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Critical Issues in Crime and Justice
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Critical Issues in Crime and Justice
Thought, Policy, and Practice

Third Edition
Edited by:
  • Dan Okada - California State University, Sacramento, USA
  • Mary Maguire - California State University Sacramento
  • Alexa Sardina - California State University, Sacramento, USA


September 2018 | 488 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Critical Issues in Crime and Justice: Thought, Policy, and Practice provides an incisive overview of issues and perspectives in criminal justice and criminology designed to expand upon key areas of study. 

With contributed essays from leading scholars in the field, the Third Edition illustrates the breadth of research, policy, and practice implications in areas such as crime theory, law enforcement, jurisprudence, corrections, and criminal justice organization and management. New to this edition are chapters on wrongful convictions, human trafficking, and mental illness and criminal justice, three critical issues facing contemporary policing, courts, and corrections.  

The coverage of concepts, insights, voices, and perspectives will challenge criminal justice and criminology students to synthesize what they have learned, question standard interpretations, and begin to create new directions and visions for their future careers as professionals in the field.

 
Preface for the Third Edition
 
Acknowledgments
Dan Okada
1. Introduction : Is It Possible to Prepare for a Criminal Justice Future?
 
PART I. ORIENTATION
Cyndi Banks
2. The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice
Police Ethics

 
Discrimination

 
Legal Ethics

 
Punishment

 
Correctional Ethics

 
Ethical Criminal Justice Policy Making

 
Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Peter B. Kraska
3. Unleashing the Power of Criminal Justice Theory
The Power of Criminal Justice Theory for Our Discipline

 
Criminal Justice: A Worthy Object of Theorizing

 
Developing a Useful Theoretical Infrastructure

 
The Power of Theory to Transform Consciousness

 
The Power of Theory to Affect Public Explanations

 
Conclusion: Embracing Criminal Justice Theory

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
 
PART II. OFFENSES AND OFFENDERS
Leah E. Daigle
4. Victimology
The Typical Victimization and Victim

 
The Costs of Victimization

 
System Costs

 
Mental Health Consequences and Costs

 
Fear of Crime

 
Recurring Victimization

 
Theories of Victimization

 
Routine Activities and Lifestyles Theories

 
Structural Causes of Victimization

 
Caring for the Victim

 
Victim Remedies and Services

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
David L. Parry
5. Juvenile Delinquency
What Is Delinquency?

 
How Much Delinquency?

 
Arrest Data

 
Self-Report Surveys

 
Adolescent Development, Risk Factors, and Pathways to Delinquency

 
Normal Adolescent Behavior?

 
Risk and Protective Factors

 
Pathways to Delinquency

 
Different for Girls?

 
Discussion

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
Meda Chesney-Lind
6. Gender Matters: Trends in Girls’ Criminality
Crime Wave?

 
Delinquency: Gender Matters

 
Girls’ Crime, Girls’ Offenses

 
Girls’ Violence: When She Was Bad

 
Running Away: Girls Coping With Trauma and Abuse

 
Wild in the Streets: Girls, Drugs, and Alcohol

 
Shoplifting: You Shoplift as You Shop

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Helen Taylor-Greene
7. Race and Crime
Definitional Complexities

 
Theoretical Perspectives on Race and Crime

 
Contemporary Issues in the Study of Race and Crime

 
Future Issues in the Study of Race and Crime

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
References

 
Richelle S. Swan
8. Popular Culture, Media, and Crime
Popular Theoretical Approaches to the Study of Popular Culture, Media, and Crime

 
Popular Methodological Approaches Used in the Study of Popular Culture, Media, and Crime

 
Important Research Themes in Studies of Popular Culture, Media, and Crime

 
Framing Gone Extreme: Moral Panics About Crime, Delinquency, and Popular Culture

 
Effects of Popular Culture and Media Consumption on Crime

 
Being Framed: The Skewed Representation of Social Groups in Crime Media and Entertainment

 
Mediating Oneself: Using Media and Popular Cultural Forms to Communicate Messages About Crime and Justice

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Stephen L. Muzzatti and Maggie Reid
9. Crime and Economics: Consumer Culture, Criminology, and the Politics of Exclusion
A Specter Is Haunting Criminology . . .

