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Essentials of Human Behavior
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Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment, and the Life Course

Second Edition
Experience with SAGE edge


© 2017 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Essentials of Human Behavior combines Elizabeth D. Hutchison’s two-volume Dimensions of Human Behavior to present a multidimensional framework for understanding human behavior. Integrating person, environment, and the life course, this best-selling text leverages its hallmark case studies and balanced breadth and depth of coverage to help readers apply theory and general social work knowledge to unique practice situations. Now in four color and available with an interactive eBook, the Second Edition features a streamlined organization, the latest research, whiteboard animations (view sample), and original SAGE video to provide the most engaging introduction available to human behavior.

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Case Studies
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
PART I- A MULTIDIMENSIONAL, MULTITHEORETICAL APPROACH FOR MULTIFACETED SOCIAL WORK
 
CHAPTER 1- HUMAN BEHAVIOR: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACH
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study: Manisha and Her Changing Environments  
Human Behavior: Individual and Collective  
A Multidimensional Approach  
Personal Dimensions  
Environmental Dimensions  
Diversity, Inequality, and the Pursuit of Social Justice: A Global Perspective  
Diversity  
Inequality  
The Pursuit of Social Justice  
Knowing and Doing  
Knowledge About the Case  
Knowledge About the Self  
Values and Ethics  
Scientific Knowledge: Theory and Research  
Theory  
Empirical Research  
Critical Use of Theory and Research  
A Word of Caution  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 2- THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study: Intergenerational Stresses in the McKinley Family  
Multiple Perspectives for a Multidimensional Approach  
Systems Perspective  
Conflict Perspective  
Exchange and Choice Perspective  
Social Constructionist Perspective  
Psychodynamic Perspective  
Developmental Perspective  
Social Behavioral Perspective  
Humanistic Perspective  
The Merits of Multiple Perspectives  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
PART II- THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF THE PERSON
 
CHAPTER 3- THE BIOLOGICAL PERSON
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 3.1: Cheryl’s Brain Injury  
Case Study 3.2: A Diabetes Diagnosis for Bess  
Case Study 3.3: Melissa’s HIV Diagnosis  
Case Study 3.4: Lifestyle Changes for Thomas  
Case Study 3.5: Mary and Her Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)  
Case Study 3.6: Juan and Belinda’s Reproductive Health  
An Integrative Approach for Understanding the Intersection of Interior Biological Health and Illness and Exterior Environment Factors  
A Look at Six Interior Environment Systems  
Nervous System  
Endocrine System  
Immune System  
Cardiovascular System  
Musculoskeletal System  
Reproductive System  
Exterior Socioeconomic Environment and Interior Health Environment  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 4- THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSON
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study: The Premed Student  
Cognition and Emotion  
Theories of Cognition  
Cognitive Theory  
Information Processing Theory  
Social Learning Theory  
Theory of Multiple Intelligences  
Theories of Moral Reasoning  
Theories of Cognition in Social Work Practice  
Theories of Emotion  
Physiological Theories of Emotion  
Psychological Theories of Emotion  
Psychoanalytic Theory  
Ego Psychology  
Attribution Theory: A Cognitive Perspective  
Theory of Emotional Intelligence  
Social Theories of Emotion  
Theories of Emotion in Social Work Practice  
Cognitive and Emotional “Disorders”  
The Self  
The Self in Relationships  
Relational Theory  
Attachment Theory  
Impact of Early Nurturing on Development  
Feminist Theories of Relationships  
Social Identity Theory  
The Concept of Stress  
Three Categories of Psychological Stress  
Stress and Crisis  
Traumatic Stress  
Vulnerability to Stress  
Coping and Adaptation  
Biological Coping  
Psychological Coping  
Coping Styles  
Coping and Traumatic Stress  
Social Support  
Virtual Support  
How Social Support Aids Coping  
How Social Workers Evaluate Social Support  
Normal and Abnormal Coping  
The Medical (Psychiatric) Perspective  
Psychological Perspectives  
The Sociological Approach: Deviance  
The Social Work Perspective: Social Functioning  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 5- THE SPIRITUAL PERSON
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 5.1: Caroline’s Challenging Questions  
Case Study 5.2: Naomi’s Health Crisis  
Case Study 5.3: Matthew’s Faith Journey  
Case Study 5.4: Trudy’s Search for the Sacred  
Case Study 5.5: Leon’s Two Worlds  
Case Study 5.6: Jean-Joseph’s Serving the Spirits  
Case Study 5.7: Beth’s Framework for Living  
The Spiritual Dimension  
The Meaning of Spirituality  
Spirituality in the United States and Globally  
Transpersonal Theories of Human Development  
Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development  
Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness  
Summary and Critique of Fowler’s and Wilber’s Theories  
The Role of Spirituality in Social Work  
Spirituality and Human Diversity  
Race and Ethnicity  
Sex and Gender  
Sexual Orientation  
Other Aspects of Diversity  
Spirituality and the Human Experience  
Problems in Living  
Individual and Collective Well-Being  
Spiritual Assessment  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
PART III- THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
 
