#
An Introduction to Statistics
An Active Learning Approach

- Kieth A. Carlson - Valparaiso University
- Jennifer R. Winquist - Valparaiso University

The **Second Edition** takes a unique, active approach to teaching and learning introductory statistics that allows students to discover and correct their misunderstandings as chapters progress rather than at their conclusion. Empirically-developed, self-correcting activities reinforce and expand on fundamental concepts, targeting and holding students’ attention. Based on contemporary memory research, this learner-centered approach leads to better long-term retention through active engagement while* *generating explanations. Along with carefully placed reading questions, this edition includes learning objectives, realistic research scenarios, practice problems, self-test questions, problem sets, and practice tests to help students become more confident in their ability to perform statistics.

How to Be Successful in This Course |

Math Skills Required in This Course |

Why Do You Have to Take Statistics? |

Statistics and the Helping Professions |

Hypothesis Testing, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals |

Testing Causal Hypotheses |

Populations and Samples |

Independent and Dependent Variables |

Scales of Measurement |

Discrete Versus Continuous Variables |

Graphing Data |

Shapes of Distributions |

Frequency Distribution Tables |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activity |

Chapter 1 Practice Test |

Central Tendency |

Computing the Mean |

Find the Median |

Find the Mode |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activity |

Chapter 2 Practice Test |

Population Variability |

Steps in Computing a Population’s Standard Deviation |

Sample Variability |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activity |

Chapter 3 Practice Test |

z for a Single Score |

Using X to Find Important “Cut Lines” |

z Scores and the Standard Normal Curve |

Example 1: Positive z Score |

Example 2: Negative z Score |

Example 3: Proportion Between Two z Scores |

Overview of the Activity |

Chapter 4 Practice Test |

Sampling and Sampling Error |

Distribution of Sample Means |

z for a Sample Mean |

Example: Computing and Interpreting the z for a Sample Mean |

Exact Probabilities Versus Probability Estimates |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 5 Practice Test |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing |

Hypothesis Testing With z for a Sample Mean Example (One-Tailed) |

What Does It Mean to Describe Something as “Statistically Significant”? |

Errors in Hypothesis Testing |

Hypothesis Testing Rules |

What Is a p Value? |

Why Statisticians “Fail to Reject the Null” Rather Than “Accept the Null” |

Why Scientists Say “This Research Suggests” Rather Than “This Research Proves” |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 6 Practice Test |

Single-Sample t Test |

Conceptual Information |

One-Tailed Single-Sample t Test Example |

Two-Tailed Single-Sample t Test Example |

Other Alpha Levels |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activity |

Chapter 7 Practice Test |

Three Statistical Procedures With Three Distinct Purposes |

Logic of Confidence Intervals |

Computing a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean |

Computing Confidence Intervals for a Mean Difference |

Reporting Confidence Intervals in APA Style |

Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes |

Interpretations of Confidence Intervals |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activity |

Chapter 8 Practice Test |

Repeated/Related Samples t Test |

Logic of the Single-Sample and Repeated/Related Samples t Tests |

Related Samples t (Two-Tailed) Example |

Related Samples t (One-Tailed) Example |

Statistical Results, Experimental Design, and Scientific Conclusions |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 9 Practice Test |

Independent Samples t |

Conceptual Formula for the Independent Samples t |

Two-Tailed Independent t Test Example |

One-Tailed Independent t Test Example |

Other Alpha Levels |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 10 Practice Test |

Independent Samples ANOVA |

An Example ANOVA Problem |

An Additional Note on ANOVAs: Family-Wise Error and Alpha Inflation |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 11 Practice Test |

Purpose of the Two-Way ANOVA |

Describing Factorial Designs |

Logic of the Two-Way ANOVA |

Example of a Two-Way ANOVA |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 12 Practice Test |

When to Use Correlations and What They Can Tell You |

Review of z Scores |

The Logic of Correlation |

Direction and Strength of Correlation Coefficients |

Computational Formulas |

Spearman’s (rs) Correlations |

Using Scatterplots Prior to Correlation Coefficients |

Alternative Use for Correlation |

Correlation and Causation |

Hypothesis Testing With Correlation |

Two-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Example |

One-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Example |

What If You Need to Do a Spearman’s Correlation? |

Confidence Intervals |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 13 Practice Test |

Overview of Chi-Square |

Logic of the Chi-Square Test |

Comparing the Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square and the Chi-Square for Independence |

Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square Example |

Chi-Square for Independence |

SPSS |

Overview of the Activities |

Chapter 14 Practice Test |

Unit Normal Table (z Table) |

One-Tailed Probabilities t Table |

Two-Tailed Probabilities t Table |

F Table (a = .05) |

F Table (a = .01) |

The Studentized Range Statistic (q) Table |

One-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Table |

Two-Tailed Pearson’s Correlation Table |

Spearman’s Correlation Table |

Fisher r to z Table |

Critical Values for Chi-Square |

Computing SSs for Factorial ANOVA |

Choosing Correct Test Statistics |

### Supplements

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**Test banks**provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding**Sample course syllabi**for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course- Editable, chapter-specific
**PowerPoint**offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course^{®}slides **Lecture notes**summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions

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- Mobile-friendly
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**action plan**includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience **Learning objectives**reinforce the most important material

“The text is the most thorough I have seen as far as going through examples. After this text, students are almost guaranteed to be able to complete these statistical measures on their own.”

—**Elizabeth Axel**, *Adelphi University*

**Adelphi University**

“The text is the most thorough I have seen as far as going through examples. After this text, students are almost guaranteed to be able to complete these statistical measures on their own.”

—**Elizabeth Axel**, *Adelphi University*

**Adelphi University**

“The most impressive feature of the text is the manner in which it invites the student to interact with and digest the material covered in each chapter.”

—**Lyon Rathbun**, *University of Texas, Brownsville*

**University of Texas, Brownsville**

“The most impressive feature of the text is the manner in which it invites the student to interact with and digest the material covered in each chapter.”

—**Lyon Rathbun**, *University of Texas, Brownsville*

**University of Texas, Brownsville**

HEOA Compliance

####
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ISBN: 9781483378749 | Electronic Version | Suggested Retail Price: $74.00 | Bookstore Price: $59.20 |

ISBN: 9781483378732 | Paperback | Suggested Retail Price: $93.00 | Bookstore Price: $74.40 |

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