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Designing and Managing Programs

Designing and Managing Programs
An Effectiveness-Based Approach

Fifth Edition
Additional resources:

January 2016 | 288 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The Fifth Edition of the classic Designing and Managing Programs for human services helps readers grasp the meaning and significance of measuring performance and evaluating outcomes. The authors, all leaders in the field, incorporate the principles of effectiveness-based planning as they address the steps of designing, implementing, and evaluating a human services program at the local agency level. Meaningful examples at every stage of the process—from problem analysis and needs assessment to evaluating effectiveness and calculating costs—enhance reader understanding of how concepts are implemented in the real world.

Part I: Assessing Current Practices
Chapter 1: Contemporary Issues in Human Service Program Planning and Administration
The Era of Accountability  
The Logic Model  
Community Focus  
The Issue of Effectiveness  
Assessing an Existing Program  
What Is Effectiveness-Based Program Planning?  
Using Effectiveness Principles to Understand Existing Programs  
Implementation Considerations  
Part II: Problem Analysis/Needs Assessment
Chapter 2: The Contribution of Theory to Program Planning
The Use of Theory in Program Planning  
Theory in Practice  
Planning Theory  
Types of Planning  
Theory in Program Planning  
Chapter 3: Understanding Social Problems
Addressing Social Problems  
Stating Problems as Solutions  
The Need for a New Approach  
Identifying a Social Condition  
Defining Problems  
Frameworks for Production Analysis  
Chapter 4: Needs Assessment: Theoretical Considerations
The Concept of Need  
Theoretical understandings of Need  
Needs Assessment and the Planning Process  
Factors Influencing the Definition of Need  
Different Perspectives on Need  
Factors Influencing the Definition of Need  
Different Perspectives on Need  
Need Categories and the Planning Process  
Determining Who Is in Need  
Two Major Problems: Reliability and Availability of Data  
Chapter 5: Needs Assessment: Approaches to Measurement
Methodologies Used in Measuring Need  
Extrapolating from Existing Studies: Normative Need  
Using Resource Inventories: Normative Need  
Using Service Statistics: Expressed Need  
Conducting a Social Survey: Perceived Need  
Holding a Public Forum: Perceived Need  
Focus Groups  
Selecting the Best Method  
Approaches Useful for Locating Concentrations of High-Risk Groups  
Part III: Planning, Designing, and Tracking the Intervention
Chapter 6: Selecting the Appropriate Intervention Strategy
The Program Hypothesis  
Types of Program Hypotheses  
The Process of Developing a Program Hypothesis  
Program Hypotheses and the Idea of Consequences  
From Program Hypothesis to Service  
Benefits of the Program Hypothesis  
Chapter 7: Setting Goals and Objectives
From Program Hypothesis to Goals and Objectives  
The Function of a Mission Statement  
Goals and Objectives: A Framework for Action  
Agency Example: Safe Haven  
The Formulation of Goals  
The Formulation of Objectives  
Requirements for All Objectives  
Outcome Objectives  
Process Objectives and Activities  
Integrating Outcome Objectives, Process Objectives, and Activities  
Chapter 8: Designing Effective Programs
The Significance of Program Design  
Program Design and Diversity  
Defining the Elements of a Program  
The Relationship between Objectives and System Components  
Specifying the Program Hypothesis  
Chapter 9: Designing Effectiveness-Based Information Systems
Documentation Practices in Human Services  
Designing a Data Collection System for a Program  
Part IV: Calculating the Value and Cost of the Intervention
Chapter 10: Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Program Evaluation
The Link between Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Evaluation and Management Information Systems  
Feedback and Self-Evaluating Systems  
Performance Measurment  
Program Evaluations  
Program Data Requirements  
Performance Measurement, Monitoring, Program Evaluation, and Program Data  
The Utility of Performance Measurement, Monitoring, and Program Evaluation  
Chapter 11: Impact Program Evaluation and Hypothesis Testing
Differentiating Impact Program Evaluation from Performance Measurement  
Impact Program Evaluation  
Impact Program Evaluation and Hypothesis Testing  
Research Design for Impact Program Evaluation  
Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design  
Chapter 12: Budgeting for Financial Control, Management, and Planning
The Differences between Budgeting and Accounting  
The Principal Purposes and Budgeting  
Budgeting and the Systems Framework  
Major Models of the Budgetary Process  
Major Budgeting Systems  
Dealing with Revenue Increases and Decreases  
Budgeting in Human Service Agencies and Programs Today  
Chapter 13: Developing Line-Item, Functional, and Program Budgeting Systems
Developing Line-Item Budgeting Systems  
The Link between Line-Item, Functional, and Program Budgeting Systems  
Fucntional Budgeting Systems  
Program Budgeting Systems  
A Comprehensive Budgeting System  


Instructor Teaching Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • Suggested assignments designed by Dr. Kettner encourage a good deal of thoughtful, careful planning. Each exercise builds on the next and includes guidance to complete the exercise. The student's final objective is to create a program plan which demonstrates consistency and integrity beginning with problem analysis through evaluation design, and it should include feedback from you, the professor, as given throughout the semester.

"The most comprehensive text on effective program development on the market. The authors do an excellent job at covering the important tasks and processes necessary in building results-based programs."

Stephanie L. Carter
University of Southern California

“This book provides a detailed and cumulative set of instructions and guidelines that every human service manager should know.”  

Daniel Hubler
Weber State University

“[This book’s] practical and straightforward approach guides students through the fundamentals of program planning and evaluation from an effectiveness-based perspective. The strengths of this well-organized text are its pragmatic approach and applied focus. The real-life examples and practical information make this text a very valuable resource for both students and practitioners.” 

Louise M. Murray
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Key features


  • A revised Chapter 1 now focuses on what to look for at each stage of an existing program to determine whether it can conform to effectiveness-based planning principles. The program analysis questionnaire previously appearing in Chapter 1 has moved to be available online.
  • A rewritten Chapter 2 clarifies the meaning and use of theory in planning and problem analysis.
  • New illustrations help students better understand the fit between the effectiveness-based planning process and the logic model.
  • A new case example and updated budget tables in Chapter 13 reflect the current realities of practice.
  • New examples of different populations encourage students to build programs that are tailored to a given audience, without a "one size fits all" mentality.


  • An emphasis on diversity teaches students and program planners how to develop a well-rounded program that meets the needs of relevant populations.
  • The case example of a domestic violence shelter is used throughout to demonstrate the flow of program development, from initial articulation of its hypothesis through the final stages of evaluation and budget analysis.
  • Chapter summaries, additional case examples, and review questions help readers apply concepts to their own program plans. 

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 6

Chapter 8

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