CHAPTER 6- CULTURE AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 6.1: Stan and Tina at Community High School  
Case Study 6.2: Ben Watson’s Changing Experience With the Physical Environment  
The Challenge of Defining Culture  
Changing Ideas About Culture and Human Behavior  
Some Important Culture Concepts  
A Postmodern View of Culture  
Cultural Maintenance, Change, and Adaptation  
Common Sense, Customs, and Traditions  
Immigration  
Processes of Cultural Change  
The Relationship Between the Physical Environment and Human Behavior  
Stimulation Theories  
Control Theories  
Privacy  
Personal Space  
Territoriality  
Crowding  
Behavior Settings Theories  
Ecocritical Theories  
The Natural Environment  
Benefits and Costs of Human Interaction With the Natural Environment  
Environmental Justice and Ecological Justice  
The Built Environment  
Technology  
Healing Environments  
Place Attachment  
Homelessness  
Accessible Environments for Persons With Disabilities  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 7- FAMILIES
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study: The Sharpe Family’s Postdeployment Adjustment  
Family Defined  
The Family in Historical Perspective  
Theoretical Perspectives for Understanding Families  
Psychodynamic Perspective and Families  
Family Systems Perspective  
Feminist Perspective and Families  
Family Stress and Coping Perspective  
Family Resilience Perspective  
Diversity in Family Life  
Diversity in Family Structures  
Nuclear Families  
Extended Families  
Cohabiting Heterosexual Couples  
Couples With No Children  
Lone-Parent Families  
Stepfamilies  
Same-Sex Partner Families  
Military Families  
Economic and Cultural Diversity  
Economic Diversity  
Cultural Diversity  
Immigrant Families  
Challenges to Family Life  
Family Violence  
Divorce  
Substance Abuse  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 8- SMALL GROUPS, FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMUNITIES
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 8.1: The Sexuality and Gender Group at a Women’s Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility  
Case Study 8.2: Changing Leadership at Beacon Center  
Case Study 8.3: Filipina Domestic Workers Creating Transnational Communities  
Small Groups in Social Work  
Virtual Groups  
Small Group Structure, Composition, and Processes  
Theories of Group Processes  
Psychodynamic Theory  
Symbolic Interaction Theory  
Status Characteristics and Expectation States Theory  
Exchange Theory  
Self-Categorization Theory  
Formal Organization Defined  
Perspectives on Formal Organizations  
Rational Perspective  
The Ideal-Type Bureaucracy  
Scientific Management  
Human Relations Theory  
Management by Objectives (MBO)  
Decision-Making Theory  
Systems Perspective  
Political Economy Model  
Learning Organization Theory  
Interactional/Interpretive Perspective  
Social Action Model  
Organizational Culture Model  
Managing Diversity Model  
Critical Perspective  
Organizations as Multiple Oppressions  
Nonhierarchical Organizations  
Technology and Social Service Organizations  
Community: Territorial and Relational  
Theoretical Approaches to Community  
Contrasting Types Approach  
Spatial Arrangements Approach  
Social Systems Approach  
Social Capital Approach  
Conflict Approach  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 9- SOCIAL STRUCTURE, SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS, AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: GLOBAL AND NATIONAL
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 9.1: Leticia Renteria’s Struggle to Make It in the United States  
Case Study 9.2: Fighting for a Living Wage  
Patterns of Social Life  
Contemporary Trends in Global and U.S. Social Institutions  
Trends in the Government and Political Institution  
Trends in the Economic Institution  
Trends in the Educational Institution  
Trends in the Health Care Institution  
Trends in the Social Welfare Institution  
Trends in the Religious Institution  
Trends in the Mass Media Institution  
Theories of Social Inequality  
The Contemporary Debate  
Structural Determinism Versus Human Agency  
Social Movements: A Definition  
Perspectives on Social Movements  
Political Opportunities Perspective  
Openness of the Political System  
Stability of Political Alignments  
Availability of Elite Allies  
International Relations  
Mobilizing Structures Perspective  
Informal and Formal Structures  
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)  
The Life Course of Social Movements  
Cultural Framing Perspective  
Frames for Understanding That a Problem Exists  
Frames for Recognizing a Window of Opportunity  
Frames for Establishing Goals  
Frames for Identifying Pathways for Action  
Emerging Perspectives  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
PART IV- THE CHANGING LIFE COURSE
 
