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Critical Issues in Crime and Justice

Critical Issues in Crime and Justice
Thought, Policy, and Practice

Third Edition
Edited by:
  • Dan Okada - California State University, Sacramento, USA
  • Mary Maguire - California State University Sacramento
  • Alexa Sardina - California State University, Sacramento, USA

September 2018 | 472 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Critical Issues in Crime and Justice: Thought, Policy, and Practice provides an incisive overview of issues and perspectives in criminal justice and criminology designed to expand upon key areas of study. 

With contributed essays from leading scholars in the field, the Third Edition illustrates the breadth of research, policy, and practice implications in areas such as crime theory, law enforcement, jurisprudence, corrections, and criminal justice organization and management. New to this edition are chapters on wrongful convictions, human trafficking, and mental illness and criminal justice, three critical issues facing contemporary policing, courts, and corrections.  

The coverage of concepts, insights, voices, and perspectives will challenge criminal justice and criminology students to synthesize what they have learned, question standard interpretations, and begin to create new directions and visions for their future careers as professionals in the field.
Dan Okada
Chapter 1: Introduction
Cyndi Banks
Chapter 2: The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice
Police Ethics  
Legal Ethics  
Correctional Ethics  
Ethical Criminal Justice Policy-Making  
Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas  
Peter Kraska
Chapter 3: Unleashing the Power of Criminal Justice Theory
The Power of Criminal Justice Theory for Our Discipline  
Criminal Justice: A Worthy Object of Theorizing  
Developing a Useful Theoretical Infrastructure  
The Power of Theory to Transform Consciousness  
The Power of Theory to Affect Public Explanations  
Leah Daigle
Chapter 4: Victimology
The Typical Victimization and Victim  
The Costs of Victimization  
System Costs  
Mental Health Consequences and Costs  
Fear of Crime  
Recurring Victimization  
Theories of Victimization  
Routine Activities and Lifestyles Theories  
Structural Causes of Victimization  
Caring for the Victim  
Victim Remedies and Services  
David Parry
Chapter 5: Juvenile Delinquency
What is Delinquency?  
How Much Delinquency?  
Arrest Data  
Self-Report Surveys  
Adolescent Development, Risk Factors, and Pathways to Delinquency  
Normal Adolescent Behavior?  
Risk and Protective Factors  
Pathways to Delinquency  
Different for Girls?  
Meda Chesney-Lind
Chapter 6: Gender Matters: Trends in Girl Delinquency
Crime Wave?  
Delinquency: Gender Matters  
Girls' Crime, Girls' Offenses  
Girls' Violence: When She Was Bad  
Running Away: Girls Coping With Trauma and Abuse  
Wild in the Streets: Girls, Drugs, and Alcohol  
Shoplifting: You Shoplift as You Shop  
Helen Taylor-Greene
Chapter 7: Race and Crime
Definitional Complexities  
Theoretical Perspectives on Race and Crime  
Contemporary Issues in the Study of Race and Crime  
Future Issues in the Study of Race and Crime  
Richelle Swan
Chapter 8: Popular Culture, Media, and Crime
Popular Theoretical Approaches to the Study of Popular Culture, Media and Crime  
Popular Methodological Approaches Used in the Study of Popular Culture, Media & Crime  
Important Research Themes in Studies of Popular Culture, Media, and Crime  
Framing Gone Extreme: Moral Panics about Crime, Delinquency, and Popular Culture  
Effects of Popular Culture and Media Consumption on Crime  
Being Framed: The Skewed Representation of Social Groups in Crime Media and Entertainment  
Mediating Oneself: Using Media and Popular Cultural Forms to Communicate Messages about Crime and Justice  
Stephen Muzzatti, Maggie Reid
Chapter 9: Crime and Economics: Consumer Culture, Criminology, and the Politics of Exclusion
Reading the Profane: Theorizing Crime and Capitalism  
Banality and Viciousness in Late Modernity  
Consuming Crime and Culture  
Late Modernity, Crime and Pseudo Pacification  
Selling Crime, Marketing Transgression and Commodifying Violence  
James Howell, Megan Howell
Chapter 10: Serious Gang Problems in the United States: What to Do?
Gang Definitions  
Key Indicators of Serious Gang Activity  
Contexts of Serious Gang Violence  
Other Factors Associated with Gang Violence  
Juvenile and Criminal Justice System Involvement of Gang Members  
What Works in Combatting Gang Violence  
Alexa Sardina
Chapter 11: Sex Offender Policies: Good Intentions and Unintended Consequences
Sex Offender Registration and Community Notification Laws  
Does the Registry Prevent Sex Offenses?  
Unintended Consequences of Registration, Notification, and Residence Restrictions Laws  
The Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators  
Casey Branchini Risko
Chapter 12: Human Trafficking
Human Trafficking Defined  
Magnitude of the Problem  
Prosecution of Trafficking Crimes  
Obstacles to the Prosecution of Trafficking Crimes  
Gus Martin
Chapter 13: Terrorism
The Challenge of Defining Terrorism  
What is “New” About the New Terrorism?  
Terrorism in the United States: The International Sources  
Terrorism in the United States: The Domestic Sources  
Responding to Terrorism: Homeland Security and Anti-Terrorism Laws  
Johnny Nhan
Chapter 14: Critical Issues in Cybercrime
Critical Issue: Hacking and Computer Network Security  
Critical Issue: Darknets and the Deep Web  
Critical Issue: The Internet Culture and Ethos  
Research: Understanding Hackers’ Motivations  
Critical Issue: Policing Cyberspace  
Critical Issue: Digital Piracy  
Critical Issue: Cyberbullying  
John Crank, Dawn Irlbeck, Connie Koski
Chapter 15: Police Theory
Normative-Rational Theory  
Institutional theory  
Conflict Theory  
Gennaro Vito
Chapter 16: Contemporary Police and Society
The British Paradigm: Balancing Democratic Principles and the Military Model  
Early American Police Paradigms  
The Community and Problem Oriented Policing Paradigms  
The Compstat Paradigm  
The Intelligence Led Policing Paradigm  
The Smart Policing Initiative  
Thomas Nolan
Chapter 17: Police Organization and Administration
Origins of the Structural Model of Police Organizations  
The Police and Militarization  
Police Organization: Subculture, Ethos, and Milieu  
Organization and Subculture: Initiation and Masculinism  
Organizational Subculture and Moral Superiority  
Police Organization: Autonomy and Authoritarianism  
Federal Oversight of the Police  
Police Administration and the Civil Service  
Police Administration and Unions  
The Police  
Janice Ahmad
Chapter 18: Public Policy
Public Policy: The Formal Version  
Public Policy as It Is in Practice  
The Policy Implications of Public Policy  
Cassia Spohn
Chapter 19: American Courts
Supreme Court Decisions and American Courts  
The Sentencing Reform Movement  
Specialized or Problem-Solving Courts: A Focus on Drug Courts  
Randall Shelden
Chapter 20: The Juvenile Justice System
Detention Centers  
Special Issues Facing the Juvenile Justice System  
A Notorious Example: The California Youth Authority  
The Future of the Juvenile Court  
Jennie Singer, Chelsea Johnson
Chapter 21: Why Are There so Many Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System?
Prevalence of Mentally Ill Offenders  
Are Jails and Prisons the New Mental Hospitals or Are We Criminalizing Mental Illness?  
The SMI Stay Longer in Jails and Prisons  
The SMI in the Community: More Difficulty on Probation or on Parole  
Kim Schnurbush
Chapter 22: Wrongful Convictions in the United States
Scope of Wrongful Convictions  
History of Wrongful Convictions in The United States  
Wrongful Conviction/Exoneration Case Examples  
Wrongful Conviction Organizations/Movements  
Anthony Walsh, Ilhong Yun
Chapter 23: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
What is Corrections?  
The Theoretical Underpinnings of Corrections  
A Short History of Correctional Punishment  
The Emergence of the Classical School  
The Emergence of Positivism  
The Function of Punishment  
The Objectives of Corrections  
The Past, Present, and Future of Corrections  
Ming-Li Hsieh
Chapter 24: Community Corrections, Rehabilitation, Reintegration, and Reentry
The Common Forms of Community Corrections  
Probation: Progressive Reform and the Promise of Rehabilitation  
Parole as Reward or Relief  
Concerns Regarding Stakes: Risk Assessment and Prediction  
Worse Than Prison?  
Reintegration and Reentry  
Factors Associated with Community Supervision Success and Failure  
Ongoing Debates and Policy Implications  
Lois Presser, Kyle Letteney
Chapter 25: Restorative Justice in Theory
What is Restorative Justice?  
How is Restorative Justice Supposed to Work?  
Alan Mobley
Chapter 26: Garbage in, Garbage Out? Convict Criminology, the Convict Code, and Participatory Prison Reform
Mass Incarceration in America  
Convict Criminology  
The Convict Code  
Factors Undermining the Convict Code/Formal Structure  
A New Code  

