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Counseling and Educational Research
Evaluation and Application

Fourth Edition


March 2019 | 424 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Counseling and Educational Research: Evaluation and Application teaches Counseling and Education students how to be good consumers of research while demonstrating how practitioners conduct research in practice. In this fourth edition, author Rick Houser uses concrete examples from the professional literature to demonstrate how to effectively evaluate and interpret research articles. With coverage of evidence-based research, qualitative methods, program evaluation, mixed methods, and ACA ethical guidelines, this engagingly-written text is an invaluable resource to prepare students for engaging with research and integrating it into their work. 

 
Section 1: Introduction to the Research Process
 
Chapter 1. Science and the Research Process
Definitions of Science and Research  
Practitioner-Scientist  
Assumptions About Science and Research  
Obtaining Information From Articles in Journals and Electronic Databases  
Database Searches  
Electronic Journals  
How to Evaluate Internet Information  
Plagiarism  
Steps in the Scientific Process  
Purpose and Overview of the Text  
 
Chapter 2. Ethics and Research
Ethical Principles and Guidelines  
Ethical Research Violations  
Guidelines for Evaluating the Research Literature for Ethical Concerns  
Evaluation of Research Examples Presented in the Professional Literature  
Tuskegee Syphilis Study  
Milgram Study  
 
Chapter 3. Quantitative Research Designs
Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative Research  
Types of Variables  
Research Designs  
True Experimental Designs  
Quasi-Experimental Designs  
Pre-Experimental Designs  
Descriptive Designs  
 
Chapter 4. Qualitative Research Methods
Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research  
Units of Data Collection  
Traditions or Paradigms in Conducting Qualitative Research  
Case Study Approach  
 
Chapter 5. Mixed Methods Research
History of Mixed Methods Research  
Strength and Weaknesses of Mixed Methods Research  
Triangulation  
Mixed Research Models  
Sampling in Mixed Methods  
Research Study Examples of Mixed Methods  
 
Chapter 6. Single-Case/Single-Subject Research
Guidelines and Procedures in Single-Subject Design  
Research Designs in Single-Case/Subject Research  
Data Interpretation in Single-Case/Subject Research  
Evaluation Criteria for Single-Subject Research  
 
Chapter 7. Basics of Statistical Methods
Measurement Scales  
Common Statistical Definitions  
Descriptive Statistics  
Inferential Statistics  
Nonparametric Statistics  
 
Chapter 8. Basics of Qualitative Research Data Analysis
Generating Data: Units of Data Collection  
Generating data: Interviews, Natural Observation, Focus Groups, Review of Archival Data Such as Diaries, Visual, Virtual, Acoustic and Internet)  
Organizing Data  
Management of Data: Coding and Reducing  
Interpreting and Reporting  
 
Section II: Evaluating Articles in the Professional Literature
 
Chapter 9. Evaluating the Literature Review
Guidelines and Questions for Evaluating Research  
Evaluation of Examples From the Research Literature  
 
Chapter 10. Evaluating the Purpose Statement and Hypotheses
Guidelines and Questions for Evaluating the Purpose Statement  
Evaluation of Examples From the Research Literature  
Section Summary  
Quantitative Research Hypotheses  
Indirect Proof: An Orientation to the Scientific Approach  
Types of Hypotheses  
Guidelines and Questions for Evaluating Hypotheses: Quantitative Methods  
Evaluation of Examples From the Research Literature  
Evaluating a Hypothesis in Qualitative Research Methods  
 
Chapter 11. Evaluating the Methods Section—Sampling Methods
Sampling Methods Used in Quantitative Research  
Sample Size  
Guidelines and Questions for Evaluating the Methods Section Sample  
Evaluating Examples From the Research Literature  
 
Chapter 12. Evaluating the Methods Section—Instruments
Standardization of Instruments  
Culture, Gender, and Diversity Bias  
Reliability of Instruments  
Validity of Instruments  
Approaches to Measuring the Dependent Variable  
Guidelines and Questions for Evaluating the Instruments—Quantitative Research  
Evaluating Examples From the Research Literature  
Guidelines and Questions for Evaluating the Instruments—Qualitative Research  
Evaluating Single-Subject Research  
 
Chapter 13. Evaluating the Methods Section—Procedures
Description of Study Variables  
Random Assignment  
Internal and External Validity  
Threats to Internal Validity  
Threats to Validity with Single-Subject Studies  
Threats to External Validity  
Evaluation of Procedures Examples From the Literature  
 
Chapter 14. Evaluating the Results Section
Part I: Quantitative Research Results  
Descriptive Statistics  
Inferential Statistics  
Guidelines for Evaluating the Results Section—Quantitative Research  
Evaluating Examples From the Research Literature—Quantitative Research  
Part II: Evaluating the Results Section—Qualitative Research  
Guidelines for Evaluating the Results Section—Qualitative Research  
Evaluating an Example From the Results Section—Qualitative Research  
 
Chapter 15. Evaluating the Discussion Section
Guidelines for Evaluating the Discussion Section  
Evaluating Examples From the Research Literature  
 
Section III: Application of Research and Evaluation
 
Chapter 16. Evidence-Based Research and Application
Counseling-Meta Analyses  
Interventions in Schools  
Integrative Reviews  
 
Chapter 17. Conducting Research: Cultural Issues
Cultural Neuroscience Research  
Examples of Cultural and Neuroscience Research  
 
Chapter 18. Developing a Research Proposal and Conducting Research in Practice
Practitioner-Researchers  
Developing a Research Proposal  
Practical Considerations in Conducting Research  
 
Chapter 19. Development and Application of Program Evaluation Research
Definitions of Program Evaluation Research  
Professional Standards for Program Evaluation  
Types of Evaluation  
Evaluation Models  
Steps in an Evaluation  
Examples of Program Evaluation  
 
Chapter 20. Advances in the Technology and Research
Technologies  
 
Chapter 21. Current and Future Issues in Counseling and Educational Research
The Practitioner-Scientist Model  
The Relevance of Research to Practice  
Value Issues in Counseling  
Social Justice Issues  

 

Preface:
Provided an update on the changes in the 4th edition and noted the importance of how national accreditations-CACREP and CAEP, applies to the research process.

