Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior
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Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior
An Introduction to Psychopharmacology

Second Edition
  • Adam Prus - Northern Michigan University, USA
Companion Website


February 2017 | 632 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The up-to-date Second Edition presents an introduction to the rapidly advancing field of psychopharmacology by examining how drug actions in the brain affect psychological processes. The book provides historical background to give readers an appreciation for the development of drug treatments and neuroscience over time, covering major topics in psychopharmacology, including new drugs and recent trends in drug use. Pedagogical features informed by the latest scholarship in teaching and learning are integrated throughout the text to ensure that readers are able to process and understand the material with ease. 

 

 
Preface
 
About the Author
 
1 Introduction to Psychopharmacology
Psychopharmacology  
Why Read a Book on Psychopharmacology?  
Drugs: Administered Substances That Alter Physiological Functions  
Psychoactive Drugs: Described by Manner of Use  
Generic Names, Trade Names, and Street Names for Drugs  
Drug Effects: Determined by Dose  
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics  
Psychoactive Drugs: Objective and Subjective Effects  
Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs  
Validity: Addressing the Quality and Impact of a Study  
Animals and Advancing Medical Research  
Researchers Consider Many Ethical Issues When Conducting Human Research  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Therapeutic Drug Development  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
2 The Nervous System
Cells in the Nervous System  
The Nervous System: Control of Behavior and Physiological Functions  
Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrospinal Fluid  
Genes and the Physiological Processes of Cells  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Gilal Scars and Recovery From Brain Injury  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
3 Neurotransmission
Electrical Events Within a Neuron and the Release of Neurotransmitters  
Nerve Impulses: Electrical Potential Changes in Neurons  
Propagation of Action Potentials Down Axons  
Neurotransmitters: Signaling Molecules for Neuronal Communication  
Neurotransmission: Neurotransmitter Binding to Receptors  
Different Types of Neurotransmitters and Communication  
Monoamine Neurotransmitters: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Serotonin  
Acetylcholine  
Neuropeptides: A Large Class of Neurotransmitters  
Nitric Oxide: A Unique Neurotransmitter  
Other Types of Chemical Transmission in the Nervous System  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Treating Alzheimer’s Disease  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
4 Properties of Drugs
Pharmacokinetic Properties and Drug Passage Through the Body  
Pharmacodynamics: Describing the Actions of Drugs  
Psychoactive Drugs and Receptors  
Neurotoxins and Damage to the Nervous System  
Adaptations to Chronic Drug Use  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Heroin Tolerance and Overdose  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
5 Drugs of Abuse
Regulatory Agencies and Drug Classification  
Clinical Definitions and the Diagnosis of Drug Addiction  
Theoretical Models and the Features of Drug Addiction  
Drugs of Abuse and Reward Circuitry  
Drug Abuse and Changes to Learning and Memory Systems  
Neurobiology and the Stages of Drug Addiction  
Mortality and Drug Addiction  
Psychological and Pharmacological Therapies for Treating Drug Dependence  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Food Addiction  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
6 Psychostimulants
Psychostimulants: A Large Variety of Substances  
Psychostimulants: Herbal Remedies, Prescription Drugs, and Substances of Abuse  
Pharmacokinetics of Psychostimulants  
Psychostimulants and Monoamine Neurotransmitters  
Pharmacological Effects of Psychostimulants  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Treatments for Psychostimulant Addiction  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
7 Nicotine and Caffeine
Nicotine: Key Psychoactive Ingredient in Tobacco  
Discovery of Tobacco  
Tobacco Use and Pharmacokinetic Properties  
Nicotine and Nervous System Functioning  
Nicotine’s Potent Pharmacological Effects  
Nicotine Affects Movement and Cognitive Functioning  
Environmental, Genetic, and Receptor Differences Between Light and Heavy Tobacco Users  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Why People Smoke and How They Quit  
Caffeine  
Caffeine Absorption, Duration, and Interaction With Other Psychoactive Drugs  
Caffeine: Antagonist for Adenosine Receptors  
Caffeine: Mild Psychostimulant Effects  
Tolerance and Dependence During Sustained Caffeine Use  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Why People Consume Caffeinated Products  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
8 Alcohol
Alcohol: The Most Commonly Used Depressant Substance  
Alcohol Production Through Fermentation and Distillation  
The History of Alcohol Consumption  
Pharmacokinetic Factors and Alcohol’s Effects  
Alcohol and Central Nervous System Functioning  
Pharmacological Effects of Alcohol  
Treating Alcohol Addiction  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Hangover  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
9 GHB and Inhalants
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate  
History of GHB  
Inhalants  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Stimulus Properties of GHB and Toluene  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
10 Opioids
Opioids: Natural and Synthetic  
History of Opium Use  
Pharmacokinetic Properties and Opioid Abuse  
Opioid Drug Interactions With the Endogenous Opioid System  
Opioid Drugs: Classification by Receptor Action  
Opioid System Interactions With Reward, Pain, and Stress Systems  
Opioid Reinforcing and Analgesic Effects  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Pharmacological Approaches for Treating Opioid Addiction  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
11 Cannabinoids
Historical Use of Cannabis  
Methods of Cannabis Preparation and Use  
Cannabinoid Compounds and the Endocannabinoid System  
Cannabinoids and CB1 and CB2 Receptors  
Physiological Effects of Cannabinoids  
Behavioral Effects of Cannabinoids  
Subjective Effects of Cannabinoids  
Cannabinoid Tolerance and Dependence  
Cannabis and Health Risk  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Medical Marijuana  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
12 Psychedelic Drugs
Hallucinogens  
LSD’s Mild Physiological Effects and Profound Hallucinogenic Effects  
Mixed Stimulant–Psychedelic Drugs  
Recreational Use of Dissociative Anesthetics  
Other Psychedelic Drugs  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Synesthesia  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
13 Treatments for Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Mental Disorders  
Depression  
Bipolar Disorder  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Pharmacogenetic Factors and Treatment Response in Depression  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
14 Treatments for Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders  
Structures Involved in Fear and Anxiety  
Anxious Feelings, the Amygdala, and the Sympathetic Nervous System  
Stress and the HPA Axis  
Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Drugs and the Treatment of Anxiety  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: How Do Antidepressant Drugs Reduce Anxiety?  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
15 Antipsychotic Drugs
Schizophrenia  
Schizophrenia’s Complex Neurobiological Profile  
A Brief History of Schizophrenia and Its Treatment  
Neurotransmission Hypotheses for Schizophrenia  
Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs  
Antipsychotic Drugs and Autism  
FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Antipsychotic Drug Actions and Neurotransmission in Schizophrenia  
CHAPTER SUMMARY  
KEY TERMS  
 
