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Effective Communication in Criminal Justice
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Effective Communication in Criminal Justice



April 2018 | 328 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“This text provides students and instructors with a detailed examination of communication in the criminal justice system. Specific issues confronting criminal justice practitioners in their daily activities, including interactions with the public, are explored. The text demonstrates appropriate methods of communication and provides direction for overcoming difficulties in the communication process.”
—Brooke Miller, PhD, University of North Texas

“I would certainly describe this book as a must-have as an addition to any course that has a writing component. The information contained is necessary for students of criminology . . . [and] will aid students in formal writing as well as those going into the criminal justice field.”
—Dianne Berger-Hill, MAS, Old Dominion University

Effective Communication in Criminal Justice is the perfect companion for any criminal justice course that discusses communication and writing. Authors Robert E. Grubb and K. Virginia Hemby teach students how to be both effective writers and communicators—essential skills for anyone interested in criminal justice. Going beyond report writing, this book helps readers become more confident presenters and digital communicators while encouraging students to adapt their communication styles to meet the needs of diverse populations. Students will not only improve their communication and writing skills but also gain specific strategies for succeeding in careers related to policing, courts, corrections, and private security.  

 

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
PART I: THE BASICS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
 
Chapter 1: Communication: Words Are Not Enough
What Is Communication?  
Communication Styles  
Types of Communication  
Flow of Communication  
Barriers to Communication  
Overcoming Communication Barriers  
Communication Across Generations  
Definitions and Characteristics of Generations  
Internal Communication Across Generations  
Barriers to Successful Communication Between and Among Generations  
Addressing the Barriers and Meeting Generational Communication Needs  
Baby Boomers in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice  
Generation Xers in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice  
The Millennial Generation in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice  
Leaders in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice  
Suggestions for Bridging the Communication Generation Gap With External Groups  
 
Chapter 2: Think Before You Speak: The Verbal Component
Verbal Communication: The Oral Component  
Listening  
The Listening Process  
Types of Ineffective Listeners  
Barriers to Listening  
Guidelines for Effective Listening  
Criminal Justice Professionals and Verbal Communication  
Responding  
Verbal Communication: The Written Component  
Writing Techniques: Choosing the Right Words  
Developing and Writing Effective Sentences and Paragraphs  
Law Enforcement Professionals and Verbal Communication Reporting  
Testifying  
Verbal Communication: The Video Component  
Media Relations and Law Enforcement: The History  
Law Enforcement Professionals: Responding to the Media  
 
Chapter 3: Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Nonverbal Communication
The Functions of Nonverbal Communication  
Kinesics: The Science of Body Language  
Paralinguistics: The Voice  
Proxemics: Space and Objects  
Haptics: Touch  
Interpreting Nonverbal Body Language in Criminal Justice Professions  
Body Movements  
Proxemics: Space and Objects  
Facial Color  
Facial Expressions  
Paralanguage (The Voice)  
Limitations and Exceptions to Nonverbal Communication  
Checklist for Improving Your Nonverbal Communication  
 
PART II: PREPARING FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
 
Chapter 4: Grammar: A Lesson in the Basics
Parts of Speech  
Nouns  
Pronouns  
Verbs  
Adjectives and Adverbs  
Prepositions  
Conjunctions  
Parts of the Sentence  
Sentence Errors  
Sentence Fragments, Run-On Sentences, and Parallel Structure  
Punctuation  
Period, Question Mark, and Exclamation Point  
Comma  
Semicolon  
Colon  
Frequently Confused Words Most Frequently Confused Words  
Abbreviations Versus Full Words  
Titles and Ranks  
Degrees and Certifications  
Time, Days, and Months  
Acronyms and Familiar Initials  
Address Abbreviations  
State Abbreviations  
Capitalization  
Spelling Errors  
Checklist for Improving Your Use of a Computer Spell-Checker  
Fifty Most Commonly Misspelled Words  
 
Chapter 5: Preparing to Speak: Presentations and Visual Aids
Purposes of Speeches  
Impromptu Style  
Extemporaneous Style  
Manuscript Style  
Memorized Style  
Guidelines for an Effective Oral Presentation  
Your Purpose  
Your Audience or Listeners  
Organizing Your Presentation  
The Perception of the Speaker  
The Speaker’s Voice  
The Parts of an Oral Presentation or Speech  
Using Visuals in Your Presentation  
Types of Visual Aids  
Designing Visual Aids  
Points to Remember in Using Visual Aids Effectively  
Overcoming Barriers to Effective Presentations  
Checklist for Preparing and Organizing Oral Presentations  
Getting Ready to Speak  
Organizing the Introduction  
Organizing the Body  
Organizing the Conclusion  
Designing Visual Aids  
Developing Electronic Presentations  
Prior to Your Presentation  
The Presentation  
Televised or Recorded Presentations (News Reports, Presentations, and Updates)  
Nonverbal Messages  
 
PART III: EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN YOUR PROFESSIONAL SPHERE
 
Chapter 6: Written Communication: An Agency’s Lifeline
Writing Principles for Report Development  
Words  
Sentences  
Paragraphs  
Topic Sentences  
Transitions  
Consistency  
Report Writing in Criminal Justice  
Reports in Law Enforcement  
Reports in Corrections  
Reports in Private Security  
Field Notes and Note Taking  
Guidelines for the Note-Taking Process  
Maintenance of Records: Field Notes, Reports, Interviews, and Evidence  
Records Management Systems  
Life Cycle of Records  
 
Chapter 7: Interviewing and Interrogating: Witnesses and Suspects
The Interview Process  
Interviewing  
Interrogating  
Preparing for an Interview or Interrogation  
The Setting  
Interview and Interrogation Questions  
Legal Issues  
Terminating the Interview or Interrogation  
 