Critical Issues in Crime and Justice makes the clear connection between theory, policy, and practice that is often lacking in other text books. This book is a solid work to prepare students for employment in the criminal justice system, regardless of their individual career goals.”

Tamara J. Lynn
Fort Hays State University

“The text covers a range of areas related to policing, the courts, and corrections.” 

April Terry
Fort Hays State University

“If you would like a book that covers all major areas of the criminal justice system, this is it. Easy to read, easy to digest, solid research, data, and literature without watering down the theories, concepts, and ideologies. It is the most comprehensive, easily readable, and solid text (research and literature-wise) on the market!”

Brian A. Kinnaird
Bethany College
Key features


  • Some of the most respected, original, and creative names in the field share their expertise in contributed chapters, bringing the history, practice, hot-button issues, and current directions in contemporary criminal justice to life.
  • Comprehensive coverage of all major topic areas make the text useful for critical issues or capstone courses.
  • Contemporary topics and interesting approaches serve as a catalyst for class discussion and student research activities.


  • New authors offer different perspectives on sex offender policies, terrorism, and community corrections and provide exposure to contemporary issues impacting the criminal justice system today.
  • A new chapter on mental illness and criminal justice explores the reasoning behind the growing number of mentally ill offenders in the United States and how our society can work to successfully combat this critical issue. 
  • A new chapter on human trafficking sheds light on the challenges of investigating and prosecuting human trafficking, particularly labor trafficking.
  • A new chapter on wrongful convictions discusses the reality, aftermath, and consequences of these misappropriations of justice.
  • Updated data and statistics in every chapter highlight current trends and research in criminal justice and criminology.

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ISBN: 9781544307992