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Essentials of Organizational Behavior
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Essentials of Organizational Behavior
An Evidence-Based Approach

Third Edition


January 2021 | 616 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Concise, practical, and research-based, Essentials of Organizational Behavior equips students with the necessary skills to become effective leaders and managers. Best-selling author Terri A. Scandura uses an evidence-based approach to introduce students to models proven to enhance the well-being, motivation, and productivity of people in the workplace. Experiential exercises and a variety of real-world cases and examples provide students with ample opportunity to apply OB concepts and hone their critical thinking. The Third Edition includes new “What's #Trending in OB?” boxes on timely topics such as social media addiction and virtual work teams during the COVID-19 pandemic; new case studies on important issues such as American Airlines' anti-discrimination protections for LGBTQ workers; and the latest research on topics such as grit and inclusive leadership.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
SECTION I • INTRODUCTION
 
CHAPTER 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
What Is Organizational Behavior?

 
Evidence-Based Management

 
What Is Critical Thinking?

 
Outcomes in Organizational Behavior

 
Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

 
How OB Research Increases Employee Performance

 
Plan for This Textbook

 
Leadership Implications: Thinking Critically

 
 
SECTION II • UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUALS IN ORGANIZATIONS
 
CHAPTER 2 • Personality and Person–Environment Fit
What Is Personality?

 
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

 
The Big Five

 
Personality Traits and Health Research

 
Other Relevant Personality Traits

 
Psychological Capital

 
Person–Environment Fit

 
Leadership Implications: Understanding Others

 
 
CHAPTER 3 • Emotions and Moods
Emotions and Moods at Work

 
Moods

 
Emotional Labor

 
Emotional Intelligence

 
Emotional Contagion

 
Leadership Implications: Mindful Coaching

 
 
CHAPTER 4 • Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
What Is an Attitude?

 
Job Satisfaction

 
Job Search Attitudes

 
Organizational Commitment

 
Perceived Organizational Support

 
Psychological Empowerment

 
Leadership Implications: Creating Meaning at Work

 
 
CHAPTER 5 • Perception, Decision-Making, and Problem-Solving
Understanding Why Perceptual Biases Exist

 
Employability: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies During the Application Process

 
Individual Decision-Making

 
The Rational Decision-Making Model

 
Prospect Theory

 
Intuition

 
Decision Traps

 
Creative Problem-Solving

 
Leadership Implications: Making Ethical Decisions

 
 
SECTION III • INFLUENCING AND MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES
 
CHAPTER 6 • Leadership
What Is Leadership?

 
Path–Goal Theory

 
Leader–Member Exchange

 
The Importance of Trust

 
Full-Range Leadership Development

 
Moral Approaches

 
Leadership Implications: Flexibility Matters

 
 
CHAPTER 7 • Power and Politics
The Difference Between Power and Influence

 
Power

 
Influence Strategies

 
Impression Management

 
Perceptions of Organizational Politics

 
Political Skill

 
Leadership Implications: Managing With Power

 
 
CHAPTER 8 • Motivation: Core Concepts
What Is Motivation?

 
Needs Theories

 
Goal Setting

 
Job Characteristics Theory

 
The Importance of Fairness

 
Expectancy Theory

 
The Pygmalion Effect

 
The Galatea Effect

 
The Golem Effect

 
Leadership Implications: Who Will Lead?

 
 
CHAPTER 9 • Motivation: Applications
Reinforcement Theory

 
Social Learning Theory

 
Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Rewards

 
Self-Determination Theory

 
Performance Management

 
Problems With Performance Reviews

 
Feedback Seeking

 
Leadership Implications: Motivating With Rewards

 
 
SECTION IV • BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS
 
CHAPTER 10 • Group Processes and Teams
What Is a Team?

 
Team Purpose

 
Team Development

 
Team Effectiveness

 
Team Decision-Making

 
Team Challenges

 
Leadership Implications: Empowering the Team

 
 
CHAPTER 11 • Managing Conflict and Negotiation
What Is Conflict?