CHAPTER 10- THE HUMAN LIFE JOURNEY: A LIFE COURSE
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 10.1: David Sanchez’s Search for Connections  
Case Study 10.2: Phoung Le, Serving Family and Community  
Case Study 10.3: The Suarez Family After September 11, 2001  
A Definition of the Life Course Perspective  
Theoretical Roots of the Life Course Perspective  
Basic Concepts of the Life Course Perspective  
Cohorts  
Transitions  
Trajectories  
Life Events  
Turning Points  
Major Themes of the Life Course Perspective  
Interplay of Human Lives and Historical Time  
Timing of Lives  
Dimensions of Age  
Standardization in the Timing of Lives  
Linked or Interdependent Lives  
Links Between Family Members  
Links With the Wider World  
Human Agency in Making Choices  
Diversity in Life Course Trajectories  
Developmental Risk and Protection  
The Family Life Course  
Strengths and Limitations of the Life Course Perspective  
Integration With a Multidimensional, Multitheoretical Approach  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 11- THE JOURNEY BEGINS: CONCEPTION, PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH, AND INFANCY
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 11.1: Jennifer Bradshaw’s Experience With Infertility  
Case Study 11.2: The Thompsons’ Premature Birth  
Case Study 11.3: Sarah’s Teen Dad  
Sociocultural Organization of Childbearing and Child-Rearing  
Conception and Pregnancy in Context  
Childbirth in Context  
Childbirth Education  
Place of Childbirth  
Who Assists Childbirth  
Developmental Niche of Child-Rearing  
Control Over Conception and Pregnancy  
Contraception  
Induced Abortion  
Infertility Treatment  
Fetal Development  
First Trimester  
Fertilization and the Embryonic Period  
The Fetal Period  
Second Trimester  
Third Trimester  
Labor and Delivery of the Neonate  
At-Risk Newborns  
Prematurity and Low Birth Weight  
Congenital Anomalies  
Typical Infant Development  
Physical Development  
Self-Regulation  
Sensory Abilities  
Reflexes  
Motor Skills  
The Growing Brain  
Cognitive Development  
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  
Prelanguage Skills  
Socioemotional Development  
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development  
Emotional Control  
Temperament  
Attachment  
The Role of Play  
Child Care Arrangements in Infancy  
Family Leave  
Paid Child Care  
Infants in the Multigenerational Family  
Breastfeeding Versus Bottle Feeding Decision  
Postpartum Depression  
Risk and Protective Factors in Conception, Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Infancy  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 12- TODDLERHOOD AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 12.1: Overprotecting Henry  
Case Study 12.2: Terri’s Terrible Temper  
Case Study 12.3: A New Role for Ron and Rosiland’s Grandmother  
Typical Development in Toddlerhood and Early Childhood  
Physical Development  
Cognitive and Language Development  
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  
Language Skills  
Moral Development  
Understanding Moral Development  
Helping Young Children Develop Morally  
Personality and Emotional Development  
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development  
Emotions  
Aggression  
Attachment  
Social Development  
Peer Relations  
Self-Concept  
Gender Identity and Sexual Interests  
Racial and Ethnic Identity  
The Role of Play  
Developmental Disruptions  
Early Childhood Education  
Toddlerhood and Early Childhood in the Multigenerational Family  
Risks to Healthy Development in Toddlerhood and Early Childhood  
Poverty  
Homelessness  
Ineffective Discipline  
Divorce  
Violence  
Community Violence  
Domestic Violence  
Child Maltreatment  
Protective Factors in Toddlerhood and Early Childhood  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 13- MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 13.1: Anthony Bryant’s Impending Assessment  
Case Study 13.2: Brianna Shaw’s New Self-Image  
Case Study 13.3: Manuel Vega’s Difficult Transition  
Historical Perspective on Middle Childhood  
Middle Childhood in the Multigenerational Family  
Development in Middle Childhood  
Physical Development  
Cognitive Development  
Cultural Identity Development  
Emotional Development  
Social Development  
The Peer Group  
Friendship and Intimacy  
Team Play  
Gender Identity and Gender Roles  
Technology and Social Development  
Spiritual Development  
Middle Childhood and Formal Schooling  
Special Challenges in Middle Childhood  