Chapter 8: The Court System: Preparing for and Testifying in Court
The Courtroom Setting  
The Participants in the Criminal Courtroom Drama  
Judge  
Jury  
Attorneys  
Witness  
Defendant  
The Participants in the Civil Courtroom Drama  
The Grand Jury  
The Criminal Trial  
The Law Enforcement Officer’s Role in the Trial Process Preparing to Testify  
The Corrections Officer’s Role in the Trial Process  
The Private Security Officer’s Role in the Trial Process  
The Officer’s Appearance in Court Testifying  
 
Chapter 9: Technology and Communication: A New Frontier
Technology and Today’s Criminal Justice Agency  
The Intranet (Organizational Network)  
Mobile Data Terminals (MDTs)  
Department or Bureau Computers  
Electronic Mail (E-Mail)  
Texting  
Technology in the Courtroom and in Corrections  
New Technologies in the Courtroom  
New Technologies in Corrections  
Mobile Device Apps  
Law Enforcement Apps  
Corrections Apps  
Private Security Apps  
Social Media: Criminal Justice’s Newest Weapon  
Writing for Social Media  
Bulletin Boards  
Listservs  
Electronic Journals  
Law Enforcement and the Internet  
Cybercrime and Cybersecurity  
Cybersecurity  
Cybercrime  
 
Chapter 10: Conflict Resolution and Other Special Forms of Communication
Conflict  
Needs  
Perceptions  
Power  
Values  
Feelings and Emotions  
Conflict Resolution Conflict Resolution in Criminal  
Justice  
The Negotiation Team  
Hostage and Nonhostage Situations  
Correctional Facilities and Hostage Situations  
Hostage Negotiation Equipment  
Communication: The Small-Group or Team Process  
Small-Group Communication  
Effective Small-Group Characteristics  
Number of Members  
Cohesion  
Task Commitment  
Group Rules  
Group Consensus  
Preparation  
Role Requirements  
Leadership Functions  
Group Interaction  
Limitations and Strengths of Small Groups  
Limitations  
Strengths  
Cultures and Groups  
Individualism  
Individual Assertiveness  
Equality  
Progress and Change  
Uncertainty and Risk  
Informality  
 
PART IV: EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH DIFFERENT POPULATIONS
 
Chapter 11: Communication With Diverse Populations: Ethnic/Cultural Groups and Children and Youth
Characteristics of Culture  
Dimensions of Culture  
Context  
Time Orientation  
Power Distance  
Individualism Versus Collectivism  
Communication Style  
How We View Ourselves  
Criminal Justice Agencies: Communicating With Diverse Groups  
Law Enforcement and Immigrant Cultures  
Law Enforcement and Minority Cultures  
Enhancing Communication in Multicultural Communities  
Children and Youth  
Definition of Youth  
Interviewing and Interrogating Juvenile Suspects  
Interviewing Juvenile Victims and Witnesses  
Gangs  
Gang Awareness  
Identification  
Gang Recruitment of Youth  
Early Involvement Signs  
Signs of Actual Gang Membership  
Communicating With Gang Members  
 
Chapter 12: Communication With Special Groups: Cognitive, Physiological, Psychological, and Emotional Disabilities
Law Enforcement and the ADA  
Corrections and the ADA Juvenile Justice  
Private Security and the ADA  
Categories, Definitions, and Explanations  
Cognitive (Intellectual/Developmental) Disabilities  
Physiological or Physical Disabilities  
Psychological Disabilities  
Interacting With People With Disabilities  
Addressing the Individual and Not the Disability  
First Steps  
Guidelines for Writing About People With Disabilities  
Service Dogs and Disabilities  
Checklist for Interaction With  
Individuals With Disabilities  
 
Endnotes
 
Index
 
About the Authors

“Comprehensive text on the significance of all aspects of communication in the criminal justice field.”

Katherine J. Ely
Lock Haven University

“This text provides students and instructors with a detailed examination of communication in the criminal justice system. Specific issues confronting criminal justice practitioners in their daily activities, including interactions with the public, are explored. The text demonstrates appropriate methods of communication and provides direction for overcoming difficulties in the communication process.”

Brooke Miller, Ph.D.
University of North Texas

“I would certainly describe this book as a must have as an addition to any course that has a writing component. The information contained thus far is necessary for students of criminology…will aid students in formal writing as well as those going into the criminal justice field”

Dianne Berger-Hill, MAS
Old Dominion University, Sociology and Criminal Justice Department

“This text provides faculty teaching justice studies communications courses with a practical approach to both foundational issues necessary for all communications courses, as well as the sections specific to the justice studies field.”

Dr. James C. Brown, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice
Utica College

“To be quite honest, I was excited about the ideas I had while previewing the text.  I would strongly encourage colleagues to consider using this in the construction of a course focused on “Writing in the Discipline”.  I think there is great potential for students (and instructors) to have fun writing while not realizing that they are actually learning valuable information.”

Lauren M. Barrow, Ph.D.
Chestnut Hill College
Key features

KEY FEATURES: 

  • Specific coverage of effective communication strategies that relate to each area of criminal justice, including policing, courts, corrections, and private security, offers students a robust overview of all aspects of communication in the criminal justice field.
  • Unique coverage of nonverbal communication, digital communication, conflict resolution, and communication with special populations helps students learn to adapt their communication styles to specific situations. 
  • Helpful checklists remind students to keep practicing good communication techniques. 
  • Real-world examples of effective communication in criminal justice show students how the concepts are relevant to their future careers. 
  • End-of-chapter discussion questions and ethical issue exercises provide students with the opportunity to practice and apply the concepts covered in each chapter.

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