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Environmental Corrections

Environmental Corrections
A New Paradigm for Supervising Offenders in the Community

© 2016 | 216 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

A new paradigm for supervising offenders in the community


Environmental Corrections is an innovative guide filled with rich insights and strategies for probation and parole officers to effectively integrate offenders back into the community and reduce recidivism. Authors Lacey Schaefer, Francis T. Cullen, and John E. Eck move beyond traditional models for interventions and build directly on the applied focus of environmental criminology theories. Using this approach, the authors answer the question of what officers can do to decrease opportunities for an offender to commit a crime. Readers will learn how to recognize and assess specific criminal opportunities in an offender’s past and gain the tools and strategies they need to design an individualized supervision plan that channels offenders away from these criminogenic situations.

Chapter 1: Why Offender Supervision Does Not Work
The Invention of Probation and Parole: Treatment and Control  
The Limited Effectiveness of Offender Supervision  
Why Treatment Does Not Work  
Why Control Does Not Work  
Conclusion: A New Paradigm for Offender Supervision  
Chapter 2: Why Opportunity Matters
The Evolution of Crime Science  
Crime Science and Opportunity Reduction  
Conclusion: Opportunity-Reduction Supervision  
Chapter 3: How to Supervise Offenders
Current Offender Supervision Practices  
Introduction to Environmental Corrections Supervision  
Identifying Exposure to Crime Opportunities  
Considering Gender  
Creating the Offender’s Case Plan  
Modifying the Offender’s Case Plan  
Graduated Consequences  
Earned Discharge and Aftercare  
Chapter 4: Developing Offender Supervision Technology
Offender Assessment and Classification  
Identifying Opportunities for Crime  
Opportunity-Reduction Case Plans  
Chapter 5: Getting Offenders to Think Right
Reducing Propensity  
Opportunity Resistance  
Opportunity Avoidance  
Chapter 6: How the Police Can Help
Increasing the Supervision of Offenders  
Increasing the Supervision of Targets and Places  
Increasing the Surveillance by Crime Controllers  
Chapter 7: Making Offender Supervision Work
Lesson #1: Punishment Does Not Work Well  
Lesson #2: Reducing Crime Opportunities Reduces Crime  
Lesson #3: Environmental Corrections Can Reduce Crime Opportunities  
Lesson #4: Crime Opportunities Must Be Assessed  
Lesson #5: Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques Can Help  
Lesson #6: The Police Make Excellent Community Corrections Partners  
Lesson #7: Research Is Needed  
Lesson #8: Opportunity-Reduction Supervision Can Work  
Key features


  • An innovative approach focused on criminal opportunity merges key insights from environmental criminology and correctional theory to enhance public safety and improve offender outcomes.  
  • An overview of traditional probation and parole supervision models illuminates how intervention strategies are complementary, not mutually exclusive.  
  • Concrete advice and realistic examples show how environmental corrections can be practiced using technology instruments.  
  • An integration of rehabilitation interventions shows readers how environmental corrections can be integrated in innovative ways with traditional rehabilitation approaches.  
  • Eight lessons for making offender supervision more effective are listed in the final chapter to offer readers clear advice on how best to improve the supervision of offenders on probation and parole.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 3

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