 
Reading the Profane: Theorizing Crime and Capitalism

 
Banality and Viciousness in Late Modernity

 
Consuming Crime and Culture

 
Late Modernity, Crime, and Pseudopacification

 
Selling Crime, Marketing Transgression, and Commodifying Violence

 
Conclusion: Nothing to Lose But Our Chains

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
James C. Howell and Megan Qually Howell
10. Serious Gang Problems in the United States: What to Do?
Gang Definitions

 
Key Indicators of Serious Gang Activity

 
Contexts of Serious Gang Violence

 
Other Factors Associated With Gang Violence

 
Juvenile and Criminal Justice System Involvement of Gang Members

 
What Works in Combating Gang Violence

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
Alexa Sardina
11. Sex Offender Policies: Good Intentions and Unintended Consequences
Sex Offender Registration and Community Notification Laws

 
Does the Registry Prevent Sex Offenses?

 
Unintended Consequences of Registration, Notification, and Residence Restrictions Laws

 
The Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
References

 
Casey Branchini
12. Issues in the Fight Against Human Exploitation: A Look at Labor and Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking Defined

 
Magnitude of the Problem

 
Prosecution of Trafficking Crimes

 
Obstacles to the Prosecution of Trafficking Crimes

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
Additional Resources

 
References

 
C. Augustus Martin
13. Terrorism
The Challenge of Defining Terrorism

 
What Is “New” About the New Terrorism?

 
Terrorism in the United States: The International Sources

 
Terrorism in the United States: The Domestic Sources

 
Responding to Terrorism: Homeland Security and Antiterrorism Laws

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
Johnny Nhan
14. Critical Issues in Cybercrime
Critical Issue: Hacking and Computer Network Security

 
Critical Issue: Darknets and the Deep Web

 
Critical Issue: The Internet Culture and Ethos

 
Research: Understanding Hackers’ Motivations

 
Critical Issue: Policing Cyberspace

 
Critical Issue: Digital Piracy

 
Critical Issue: Cyberbullying

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
 
PART III. POLICING/LAW ENFORCEMENT
Dawn M. Irlbeck, Connie M. Koski, and John P. Crank
15. Police Theory: Major Perspectives
Normative-Rational Theory

 
Institutional Theory

 
Conflict Theory

 
Postmodernism

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Gennaro F. Vito
16. A Vision of Contemporary Policing: Present Practices and Future Developments
Paradigms in Policing

 
The British Paradigm: Balancing Democratic Principles and the Military Model

 
Early American Police Paradigms

 
The Political Era Paradigm

 
The Reform Era Paradigm

 
Minorities and the Police

 
The Community and Problem-Oriented Policing Paradigms

 
The CompStat Paradigm

 
The Intelligence-Led Policing Paradigm

 
The Smart Policing Initiative

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Thomas Nolan
17. Police Organization and Administration
Origins of the Structural Model of Police Organizations

 
The Police and Militarization

 
Police Organization: Subculture, Ethos, and Milieu

 
Organization and Subculture: Initiation and Masculinism

 
Organizational Subculture and Moral Superiority

 
Police Organization: Autonomy and Authoritarianism

 
Federal Oversight of the Police

 
Police Administration and the Civil Service

 
Police Administration and Unions

 
The Police

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Readings

 
Notes

 
References

 
 
PART IV. COURTS/LAW/JURISPRUDENCE
Janice Ahmad
18. Public Policy
Public Policy: The Formal Version

 
Sources of Criminal Justice Policy

 
Public Policy as It Is in Practice

 
The Use and Misuse of Public Policy

 
The Policy Implications of Public Policy

 
The Politicization of Public Policy

 
The Contributions of Academic Criminal Justice

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
Note From the Author

 
References

 
Cassia Spohn
19. American Courts
Supreme Court Decisions and American Courts

 
The Sentencing Reform Movement

 
Specialized or Problem-Solving Courts: A Focus on Drug Courts

 
Conclusion: Policy Implications

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
Randall G. Shelden
20. The Juvenile Justice System
Detention Centers

 
Special Issues Facing the Juvenile Justice System

 
Race, the War on Drugs, and Referrals to Juvenile Court

 
The Racial Composition of Juvenile Institutions

 
The Future of the Juvenile Court

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
Jennie K. Singer and Chelsea M. Johnson
21. Why Are There So Many Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System?
Prevalence of Mentally Ill Offenders

 
Are Jails and Prisons the New Mental Hospitals, or Are We Criminalizing Mental Illness?

