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Differentiation Through Learning Styles and Memory
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Differentiation Through Learning Styles and Memory

Second Edition


April 2008 | 184 pages | Corwin

"This is the kind of book that needs to be read and reread. There's so much usable information. A great resource for all teachers."
—William Fitzhugh, Fifth-Grade Teacher
Reisterstown Elementary School, MD

"The stories and classroom situations throughout the book really helped me visualize how all of this can be put to use. The author definitely practices what she preaches, whether she is teaching in a classroom or teaching through the written word."
—Kathy Tritz-Rhodes, Principal
Marcus-Meriden-Cleghorn Elementary School, IA

Help students lead with their strengths and gain a deeper understanding of concepts!

Students' learning styles are as diverse as the students themselves, so how can teachers reach all learners according to their strengths?

In this updated edition of the bestseller, Marilee Sprenger demonstrates how to optimize learning by using brain-based strategies that address students' social/emotional, cognitive, and physical learning preferences. The author provides readers with graphic organizers, current research on memory, and new charts to help implement differentiated strategies, and also offers:

  • An explanation of how the brain processes, stores, and retains information
  • Pre-assessment strategies for each learning style
  • "Reflect and Connect" questions to help teachers evaluate their current classroom practice
  • Learning and memory tips for students
  • Exit cards, or quick assessments of what students have learned

This comprehensive resource provides the tools you need to create a brain-friendly learning environment and to differentiate content, process, and product for your students' diverse learning needs and strengths.


 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Prologue
The Way We Do the Things We Do  
 
1. Environments for Learning
Reflect and Connect  
What Is Differentiated Instruction?  
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs  
Physiological Needs  
Safety Needs  
Need to Belong  
Need for Esteem  
Need for Self-Actualization  
Classroom Environments  
Physical Environment  
An Attractive Environment  
Lighting  
Temperature  
Color  
Nutrition  
Music  
Humor  
Water  
Physical Safety  
Social/Emotional Environment  
Self-Awareness  
Self-Management  
Social Awareness  
Relationship Management  
Cognitive Environment  
Predictability  
Feedback  
Novelty  
Choice  
Challenge  
Reflection  
The Stage Is Set  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
 
2. Getting to Know Your Students: Learning Strengths
Reflect and Connect  
Different Learners/Different Teachers  
What Is a Learning Profile?  
Attention  
Patterns  
Why Sensory Pathways?  
Sensory Pathways  
Visual  
Auditory/Verbal  
Kinesthetic/Tactile  
Sensory Systems  
Visual Memory Preference  
Auditory/Verbal Memory Preference  
Kinesthetic/Tactile Memory Preferences  
Hands-On Learners  
Whole Body Learners  
Doodlers  
Perceptual Patterns  
The Need to Know  
Reteaching  
All Pathways Lead to Differentiation  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
 
3. A Matter of Memory: Gaining a Better Understanding of How Students Remember
Reflect and Connect  
Phases of Memory  
Categorizing Memory  
Sensory Memory  
Immediate Memory  
Active Working Memory  
Long-Term Memory  
Explicit Memory  
How Do We Deal With Explicit Information?  
Semantic Memory: Nothing but the Facts  
Episodic Memory: Making the Invisible Visible  
Implicit Memory  
Conditioned Response: Lasting Memories  
Procedural Memory: Just Do It!  
Emotional Memory: If They Can Feel It - They'll Remember It!  
Using Memory Systems to Access Prior Knowledge  
Making Connections  
Differentiation  
Making Garpon Memorable  
Automatic Memory  
Emotional/Episodic Memory  
Everyone Should Be Familiar With Garpon: Is That Your Final Answer?  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
 
4. Differentiating Content, Process, and Product for the Visual Learner
Reflect and Connect  
Do You Teach for Visual Memory?  
Preassessment and the Visual Learner  
Differentiation Design for Learners With Strong Visual Memory  
Differentiating for Visual Memory and the Semantic System  
Differentiating for Visual Memory and the Episodic System  
Differentiating for Visual Memory and the Procedural System  
Differentiating for Visual Memory and Conditioned Response  
Differentiating for Visual Memory and the Emotional System  
Visual Memory: I'll Show You What I Know!  
Bloom's Taxonomy and the Visual Learner  
Knowledge  
Comprehension  
Application  
Analysis  
Synthesis  
Evaluation  
A Note About Synthesis  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
Visual Learner Snapshot  
 
5. Differentiating Content, Process, and Product for the Auditory Learner
Reflect and Connect  
Do You Teach for Auditory Memory?  
Preassessment and the Auditory Learner  
Differentiation Design for Learners With Strong Auditory Memory  
Differentiating for Auditory Memory and the Semantic System  
Differentiating for Auditory Memory and the Episodic System  
Differentiating for Auditory Memory and the Procedural System  
Differentiating for Auditory Memory and Conditioned Response  
Differentiating for Auditory Memory and the Emotional System  
Concentration and the Auditory Learner  
Auditory Memory: I'll Tell It Like It Is!  
Bloom's Taxonomy and the Auditory Learner  
Knowledge  
Comprehension  
Application  
Analysis  
Synthesis  
Evaluation  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
Auditory Learner Snapshot  
 
6. Differentiating Content, Process, and Product for the Kinesthetic Learner
Reflect and Connect  
Do You Teach for Kinesthetic Memory?  
Preassessment and the Kinesthetic Learner  
Differentiation Design for Learners With Strong Kinesthetic Memory  
Sameness Is Not Always Fairness  
Differentiating for Kinesthetic Memory and the Semantic System  
Differentiating for Kinesthetic Memory and the Episodic System  
Differentiating for Kinesthetic Memory and the Procedural System  
Differentiating for Kinesthetic Memory and Conditioned Response  
Differentiating for Kinesthetic Memory and the Emotional System  
Does It Really Make Any Difference?  
Kinesthetic Memory: I'd Rather Do It Myself!  
Bloom's Taxonomy and the Kinesthetic Learner  
Knowledge  
Comprehension  
Application  
Analysis  
Synthesis  
Evaluation  
The Critter Connection  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
Kinesthetic Learner Snapshot  
 
7. Putting It All Together: Memory C.R.E.E.P.S. In!
Reflect and Connect  
Identifying Learning Strengths  
A Closer Look  
Jeffrey  
Elise  
Jordan  
Isaac  
Micayla  
Tobias  
Lemar  
Amos  
Amanda  
Calvin  
An Eye Cue  
Visual  
Auditory  
Kinesthetic  
Remembering to Remember  
Thinking About Thinking  
Differentiated Instructional Strategies That Work for All Learners  
Cubing  
Jigsaw  
Different Strokes  
Exit Card  
Learning and Memory Tips for Students  
 
Epilogue
 
Bibliography
 
Index

"This is the kind of book that needs to be read and re-read. There’s so much usable information in it. A great resource for all teachers."

William Fitzhugh, Fifth-Grade Teacher
Reisterstown Elementary School, MD

"Provides many useful and helpful techniques that can immediately be implemented to improve learning in any classroom setting."

Michelle Barnea, Early Childhood Consultant

“The stories and classroom situations throughout the book really helped me visualize how all of this can be put to use. The author definitely practices what she preaches, whether she is teaching in a classroom or teaching through the written word.”

Kathy Tritz-Rhodes, Principal
Marcus-Meriden-Cleghorn Elementary School, Marcus and Cleghorn, IA

Sample Materials & Chapters

Prologue

Chapter 1: Environments for Learning


Preview this book

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