About the Authors
1. What Is This Book About?
What Guided Us When We Wrote This Book?
Structure and Organization of the Book
The English Learner Population
Program Models Serving English Learners
What Can We Learn From the History and Research on Collaborative Practices?
Teacher Collaboration in Today’s Schools 17
2. Why Is Collaboration Needed?
Understanding English Learners
Challenges School Administrators Face
Why Collaboration Is the Answer to the Challenges Teachers and Administrators Face
Why Co-Teaching Is a Possible Answer to Challenges Teachers and Administrators Face
Administrators’ Role: Creating a School Community to Support Effective Instruction for ELs
3. Who Does Teacher Collaboration and Co-Teaching for ELs Concern?
Administrators’ Role: Developing and Sustaining a Collaborative School Culture
4. What Are the Essential Components of an Integrated, Collaborative Service Delivery for ELs?
Informal Collaborative Practices
Formal Collaborative Practices
Administrators’ Role: Creating Collaborative Opportunities and Supporting Collaborative Efforts
What Administrators Need to Consider
5. How Do Teachers Plan, Instruct, Assess, and Reflect Collaboratively?
Making a Case for Collaborative Efforts
Launching the Collaboration Team: Top Down or Bottom Up?
Collaborative Teams in Action
A Framework for Effective Collaborative Instruction
Technology and Collaboration
Co-Teaching for Powerful Instruction
Collaborative Student Assessment
Administrators’ Role: Effective Management of Resources
6. When Do Teachers Collaborate and Co-Teach?
Time and Structure for Teamwork
Setting a Purpose for Collaboration
Two Observations of Ongoing Collaboration
A Remedy for Time Limitations: Conversation Protocols
When Do Collaborative Teams Meet?
Expectations for Teacher Collaboration
Time frames for Co-teaching
Administrators’ Role: Scheduling and Supporting Collaborative and Co-Teaching Practices
7. Where Do Teachers Collaborate and Co-Teach?
Reexamining the Importance of Positive School Culture
Spaces and Places for Teacher Collaboration
Collaboration Inside the Classroom
Classroom Design for Co-Taught Lessons
The Impact of Classroom Design
Administrators’ Role: School Organization and Logistics
8. What Next? Reviewing and Evaluating Integrated, Collaborative Service Delivery for ELs
Ongoing (Formative) Collaborative Program Assessment
Administrators’ Role: Leading Effective Assessment Practices
9. Portraits of Collaboration
Elementary School Case Study #1
Elementary School Case Study #2
Middle School Case Study #1
Middle School Case Study #2
High School Case Study #1
High School Case Study #2