References
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index

Supplements

Student Site

Use the Student Study Site to get the most out of your course!

Our Student Study Site at study.sagepub.com/prus2e is completely open access and offers a wide range of additional features!

 

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.       
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
Instructor Resource Site

Calling all instructors!
It’s easy to log on to SAGE’s password-protected Instructor Teaching Site at study.sagepub.com/prus2e for complete and protected access to all text-specific Instructor Resources for Adam Prus’ Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior, Second Edition. Simply provide your institutional information for verification and within 72 hours you’ll be able to use your login information for any SAGE title!

 

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content and features.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content.
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • Coverage of new and high interest topics include fibromyalgia, Autism Spectrum Disorder, vaping, sex differences in psychostimulant addiction, ketamine use for depression, bath salts, and MDMA for treating PTSD, keeping readers up to date.
  • Drug profiles in the margins provide a snapshot of the primary characteristics of a drug for quick and easy reference.
  • Illustrations of common and novel research techniques in psychopharmacology, such as microdialysis, drug discrimination, and optogenetics, provide insights to important methods used in the field.
  • Coverage of unique topics, such as the role of ergot in the Salem Witch Trials and disputes over awarding a Nobel Prize for the discovery of Thorazine, provides readers with a more complete understanding of the history of psychopharmacology.


KEY FEATURES: 

  • Two introductory overview chapters on the nervous system and neurotransmission provide crucial background to students with little or no prior knowledge of neuroscience.
  • Stop & Check questions concluding each section in every chapter allow students to assess their own understanding of main points covered in the previous section.
  • Review! sections include important reminders of information covered in previous chapters to help students make connections to understand new concepts.
  • From Actions to Effects sections provide focus on a topic drawing from multiple chapter concepts to show how the actions of a drug produce its effects. 

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 7

Chapter 13


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ISBN: 9781506338941