 
The SMI Stay Longer in Jails and Prisons

 
The SMI in the Community: More Difficulty on Probation or on Parole?

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
Note

 
References

 
Kim Schnurbush
22. Wrongful Convictions in the United States
Scope of Wrongful Convictions

 
History of Wrongful Convictions in the United States

 
Wrongful Conviction/Exoneration Case Examples

 
Wrongful Conviction Organizations/Movements

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
 
PART V. CORRECTIONS
Anthony Walsh and Ilhong Yun
23. The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
What Is Corrections?

 
The Theoretical Underpinnings of Corrections

 
A Short History of Correctional Punishment

 
The Emergence of the Classical School

 
The Emergence of Positivism

 
The Function of Punishment

 
The Objectives of Corrections

 
The Past, Present, and Future of Corrections

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Ming-Li Hsieh
24. Community Corrections: Rehabilitation, Reintegration, and Reentry
The Common Forms of Community Corrections

 
Probation: Progressive Reform and the Promise of Rehabilitation

 
Parole as Reward or Relief

 
Concerns Regarding Stakes: Risk Assessment and Prediction

 
Worse Than Prison?

 
Reintegration and Reentry

 
Factors Associated With Community Supervision Success and Failure

 
Ongoing Debates and Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Discussion Questions

 
References

 
Lois Presser and Kyle Letteney
25. Restorative Justice in Theory
What Is Restorative Justice?

 
How Is Restorative Justice Supposed to Work?

 
Conclusions

 
Discussion Questions

 
Notes

 
References

 
Alan Mobley
26. Garbage In, Garbage Out? Convict Criminology, the Convict Code, and Participatory Prison Reform
Mass Incarceration in America

 
Convict Criminology

 
The Convict Code

 
Factors Undermining the Convict Code/Formal Structure

 
A New Code

 
Discussion Questions

 
Note From the Author

 
References

 
 
Index
 
About the Editors
 
About the Contributors

Critical Issues in Crime and Justice makes the clear connection between theory, policy, and practice that is often lacking in other text books. This book is a solid work to prepare students for employment in the criminal justice system, regardless of their individual career goals.”

Tamara J. Lynn
Fort Hays State University

“The text covers a range of areas related to policing, the courts, and corrections.” 

April Terry
Fort Hays State University

“If you would like a book that covers all major areas of the criminal justice system, this is it. Easy to read, easy to digest, solid research, data, and literature without watering down the theories, concepts, and ideologies. It is the most comprehensive, easily readable, and solid text (research and literature-wise) on the market!”

Brian A. Kinnaird
Bethany College

Great book for an upper level course

Dr Katie Swope
Counseling & Psychology, Carlow University
September 26, 2018
Key features

KEY FEATURES: 

  • Some of the most respected, original, and creative names in the field share their expertise in contributed chapters, bringing the history, practice, hot-button issues, and current directions in contemporary criminal justice to life.
  • Comprehensive coverage of all major topic areas make the text useful for critical issues or capstone courses.
  • Contemporary topics and interesting approaches serve as a catalyst for class discussion and student research activities.

NEW TO THIS EDITION: 

  • New authors offer different perspectives on sex offender policies, terrorism, and community corrections and provide exposure to contemporary issues impacting the criminal justice system today.
  • A new chapter on mental illness and criminal justice explores the reasoning behind the growing number of mentally ill offenders in the United States and how our society can work to successfully combat this critical issue. 
  • A new chapter on human trafficking sheds light on the challenges of investigating and prosecuting human trafficking, particularly labor trafficking.
  • A new chapter on wrongful convictions discusses the reality, aftermath, and consequences of these misappropriations of justice.
  • Updated data and statistics in every chapter highlight current trends and research in criminal justice and criminology.
     

For instructors

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