 

 

Chapter 1:

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Integrated chapters one and two from the previous edition, edition 3. Added new references.

 

 

Chapter 2: “

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  Moved Chapter 2, ethics and research, from a later section of edition 3. Added new references to this chapter. Added section and discussion of how national accreditation, CACREP and CAEP, to ethics and research.

 

 

Chapter 3:

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Only minor changes to this chapter, Quantitative methods. Added a few new examples and added discussion of national accreditation, CACREP and CAEP. Also, added new exercise.

 

 

 

Chapter 4:

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Only minor changes made. Added discussion of how national accreditation applies to qualitative research method. A few new examples were added and new exercise.

  

 

 

Chapter 5:

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This chapter, chapter 5, is a focus on mixed methods research. Only minor changes, added references and examples and discussed how mixed methods relate to national accreditation.

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Chapter 6:

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Chapter six focused on single-subject research methods. Several new examples of how to understand single-subject research methods were added. Also, discussed how national accreditation related to single-subject research.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7:

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Chapter 7 is a focus on quantitative statistical methods. In edition 3, the chapter was presented just after the quantitative methods chapter. The move to later in the text concerned covering other major research methods such as single-subject prior to introducing quantitative statistical methods. Discussed how national accreditation related to statistics.

    

 

 

Chapter 8:

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Chapter 8 focused on qualitative analyses. This chapter was presented earlier in edition 3. There was discussion of how qualitative analyses related to national accreditation.

 

 

 

Chapter 9:

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Chapter nine focuses on evaluating the literature review in a professional research article. New examples of how to evaluate the literature review were added. Also, there was discussion of how national accreditation, CACREP and CAEP, related to evaluating the literature in a professional journal. Finally, a new exercise was added.

 

Chapter 10:

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Chapter ten is a discussion of how to evaluate purpose statement(s) and hypothesis(es). New examples of articles to illustrate how to evaluate an article in a professional journal were provided. Also, there was discussion of how national accreditation can be applied to evaluating the purpose(es) and hypothesis(es). New examples of exercises were added.

 

 

 

Chapter 11:

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Chapter 11 involves discussion of evaluating the sample in a professional journal article. There were minor changes made with this chapter. New examples were added and there was a discussion of the link between national accreditation (CACREP and CAEP) to evaluating the sample in a professional journal. Also there a new exercise was added to this chapter

 

 

 

Chapter 12:

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Chapter 12 is a focus on evaluating the instruments in a journal article. Only minor changes were made to this chapter. New examples were added to this chapter and there was a discussion of how national accreditation was related to understanding evaluating the instruments in a journal article. Finally a new example was added.

 

 

 

Chapter 13:

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A discussion of evaluating the procedures was made in chapter 13, only minor changes were made. New examples were provided in the chapter and how they could be evaluated based on the procedures. Links are discussed between national accreditation and evaluating the procedures. A new exercise was added.

    

 

 

 

Chapter 14:

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Chapter 14 involved discussion of evaluation of the results section of a journal article. There were minor changes in this chapter from edition 3. New examples of journal articles results sections were added and there was discussion of how national accreditation was related to evaluating the results section. Finally new exercises were added to this chapter

 

 

Chapter 15:

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. Chapter 15 is a discussion of evaluating the discussion section. New examples were provided and there was discussion of how national accreditation was related to evaluating the discussion section. Also, a new exercise was added.

 

 

 

Chapter 16:

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Summary of Changes:

 

The first chapter in this section is evidence-based research and application. This is new chapter that expanded on the evidence-based chapter in the 3rd edition and provides information about how evidence-based information is generated and how to evaluate it, e.g. meta-analysis. There is discussion of a number of meta-analysis studies. The importance of evidence-based practice is linked to national accreditation.

    

 

Chapter 17:

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Chapter 17 is a new chapter focused on cultural research issues. There is discussion of the importance of cultural research methods and strengths and limitations. Examples of research conducted from a cultural research approach are presented. Chapter content is discussed with respect to national accreditation.

    

 

Chapter 18:

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Chapter 18 addresses developing a research proposal and practitioner generated research. There is discussion of how practitioners can generate and participate in research. Again, there is discussion on how national accreditation is linked to practitioner generated research and developing research proposals.

 

 

Chapter 19:

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Chapter 19 is focused on program evaluation. New examples of program evaluation studies are presented. Also, the relevance of program evaluation to national accreditation is discussed.

 

 

Chapter 20:

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The use of technology in research is discussed in chapter 20. Technology and research information is updated. Finally, there is discussion of how technology and research applies to national accreditation, CACREP and CAEP

    

 

 

Chapter 21:

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Summary of Changes:

The last chapter, chapter 21, focuses on current and future research issues. There is discussion of updates to current and future issues. Lastly there is discussion of how current and future issues are linked to national accreditation, CACREP and CAEP

 

    


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