 
Conflict Resolution Styles

 
Team Conflict and Performance

 
Resolving Conflict Across Cultures

 
Third-Party Interventions

 
Negotiation

 
Leadership Implications: Perspective Taking

 
 
CHAPTER 12 • Organizational Communication
What Is Organizational Communication?

 
Barriers to Effective Communication

 
Communication Networks

 
Electronic Communication

 
Cross-Cultural Communication

 
Nonverbal Communication

 
Leadership Implications: The Management of Meaning

 
 
CHAPTER 13 • Diversity and Cross-Cultural Adjustments
Diversity

 
Generations at the Workplace

 
What Is Culture?

 
Developing Global Leaders

 
Culture Shock

 
Expatriate Adjustment

 
Leadership Implications: Becoming a Global Leader

 
 
SECTION V • LEADERS AS CHANGE AGENTS
 
CHAPTER 14 • Organizational Culture
What Is Organizational Culture?

 
Markets, Bureaucracies, and Clans

 
Strong Organizational Cultures

 
Socialization

 
Organizational Climate

 
Leadership Implications: Culture Change

 
 
CHAPTER 15 • Leading Change and Stress Management
Forces Driving Organizational Change

 
Planned Organizational Change

 
Resistance to Change

 
Leading Change

 
Stress in the Context of Organizational Change

 
What Is Stress?

 
Leadership Implications: Helping Employees Cope

 
 
Appendix 1: The Scientific Method in Organizational Behavior
 
Appendix 2: Organizational Structure
 
Glossary
 
Notes
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index

Supplements

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Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • The Third Edition is available as a digital option through SAGE Vantage, an intuitive digital platform that offers auto-graded assignments and interactive multimedia tools—including video—all designed to enable students to better prepare for class.
  • New “What’s #Trending in OB?” and Research in Action boxes keep readers up to date on timely topics such as social media addiction and virtual work teams during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • New Toolkit Activities provide additional opportunities for students to apply the material through team exercises and role-playing.
  • New and updated Case Studies cover current issues in organizational behavior such as “Perspective Taking: Health Versus Wealth During the COVID-19 Pandemic.”
  • Discussion Questions have been added for all Toolkit Activities and Case Studies.
KEY FEATURES:
  • An organizing framework helps students understand individual behavior and learn how to influence and motivate others, build relationships, and lead change.
  • An evidence-based approach introduces students to theories, models, and concepts that are validated by research with an emphasis on newer approaches.
  • Chapter-opening scenarios feature research on an interesting real-world problem based on research or practice.
  • Leadership Implications at the end of each chapter help students understand how leaders can use OB concepts to affect positive change at the individual, group, and organizational level.
  • Critical Thinking Questions integrated throughout encourage students to pause, think, and then apply the material just covered to an organizational challenge for leaders.
  • Chapter Toolkits in each chapter include key terms, toolkit activities, and a short case study that allow students to review and apply concepts to master the material.

·            PART ISummary of Changes

     

Authors and editors are requested to summarize changes to a revision in two to five descriptive paragraphs. This summary will be posted to our website, www.sagepub.com, and accessible to the public. Please provide this summary in the textbox below (all fields will expand to accommodate your response):

 

 

Chapters have been updated and reorganized to reflect new research in Organizational Behavior. A new Appendix on Organizational Structure has been added to this edition. Many of the opening chapter scenarios on interesting real-world problems based on research or practice have been updated. The Leadership Implications at the end of each chapter have been revised and expanded. Critical Thinking Questions in the chapters have been revised or added to reflect changes in the content of the chapters. New Boxed Inserts in every chapter: What’s #Trending in OB?” highlights current applications of OB research in real organizations or consulting examples. Many of the Research in Action Boxed inserts have been replaced or updated. Cases have been either replaced or expanded in length. Cases cover current issues in organizational behavior such as “Perspective Taking: Health vs. Wealth During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Each chapter will have one or two longer cases (3,000–5,000 words) selected from SAGE business cases (these cases are provided on the Instructor Resources website).

