos and the Corrections System

 
Understanding the Causes of Racial Disparity in Corrections

 
Racial Profiling

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 12: Women in the Corrections System
Learning Objectives

 
The “Pink Syndrome”

 
The Rising Tide of Incarcerated Women—What the Numbers Say

 
Girls and the System

 
Women’s Pathways into Crime

 
A Complex Mix of Risk Factors

 
Coping

 
Programs and Services

 
Operational Issues in Custody

 
Conditions of Confinement

 
Research on Women and the Justice System

 
Moving Forward with Research on Women

 
Prospects for Gender-Responsive Programming

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 13: Special Populations
Learning Objectives

 
Prisons and Jails as Community Health Providers

 
Inmates Suffer from a Wide Range of Medical Problems

 
Health Care Services

 
Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails

 
The Increasing Elderly Prison Population

 
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Inmates

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 14: The Death Penalty
Learning Objectives

 
The Controversial Moral Imperative

 
The State of Capital Punishment

 
Characteristics of Death Row Inmates

 
Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

 
Juveniles and the Death Penalty

 
The Death Sentence and Mental Competence

 
Innocence and Those Awaiting Executions

 
Costs of Capital Punishment

 
The Problem of Lethal Injection

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 15: The Growth of Privatization in Corrections
Learning Objectives

 
History and Functioning of Private Prisons in the United States

 
Major Private Prison Companies

 
How Private Prisons Function

 
Other Forms of Corrections Privatization

 
Private Prison Performance

 
Impact of Privatization on Local Economies

 
Privatization, Innovation, and Reform

 
The Profit Motive and Conflict of Interest

 
Contracting, Oversight, and Monitoring

 
Are Private Prisons Necessary?

 
Further Research

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 
 
CHAPTER 16: The Politics and Future of Mass Incarceration
Learning Objectives

 
Mass Incarceration and Electoral Politics

 
In Whose Interest?

 
An Opening to Change

 
What the Public Actually Thinks about Corrections Policy

 
Confronting the Politics of Mass Incarceration

 
Is Money the Currency of Reform?

 
Recruiting New Allies to Corrections Reform

 
The Way Forward

 
Discussion Questions

 
You Decide

 
References

 

Supplements

Instuctor Resource Site

The open-access Instructor Resource Site includes the following:

·  A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.

·  A Respondus electronic test bank is available and can be used on PCs. The test bank contains multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter and provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding. Respondus is also compatible with many popular learning management systems so you can easily get your test questions into your online course.

·  Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork from the book.

·   Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.

·  EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.

·  Sample course syllabi provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.

·  Carefully selected, web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.

·  Links to podcasts and audio resources cover important topics and are designed to supplement key points within the text.

·   Web resources are included for further research and insights.

 

Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to selected full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
  • Links to podcasts and audio resources cover important topics and are designed to supplement key points within the text.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.

 

I particularly like their focus on the effectiveness of the system which is a topic that is often glossed over in textbooks. 

Kevin M. Beaver
Florida State University

This book is about critical thinking! That’s what I like about it. The politics, the evidence based practices etc. are good things to expose the student to early on.

Bruce L Bikle
California State University Sacramento

The authors are excellent in stimulating critical thinking about corrections.

Michael Fischer
Norfolk State University

The authors make arguments based on empirical research, giving the reader much more to think about. Questions are posed throughout, helping the reader to think about the material in a much higher level way than most texts.

Jennie K. Singer
California State University, Sacramento

The book is easy to read and follow. The use of pedagogical features in the book is a major strength.

Jennifer Cobbina
Michigan State University

The topics covered are current and the approach is critical, the text structure is engaging and the ancillaries are useful. I am looking forward to using this text to challenge my students assumptions about punishment, corrections and to develop their critical thinking.

Dr Ingrid McGuffog
Criminal Justice Dept, Suny Brockport
January 22, 2015

Streamlined data which appears easier for the students to adopt concepts of corrections. The price helps also

Mr Eric Woodford
Administration of Justice, Los Medanos College
October 31, 2014
Key features

KEY FEATURES:

  • An analytic framework for responding to the current crisis in the U.S. correctional system with significant reform measures encourages students think critically about key issues.
  • An inviting, full-color design includes photographs, charts, and graphs that engage students and clarify key topics.
  • Learning Objectives set the stage for reading each chapter and alert students to the important points that follow.
  • Spotlights in each chapter delve deeper into current key issues, such as realignment, solitary confinement, and immigration detention.
  • In the Courts features an important legal case by discussing the facts and the significance to historical developments.
  • You Decide facilitates critical thinking by presenting students with an issues-based scenario and asking them to decide what they think should be done.
  • Key terms are highlighted and defined in the glossary to help students master the vocabulary of corrections.
  • Discussion Questions at the end of each chapter help students review the material and think critically about key issues.

 

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 5

Chapter 11


Preview this book

This title is also available on SAGE Knowledge, the ultimate social sciences online library. If your library doesn’t have access, ask your librarian to start a trial.