Poverty  
Family and Community Violence  
Mental and Physical Challenges  
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  
Emotional/Behavioral Disorder  
Family Disruption  
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Middle Childhood  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 14- ADOLESCENCE
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 14.1: David’s Coming-Out Process  
Case Study 14.2: Carl’s Struggle for Identity  
Case Study 14.3: Monica’s Quest for Mastery  
The Social Construction of Adolescence Across Time and Space  
The Transition From Childhood to Adulthood  
Biological Aspects of Adolescence  
Puberty  
The Adolescent Brain  
Nutrition, Exercise, and Sleep  
Psychological Aspects of Adolescence  
Psychological Reactions to Biological Changes  
Changes in Cognition  
Identity Development  
Theories of Self and Identity  
Gender Identity  
Cultural Identity  
Social Aspects of Adolescence  
Relationships With Family  
Relationships With Peers  
Romantic Relationships  
Relationships With Organizations, Communities, and Institutions  
School  
The Broader Community  
Work  
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)  
Adolescent Spirituality/Religiosity  
Adolescent Sexuality  
Sexual Decision Making  
Sexual Orientation  
Pregnancy and Childbearing  
Sexually Transmitted Infections  
Potential Challenges to Adolescent Development  
Substance Use and Abuse  
Juvenile Delinquency  
Bullying  
School-to-Prison Pipeline  
Community Violence  
Dating Violence and Statutory Rape  
Poverty and Low Educational Attainment  
Obesity and Eating Disorders  
Depression and Suicide  
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Adolescence  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 15- YOUNG AND MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 15.1: Sheila Henderson, Coming Home at 25  
Case Study 15.2: Viktor Spiro, Finding Stability at 44  
Case Study 15.3: Michael Bowling, Swallowing His Pride at 57  
The Meaning of Adulthood  
Theoretical Approaches to Adulthood  
Jung’s Analytic Psychology  
Erikson’s Psychosocial Life Span Theory  
Levinson’s Theory of Seasons of Adulthood  
Arnett’s “Emerging” Adulthood  
Variations in the Transition to Adulthood  
Biological Functioning in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Health Maintenance in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Physical and Mental Health in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Cognition in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Personality and Identity in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Trait Approach  
Human Agency Approach  
Life Narrative Approach  
Young- and Middle-Adult Spirituality  
Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Romantic Relationships  
Relationships With Children  
Relationships With Parents  
Other Family Relationship  
Relationships With Friends  
Work in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Young and Middle Adulthood  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
CHAPTER 16- LATE ADULTHOOD
Chapter Outline  
Learning Objectives  
Case Study 16.1: Ms. Ruby Johnson Is Providing Care for Three Generations  
Case Study 16.2: Margaret Davis Stays at Home  
Case Study 16.3: Bina Patel Outlives Her Son  
Demographics of the Older-Adult Population  
Cultural Construction of Late Adulthood  
Psychosocial Theoretical Perspectives on Social Gerontology  
Biological Changes in Late Adulthood  
Health and Longevity  
Age-Related Changes in Physiology  
Functional Capacity in Very Late Adulthood  
The Aging Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases  
Dementia  
Parkinson’s Disease  
Psychological Changes in Late Adulthood  
Personality Changes  
Intellectual Changes, Learning, and Memory  
Mental Health and Mental Disorders  
Social Role Transitions and Life Events of Late Adulthood  
Families in Later Life  
Grandparenthood  
Work and Retirement  
Caregiving and Care Receiving  
Institutionalization  
The Search for Personal Meaning  
Resources for Meeting the Needs of Elderly Persons  
The Dying Process  
Advance Directives  
Care of People Who Are Dying  
End-of-Life Signs and Symptoms  
Loss, Grief, and Bereavement  
Theories and Models of Loss and Grief  
Culture and Bereavement  
Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Late Adulthood  
The Life Course Completed  
Implications for Social Work Practice  
Key Terms  
Active Learning  
Web Resources  
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Contributors