 

 

 

 

·   PART IIChapter-By-Chapter Changes

 

Authors and editors are asked to delineate detailed changes to a revision on a chapter-by-chapter basis. We recommend that you maintain a record of changes over the entire revision process. This report will be kept on file at SAGE in compliance with the legal standards required by the Higher Education Opportunity Act. Please utilize the form below to report chapter-by-chapter changes.

 

 

I.    Overall Book Changes

Please include all additions, deletions, and updates.

 

Table of Contents: (e.g. Reorganization of chapters, chapter deletions, additions, splitting, or combining)

 

 

Several chapters have been reorganized, and a new Appendix on Organizational Structure has been added for this edition.

 

 

Pedagogy and Feature Sets:

 

·         Introductory Chapter Pedagogy

Chapter opening vignettes have been updated or replaced with current examples.

 

·         End-of-Chapter Pedagogy

New toolkit activities and self-assessments have been added or revised. New case studies have been added.

 

 

·         Chapter Features

New boxed inserts, “What’s #Trending in OB?” have been added to each chapter. Research in Action boxed inserts have been updated or replaced. Critical thinking questions have been updated to reflect revisions to the textbook.

 

 

·         Questionnaires/Worksheets

New surveys have been added, and many have been updated. These will now be online and self-scoring to provide feedback to students.

 

·         Glossary

The glossary has been updated to reflect new content.

.

 

·         Table/Figures, and/or Other Art

Many of the Tables and Figures have been updated to reflect current research or better communicate the concepts.

 

 

 

References:

The references have been updated to reflect current (2017-2020) research.

 

 

Overall Manuscript Length:

The textbook has been streamlined in places to maintain approximately the same length while adding more research and a new Appendix on Organizational Structure.

 

 

 

II. Chapter-Specific Changes

Please list changes to each element, including textual revision, tables, maps, charts, figures, data, readings, etc, as applicable.

 

Preface:

 

The preface has been updated to reflect changes in the new edition.

 

 

Foreword:

 

The forward has been updated to reflect changes in the new edition.

 

 

Introduction:

 

This textbook does not have an introduction.

 

 

Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behavior?

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

Summary of Changes:

New opening vignette on the crises in organizations leading to increased CEO turnover.

 

New Research in Action box focusing on the application of evidence-based management (EBM) to increase donations to universities.

 

Expanded coverage of outcomes in OB to include thriving.

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box on “Organizational Behavior in the Gig Economy.”

 

New Case Study on “People Analytics and EBM at Google”

 

New Self-Assessment, “Are You Thriving?”

 

 

Chapter 2: Personality and Person-Environment Fit

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

New opening vignette on the personality effect in Unicorns (a privately-held start-up company with a value of over $1 billion) with a profile of Adam Neumann at WeWork

 

Updated research on personality change, self-monitoring, psychological capital, and person–environment fit

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box on “Personality Traits and Social Media Addiction”

 

New section on resilience, which is positive adaptation to adversity

 

 

Chapter 3: Emotions and Moods

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated research in opening vignette, “Does Lack of Sleep Make You Grumpy?”

 

New research on moral emotions discussed

 

New figures for Affective Events Theory and The Effects of Mood and Affect on Performance that better communicate concepts

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Is It OK to Cry at Work?”

 

New section on Regulating Emotions.

