Child and Adolescent Development
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Child and Adolescent Development

A Behavioral Systems Approach



© 2004 | 632 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
"The book very nicely incorporates behavior analysis and modern developmental theories. . . . Another nice feature is that it is not encyclopedic; it organizes the disparate developmental phenomena in terms of principles and mechanisms. . . . The writing style is easy to follow and suitable for college students. The scholarship and coverage are excellent."

                                                    —Jesus Rosales-Ruiz, University of North Texas  

"The book is a very good read. It is also truly unique in the field of developmental psychology…a field in which far too little attention is typically paid to the obvious fact that children's development involves learning."

                                                    —Michael W. Vasey, The Ohio State University

"Presents behavioral principles in a systematic and fairly sophisticated manner (as contrasted with the simplistic treatment those principles often receive in textbooks of introductory or developmental psychology), while linking up with contemporary conceptions of dynamic systems. . .straightforward and clear, accessible to undergraduates without coming across as simplistic."

                                                             —Philip N. Hineline, Temple University  

"Most useful for the subset of college instructors who are process oriented and focus upon a sophisticated multilevel conceptual approach that considers the environmental impact on behavioral development and the concurrent impact of the developing individual upon the significant figures in its environment. . . . No other undergraduate text presents such a clear interweaving of developmental considerations and concepts with learning concepts."

                                                       —Jacob L. Gewirtz, Florida International  

"This book is unique because of its blending of behavior analysis and its dynamical systems point of view. . . . The authors' writing style is very engaging and accessible to undergraduate level students [and] the level of scholarship is excellent, particularly in its depth when dealing with theoretical issues. . . . A cutting-edge look at a behavior analytic view of child and adolescent development."

                                        —Pete Peterson, Johnson County Community College  

There are two fundamental questions in developmental psychology – what develops and how does it develop? The "what" is largely a question of developmental structure and describes development, while the "how" is primarily a question of function or process and explains development. Developmental psychology has become increasingly focused on the process aspect, but many texts do not provide readers with a clear perspective of how development actually occurs.

Child and Adolescent Development: A Behavioral Systems Approach integrates the views of dynamical systems concepts with a behavioral view of development. This combination of perspectives is unique and from it something new emerges – a "behavioral systems approach" to development. It is an approach that incorporates both personal and environmental influences and the constant reciprocal interactions between nature and nurture.

The book emphasizes learning as the major process for change in development and the integration of environmental influences with genetic and historical factors. Authors Gary Novak and Martha Pelaez provide a coherent understanding of the learning process in childhood and adolescence and present successful interventions to minimize typical problematic behavior during this period.  

Features of this text:
  • Unique. Connects development with learning concepts, a topic neglected in most developmental psychology books.
  • Concise. Provides a coherent framework for exploring selected features of development in greater depth and detail rather than an encyclopedic volume of facts, figures, and theories. Accessible. Written in an engaging style that clearly conveys even sophisticated theoretical material and difficult, advanced topics.
  • Pedagogical. Includes highlight boxes, chapter-opening outlines, chapter summaries, key words, and an end-of-book glossary that enhance student understanding. 
 