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

SAGE edge for Instructors, supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring your courses.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Multimedia content includes original SAGE videos that appeal to students with different learning styles.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.
  • Course cartridge for easy LMS integration is included. 
  • Four SAGE Chalk Talks, a series of whiteboard-style animations that introduce each part of the text are available on the website in addition to three SAGE Original Videos.
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  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Chapter summaries with learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Interactive exercises and meaningful Web links facilitate student use of Internet resources, further exploration of topics, and responses to critical thinking questions.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.       
Key features
NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • Reorganization of content divides the first edition’s Part II: The Multiple Dimensions of Person and Environment into Part II: The Multiple Dimensions of the Person and Part III: The Multiple Dimensions of the Environment.
  • Significantly increased content on new information, communication, and medical technologies related to person and environment updates readers on the latest developments.
  • New and expanded coverage includes families (now its own chapter), neuroscience, the global context of human behavior, environmental and ecological justice, and gender identity.
  • Eight new case studies reflect contemporary issues and put human faces on theory and research.
  • 2015 EPAS competencies are linked to chapter content in a chart at the beginning of the text.
  • An increased number of critical thinking questions in every chapter provide students even more opportunities to engage in the material and improve comprehension.
  • Free original SAGE video demonstrations, interviews, and case studies are linked to learning objectives and assessments deepen readers’ understanding of text concepts.
  • Free SAGE Chalk Talks, a series of whiteboard-style animations that introduce each part of the text, offer brief, captivating videos that help students learn basic concepts.
  • Free SAGE edge instructor and student resources include quizzes, PowerPoint slides, an extensive test bank, SAGE journal articles, and more.
  • A free interactive eBook is available with the text to expand the learning experience.

KEY FEATURES:

  • Powerful chapter-opening case studies help readers apply theory and text concepts to unique practice situations.
  • Implications for social work practice are included throughout the chapters to guide the reader’s use of general social work knowledge in assessment and intervention.
  • Active learning exercises suggest classroom activities that encourage critical analysis of theory and research and assist the reader in recognizing and managing personal values and biases.
  • Critical thinking questions assist student comprehension of theory and research to further critical analysis.
  • Chapter-opening outlines and learning objectives help readers anticipate the knowledge, values, and skills they should be able to exhibit following the reading of each chapter.
  • Robust chapter pedagogy includes bolded key terms, photographs, tables and figures, and a list of web resources to drive a deeper understanding of text content.

Sample Materials & Chapters

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ISBN: 9781506361253
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