 

Updated Self-Assessments: “The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)” and “Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)”

 

 

Chapter 4: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes

Updated opening vignette with 2017 Society of Human Resource Management job satisfaction report data (and two new figures)

 

New research on generational differences, gender, and trans employee job satisfaction added

 

New Research in Action box, “More than Job Satisfaction: What’s your Calling?” Discussion of ideological contract fulfilment (ICF) and new key term added

 

New figure for Responses to Job Dissatisfaction that better communications the content

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? Box, “Your Attitude May Derail Your Job Search”

 

Expanded and updated research on employee engagement and two new figures added from HR.com

 

New Case Study, “Job Satisfaction in a Network of Family-Owned Companies”

 

 

Chapter 5: Perception, Decision Making, and Problem Solving

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

New chapter opening, “Would You Be Happier if You Were Richer?” to introduce the effects of perceptions on personal wealth

 

New Research in Action box, “Perception Is not Reality”

 

New discussion of big data analytics in decision-making with key terms added

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Using Big Data Analytics to Improve Decisions.” Examples from Coca-Cola, Netflix, Whole Foods, and Tesla included

 

New Figure for Three-Component Model of Creativity to better communicate the content

 

New Leadership Implications focusing on making ethical decisions

 

New Case Study, “Making Decisions Using Machine Learning at Lufthansa”

 

 

Chapter 6: Leadership

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated opening vignette with new 2019 Edelman Trust Barometer data (and a new figure)

 

New research on personality traits, trust, and humble leadership added

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Is Narcissism Good for Business?” (updated from previous edition)

 

New figure for path–goal theory that better communicates the content

New research on inclusive leadership (and a new section) added

 

New research on followership (and a new section) added

 

New figure for Relational Attributions in Response to a Negative Career Event added that better communicates the content

 

New Case Study, “Melissa Reiff: Servant Leader of The Container Store”

 

 

 

Chapter 7: Power and Politics

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Chapter has been reorganized and begins with discussion of the difference between power and influence.

 

New research on influence tactics, impression management, perceptions of politics, and political skill added.

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Power and Ethics: Making Tough Choices”

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Motivation: Core Concepts

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated research on grit in chapter opening.

 

Updated research in Research in Action Box, “Who Cares About Fairness?”

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Putting the Past Behind You: Performance Resets and Motivation”

 

New Case Study, “Vision Boards at Lululemon”

 

Updated research on Maslow’s hierarchy, goal setting, and job characteristics theory

 

 

 

Chapter 9: Motivation: Applications

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated research on the meaning of money and gift exchange in chapter opening

 

Updated research on intrinsic motivation and pay dispersion

 

New figure for The Self-Determination Continuum of Research to better communicate the content

 

New What’s Trending in OB? box, “New Directions in Performance Reviews: Beyond the Bell Curve”

 

Updated discussion of remote working with discussion of the shift due to COVID-19

 

New Case Study, “Increasing Motivation at Delta One Chennai”

 

Revised Self-Assessment, “What Motivates You?”

 

 

 

Chapter 10: Group Processes and Teams

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated chapter opening, “Does Trust Impact Team Performance?”

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Distributed Virtual Work Teams During COVID-19”

 

Expanded coverage of virtual teams and how leaders can build trust in virtual teams

 

New table (updated) summarizing best practices in virtual team leadership

 

Expanded discussion of knowledge exchange, innovation, and leading diversity in multicultural teams

 

Expanded discussion of leadership implications for empowerment in self-managed work teams

 

Updated and streamlined Self-Assessment, “The Team Leadership Inventory (TLI)”

 

 

 

Chapter 11: Managing Conflict and Negotiation

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated opening vignette with new statistics on the costs of workplace conflict, and new summary figure

 

Updated research on leadership and conflict resolution, mindfulness, incivility, workplace aggression, workplace violence, and team conflict

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Minefields in Managing Organizational Conflict”

 

Updated research in Research in Action box, “Is Workplace Bullying Becoming more Uncivilized? Send in Miss Manners!”

 

Expanded discussion of negotiation with new sections on Emotions at the Bargaining Table and Cross-Cultural Negotiation

 

Discussion of failed negotiation between Daimler and Chrysler

 

New figure describing Steps in the Negotiation Process added.