Child and Adolescent Development is an exceptional, process oriented textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking child development and developmental psychology courses in Psychology, Human Development & Family Studies, Education, and related fields.
Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Authors
1. Introduction
A Behavioral Systems Approach  
A Dynamical Systems Approach  
What Is Development?  
A Natural Science Approach to Development  
The Continuum of Scientific Disciplines  
Metaphors for Understanding Developmental Levels  
Reductionism and Antireductionism  
Behavioral Systems and Developmental Psychology  
The Central Role of Learning for Development  
The Evolutionary Significance of Learning  
A Parallelism Between Evolution and Learning  
What Do Developmental Psychologists Do?  
Summary  
Note  
2. Modern Developmental Theory
The Importance of Theory  
Four Dimensions on Which Theories Differ  
Judging Developmental Theories: Seven Criteria  
Research Designs in Behavioral Development  
A Behavioral Systems Approach  
Principles of Dynamical Systems  
Organism-Environment Model  
Developmental Questions for Research  
Summary  
Notes  
3. Behavior Genetics
The Human Genome  
Controversy: The Role of Genetics in Development  
Behavior Genetics: The Structures  
Genetic Functions  
Genetic Variability  
Sources of Development: The Combined Roles of Heredity and Environment  
Does Behavioral Development Result From Interactions?  
What Factors Transact In Human Development?  
How Do Genes and Environment Interact?  
A Behavioral View: Person-Environment Interactions  
A Behavioral Systems Approach  
Summary  
Notes  
4. Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods
Periods of Prenatal Development  
Principles of Prenatal Development  
The Earliest Environment  
A Closer Look at Teratogens  
Reproductive Risk Versus Caretaking Casuality  
Getting Ready for the World  
Postnatal Development: The Remarkable Newborn  
The Neonate's Ability to Respond to the Environment  
Sensory Abilities  
Perceptual Abilities as Universal Behaviors  
Reflexes as Universal Behaviors  
How Do Reflexes Change?  
Summary  
Note  
5. Learning I: Habituation and Respondent Learning
Learning as a Natural Selection Process  
Classifying Stimuli  
Functional Stimulus Classes  
Types of Learning  
Habituation  
Contiguity and Learning  
Respondent Learning  
The Treatment of Fears and Phobias: An Application of Respondent Learning  
Operant Learning  
Response Classes and Operants  
How Do Operants and Respondents Differ?  
Summary  
Notes  
6. Operant Learning
The Contributions of B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)  
What Is a Contingency?  
The Three-Term Contingency  
The Four-Term Contingency  
The First Term: The Response  
The Second Term: The Consequence  
The Third Term: The Discriminative Stimulus (Sd)  
The Fourth Term: The Setting Event (SE) or Establishing Operation (EO)  
What Changes? The Development of Acquired Reinforcing Stimuli  
Operant Learning and Dynamical Principles of Development  
Summary  
Notes  
7. Cognitive Development
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development  
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development  
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development  
Behavioral Approaches to Cognitive Development  
Fischer's Skill Learning Approach to Cognitive Development  
Skill Theory and Behavior Analysis  
Stimulus Equivalence and Cognitive Development  
Summary  
Notes  
8. The Development of Communication
Structure Versus Function: Clashing Theories  
A Structural Approach: Psycholinguistics  
A Functional Approach: The Analysis of Verbal Behavior  
Early Stages of Language Development  
Language Development as Skill Learning  
Summary  
9. Personality and the Self
Personality: Biological Theories  
Personality: Behavioral Approaches  
A Behavioral Systems Approach to Personality  
Gender Differences  
The Self  
Summary  
Note  
10. Social and Emotional Development
Why Study Social and Emotional Development?  
Processes in Social Behavior  
Social Behaviors as Reinforcers  
Observational Learning  
Prosocial Transactions: Intuitive Parenting  
The Origins of Social Phenomena  
The Power of Touch  
Fear  
Social Referencing  
Sibling Rivalry and Jealousy  
Social Cognition and Environment  
Prosocial Behaviors in Early Childhood  
The Development of Morality  
Summary  
Note  
11. Development of Antisocial Behaviors
What Are Antisocial Interactions?  
The Origins of Aggression  
A Behavioral Systems Approach  
Coercive Family Process: Basic Training of Antisocial Behavior in the Home  
The Development of Aggression  
Changing the Behavioral Systems: Parent Training  
Three Keys to Effective Parenting  
A Behavioral Systems View of Physical Child Abuse  
Summary  
12. The Family System
Families as the Mediators of Society and Culture  
The Universal Functions of Parenting  
The Social and Cultural Context of Families  
The Family as a System of Systems  
The Functions of Family Members  
Levels of Systems: How Society Influences Child Development  
What Happens When the Role is Absent or Changed?  
The Effects of Divorce  
Patterns of Family Discipline  
Children in the Context of Poverty  
Summary  
Note  
13. Schools
The Schools as Agents of Society and Culture  
The Functions of Education  
Type S and Type F Systems  
Learning and Teaching  
Teaching as Applied Developmental Psychology  
What Makes for Effective Teaching  
What and How to Teach: Final Comments  
Summary  
Notes  
14. Adolescence
What Is Adolescent Behavioral Development?  
Physical Development and Behavior  
Environmental Factors Affecting Puberty  
Moral Behavior and Reasoning  
Personality Development During Adolescence  
Parenting Style  
Family and Social Support Systems  
Behavioral Disorders During Adolescence  
Love and Romantic Relations  
Adolescent Attachment and Separation  
Summary  
15. Behavior Disorders of Childhood
What Are Behavioral Disorders?  
Behavior Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence  
What Causes Behavior Disorders?  
Assessment of Behavior Disorders  
Types of Behavioral Disorders  
Summary  
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

"The book very nicely incorporates behavior analysis and modern developmental theories. . . . Another nice feature is that it is not encyclopedic; it organizes the disparate developmental phenomena in terms of principles and mechanisms. . . . The writing style is easy to follow and suitable for college students. The scholarship and coverage are excellent."

Jesus Rosales-Ruiz
University of North Texas

"The book is a very good read. It is also truly unique in the field of developmental psychology…a field in which far too little attention is typically paid to the obvious fact that children’s development involves learning."

Michael W. Vasey
The Ohio State University

"Presents behavioral principles in a systematic and fairly sophisticated manner (as contrasted with the simplistic treatment those principles often receive in textbooks of introductory or developmental psychology), while linking up with contemporary conceptions of dynamic systems. . .straightforward and clear, accessible to undergraduates without coming across as simplistic."

Temple University
Temple University

"Most useful for the subset of college instructors who are process oriented and focus upon a sophisticated multilevel conceptual approach that considers the environmental impact on behavioral development and the concurrent impact of the developing individual upon the significant figures in its environment. . . . No other undergraduate text presents such a clear interweaving of developmental considerations and concepts with learning concepts."

Jacob L. Gewirtz
Florida International

“This book is unique because of its blending of behavior analysis and its dynamical systems point of view. . . . The authors’ writing style is very engaging and accessible to undergraduate level students [and] the level of scholarship is excellent, particularly in its depth when dealing with theoretical issues. . . . A cutting-edge look at a behavior analytic view of child and adolescent development."

Pete Peterson
Johnson County Community College
Key features
  • The authors' behavioral systems approach to development breaks new ground by integrating dynamical systems concepts with a contextualistic behavioral view of development.  
  • The unified perspective presents students an in-depth, systematic, and coherent approach to development that emphasizes the process (or the "how") of development in contrast to the potpourri of disassociated theories and facts found in more conventional developmental texts that emphasize the facts and figures (or the "what") of developmental research.
  • An accessible, engaging style clearly conveys even sophisticated theoretical material and difficult advanced topics, and other pedagogical features include highlight boxes in each chapter, chapter-opening outlines, chapter summaries, and highlighting of key words that are then defined in an end-of-book glossary.
  • Emphasizes interweaving of development with learning concepts, a topic neglected in most developmental psychology books; this combined emphasis on learning and developmental theory is unique in the field.

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ISBN: 9780761926986
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