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Evaluation for Health Policy and Health Care

Evaluation for Health Policy and Health Care
A Contemporary Data-Driven Approach

Edited by:

September 2019 | 336 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This is the contemporary, applied text on evaluation that your students need.

Evaluation for Health Policy and Health Care: A Contemporary Data-Driven Approach explores the best practices and applications for producing, synthesizing, visualizing, using, and disseminating health care evaluation research and reports. This graduate-level text will appeal to those interested in cutting-edge health program and health policy evaluation in this era of health care innovation. Editors Steven Sheingold and Anupa Bir’s core text focuses on quantitative, qualitative, and meta-analytic approaches to analysis, providing a guide for both those executing evaluations and those using the data to make policy decisions. It is designed to provide real-world applications within health policy to make learning more accessible and relevant, and to highlight the remaining challenges for using evidence to develop policy.

List of Figures and Tables
About the Editors
Chapter 1. Introduction
Background: Challenges and Opportunities

Evaluation and Health Care Delivery System Transformation

The Global Context for Considering Evaluation Methods and Evidence-Based Decision Making

Book’s Intent

Chapter 2. Setting the Stage
Typology for Program Evaluation

Planning an Evaluation: How Are the Changes Expected to Occur?

Developing Evaluations: Some Preliminary Methodological Thoughts

Prospectively Planned and Integrated Program Evaluation


Chapter 3. Measurement and Data
Guiding Principles

Measure Types

Measures of Structure

Measures of Process

Measures of Outcomes

Selecting Appropriate Measures

Data Sources

Looking Ahead


Chapter 4. Causality and Real-World Evaluation
Evaluating Program/Policy Effectiveness: The Basics of Inferring Causality

Defining Causality

Assignment Mechanisms

Three Key Treatment Effects

Statistical and Real-World Considerations for Estimating Treatment Effects


Chapter 5. Randomized Designs
Randomized Controlled Trials

Stratified Randomization

Group Randomized Trials

Randomized Designs for Health Care


Chapter 6. Quasi-experimental Methods: Propensity Score Techniques
Dealing With Selection Bias

Comparison Group Formation and Propensity Scores

Regression and Regression on the Propensity Score to Estimate Treatment Effects


Chapter 7. Quasi-experimental Methods: Regression Modeling and Analysis
Interrupted Time Series Designs

Comparative Interrupted Time Series

Difference-in-Difference Designs

Confounded Designs

Instrument Variables to Estimate Treatment Effects

Regression Discontinuity to Estimate Treatment Effects

Fuzzy Regression Discontinuity Design

Additional Considerations: Dealing With Nonindependent Data


Chapter 8. Treatment Effect Variations Among the Treatment Group
Context: Factors Internal to the Organization

Evaluation Approaches and Data Sources to Incorporate Contextual Factors

Context: External Factors That Affect the Delivery or Potential Effectiveness of the Treatment

Individual-Level Factors That May Cause Treatment Effect to Vary

Methods for Examining the Individual Level Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects

Multilevel Factors

Importance of Incorporating Contextual Factors Into an Evaluation


Chapter 9. The Impact of Organizational Context on Heterogeneity of Outcomes: Lessons for Implementation Science
Context for the Evaluation: Some Examples From Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation

Evaluation for Complex Systems Change

Frameworks for Implementation Research

Organizational Assessment Tools

Analyzing Implementation Characteristics


Chapter 10. Evaluation Model Case Study: The Learning System at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation
Step 1: Establish Clear Aims

Step 2: Develop an Explicit Theory of Change

Step 3: Create the Context Necessary for a Test of the Model

Step 4: Develop the Change Strategy

Step 5: Test the Changes

Step 6: Measure Progress Toward Aim

Step 7: Plan for Spread


Chapter 11. Program Monitoring: Aligning Decision Making With Evaluation
Nature of Decisions

Cases: Examples of Decisions

Evidence Thresholds for Decision Making in Rapid-Cycle Evaluation


Chapter 12. Alternative Ways of Analyzing Data in Rapid-Cycle Evaluation
Statistical Process Control Methods

Regression Analysis for Rapid-Cycle Evaluation

A Bayesian Approach to Program Evaluation


Chapter 13. Synthesizing Evaluation Findings

Meta-evaluation Development for Health Care Demonstrations

Meta-regression Analysis

Bayesian Meta-analysis

Putting It Together


Chapter 14. Decision Making Using Evaluation Results
Research, Evaluation, and Policymaking

Program/Policy Decision Making Using Evidence: A Conceptual Model

Multiple Alternatives for Decisions

A Research Evidence/Policy Analysis Example: Socioeconomic Status and the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program

Other Policy Factors Considered

Advice for Researchers and Evaluators

Chapter 15. Communicating Research and Evaluation Results to Policymakers
Suggested Strategies for Addressing Communication Issues

Other Considerations for Tailoring and Presenting Results

Closing Thoughts on Communicating Research Results

Appendix A: The Primer Measure Set
Appendix B: Quasi-experimental Methods That Correct for Selection Bias: Further Comments and Mathematical Derivations
Propensity Score Methods

An Alternative to Propensity Score Methods

Assessing Unconfoundedness

Using Propensity Scores to Estimate Treatment Effects

Unconfounded Design When Assignment Is at the Group Level



Instructor Resource Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. 
  • Lecture Notes, including Outline and Objectives, which may be used for lecture and/or student handouts.
  • Case studies from SAGE Research Methods accompanied by critical thinking/discussion questions.  
  • Tables and figures from the printed book are available in an easily-downloadable format for use in papers, hand-outs, and presentations.
Student Study Site

Open-access Student Resources include case studies from SAGE Research Methods accompanied by critical thinking/discussion questions.

 “This text offers a general introduction to the process and methods used to conduct rigorous and timely evaluations of health policies and programs using real-world examples. It would make an excellent text for a program evaluation course.”

Brad Wright
University of Iowa

“A must read for anyone interested in monitoring and evaluation! The text does a great job addressing the important ingredients for a successful evaluation.”

Sandra Schrouder
Barry University

 “Evaluating health policies and programs can be a very challenging process because the evaluation itself is so often an afterthought, leading to a variety of data issues that can produce biased results and poor policy decisions. This book provides an outstanding–yet highly accessible–overview of a wide variety of methods that evaluators can use to minimize these biases and generate robust evidence for decision-makers.”

Larry R. Hearld
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Key features
  • Pedagogical features like learning objectives, discussion questions, and practice data and code make this easy to use in a classroom setting.
  • Applications and modern methodological approaches make the book useful in evaluation settings.
  • Real-word examples throughout keep the evaluation methods anchored within the health policy discourse.
  • The book focuses on communicating evidence-based results to policymakers, including by using interactive and visual methods.

Sage College Publishing

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