 

Updated leadership implications on perspective taking on conflict and negotiation

 

New Case Study, “Perspective Taking: Health vs. Wealth During the COVID-19 Pandemic.”

 

Updated and streamlined Self-Assessment, “Conflict Resolution Styles”

 

 

Chapter 12: Organizational Communication

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated opening vignette on “thin-slicing” includes a discussion of communication in teams.

 

Updated research on anxiety and communication competence, active listening by leaders, upward communication, the grapevine, and communication in global virtual teams

 

New figure to describe the communication process

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Organizational Communication during a Crisis”

 

Added discussion of the United Airlines case in which an Asian doctor was aggressively dragged from a plane and the resulting external communications challenge faced by the airline

 

Updated sections and statistics in Electronic Communication section, including the use of social networks

 

Expanded discussion of videoconferencing which includes statistics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

 

 

Chapter 13: Diversity and Cross-Cultural Adjustments

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Updated opening vignette on trends impacting diversity inclusion focusing on the wage gap for women and minorities in the workplace, including new research on the future of diversity at work

 

Updated research on generations, cultural values, multiculturalism, expatriate careers, and performance

 

Expanded coverage of generations at the workplace from four to five to include generation Z

 

Updated table to reflect the five generations in the workforce

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “Managing Someone Older Than Yourself”

 

New section and figure on The Global Mindset

 

Updated Research in Action box now includes a new case example of an Italian COO of a technology company in Mumbai who has difficulty motivating Indian employees.

 

New Leadership Implications with updated ESPN mission statement

New Case Study, “A Corporate Coming Out at American Airlines,” focusing on LGBT issues in the workplace

 

Updated Self-Assessment, “Do You Have a Global Mindset?”

 

 

 

Chapter 14: Organizational Culture

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

New opening vignette, “The Team Culture at Warby Parker”

 

Updated research on organizational growth mindset, the relationship of organizational culture to organizational performance, and socialization

 

New figure for Schein’s Levels of Culture

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box on transparent organizational cultures, featuring the social media company Buffer

 

Updated example of storytelling: Jack Ma of Alibaba

 

New Research in Action Box, “Benefits of Organizational Diversity Climates”

 

Expanded discussion of ethical climate

 

Updated Leadership Implications on culture change focusing on the impact of management practices on culture and discussing the case of Brian Chesky, cofounder and CEO of Airbnb as an example

 

New Case Study, “Changing the Culture at Boeing,” discussing the 737 MAX crisis

 

 

 

Chapter 15: Leading Change and Stress Management

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

New opening vignette, “Leading Change in a VUCA World,” (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous), with updated research, and discussion of leadership skills for an uncertain world

 

Updated research on appreciative inquiry, Lewin’s model, readiness for change, performance pressure and stress, gender and social support, and employee assistance programs

 

Added discussion of the triple bottom line (TBL) to the section on sustainability

 

Expanded discussion of the leader’s role in organizational change

 

Updated table, Forces Driving Organizational Change, to include life-threatening events (natural disasters, terrorism, and pandemics as examples)

 

New figure, The Evolution of Work

 

New figure, Top Causes of Stress Prior to COVID-19, added as well as statistics on stress before and during the pandemic.

 

New What’s #Trending in OB? box, “The Sunday Scaries,” which describes how worry, fear, and anxiety about the upcoming workweek begin for some people on Sunday afternoon.

 

Updated Leadership Implications section with new figure, Managing Change Versus Leading Change. Also, expanded discussion of compassionate leadership.

 

New Case Study, “Organizational Change at Amazon”

 

 

 

Chapter 16: Appendix 1: The Scientific Method in Organizational Behavior

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Minor edits to this Appendix.

 

 

Chapter 17: Appendix 2: Organizational Structure

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

This is a new Appendix that covers Organizational Charts, Organizational Design, Forms of Organizational Structure, and Management Hierarchies

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