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Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice
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Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice
Critical Issues and Directions



© 2015 | 312 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Uniting forensics, law, and social science in meaningful and relevant ways, Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice is structured around current research on how forensic evidence is being used and how it is impacting the justice system. This unique book—written by nationally known scholars in the field—includes five sections that explore the demand for forensic services, the quality of forensic services, the utility of forensic services, post-conviction forensic issues, and the future role of forensic science in the administration of justice. The authors offer policy-relevant directions for both the criminal justice and forensic fields and demonstrate how the role of the crime laboratory in the American justice system is evolving in concert with technological advances as well as changing demands and competing pressures for laboratory resources.
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
Section I. The Demand for Forensic Services
Joseph L. Peterson
Chapter 1. A Historical Review of the Demand for Forensic Evidence
Introduction  
Estimating the Demand for Forensic Evidence  
What Is Physical Evidence and What Can It Tell Us?  
Physical Evidence Presence--Historical Indicators  
Macro Forces Influencing Utilization Patterns  
Crime Laboratory Census Results  
Up-to-Date Utilization Patterns From the "Role and Impact" Study  
Conclusion  
References  
Rachel Dioso-Villa
Chapter 2. Is There Evidence of a "CSI Effect"?
Introduction  
CSI's Depictions of Forensic Science  
Cultivation Theory  
Typology of CSI Effects Found in Media Accounts  
Evidence of the CSI Effect  
The Perceived CSI Effect  
Juror Expectations and Their Understanding of Forensic Science  
What Can Be Done?  
Conclusion  
References  
Matthew J. Hickman and Kevin J. Strom
Chapter 3. What We Know (and Don't Know) About Evidence Backlogs
Introduction  
What Is a "Backlog"?  
What Are the Sources of Backlog?  
What Do We "Know" About the Nature and Scope of Forensic Backlog?  
The Problem of Artificial Backlog  
Do Backlogs Represent Justice Delayed and Justice Denied, or Simply Justice "Satisficed"?  
References  
 
Section II. The Quality of Forensic Services
Barry A. J. Fisher
Chapter 4. Adopting a Research Culture in the Forensic Sciences
Introduction  
Why a Research Culture Does Not Currently Exist in the Forensic Sciences  
Recent Developments in the Forensic Sciences  
Factors Affecting the Admissibility of Forensic Science  
Contemporary Challenges Facing Forensic Science  
References  
Reinoud D. Stoel, Charles E. H. Berger, Wim Kerkhoff, Erwin J. A. T. Mattijssen, and Itiel E. Dror
Chapter 5. Minimizing Contextual Bias in Forensic Casework
Introduction  
Historical Background  
Psychological Background  
Levels of Contextual Information  
How to Deal With Contextual Information  
Outlook and Conclusion  
References  
Jay Siegel
Chapter 6. A Survey of Ethical Issues in the Forensic Sciences
Introduction  
Discussion of Ethical Issues  
Toward a National Code of Ethics in Forensic Science  
 
Section III. The Utility of Forensic Services
Sally Kelty, Roberta Julian, and Robert Hayes
Chapter 7. The Impact of Forensic Evidence on Criminal Justice: Evidence From Case-Processing Studies
Introduction  
The Impact of Forensic Evidence (FE) on Solvability and Case-Processing Outcomes: Evidence From the Literature  
Conceptual Framework and Case-Processing Model of Critical Decisions and Leakage Points in Homicide Cases: Findings From the Effectiveness of Forensic Science in the Criminal Justice System (EFS) Project  
Conclusion  
Cases  
References  
Michael D. White, Andrea R. Borrego, and David A. Schroeder
Chapter 8. Assessing the Utility of DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations
Introduction  
Empirical Evidence on the Utility of DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations  
Explanatory Frameworks for Understanding Law Enforcement's Use of DNA Evidence  
Conclusion  
References  
Nina W. Chernoff
Chapter 9. Forensic Science: The Prosecutor's Role
Introduction  
The Rules That Govern Prosecutors' Use of Forensic Evidence  
Why the Rules Do Not Produce Prosecutors Who Are Honest About the Reliability of Forensic Evidence  
The Need for Accuracy Advocates  
Conclusion  
Notes  
 
Section IV. Post-Conviction Issues
John M. Collins Jr.
Chapter 10. The Problems and Challenges of Evidence Retention
Introduction  
Personnel  
Safe and Secure Facilities  
Inventory and Disposition  
Forensic Testing  
Jurisdictional Case Management  
Conclusion  
References  
Kristen Skogerboe
Chapter 11. Innovation, Success, Error, and Confidence in Forensic DNA Testing
Introduction  
History of DNA and Its Application in Criminal Justice  
The Role of DNA in Highlighting Limitations in Other Forensic Disciplines  
The Intersection of Success, Innovation, and Risk of Error in DNA Testing  
The Road to Testing and Exonerations: DNA From a Chemist's Perspective  
Innovation, Challenges, and Emerging Issues in Forensic DNA Testing  
Achieving and Maintaining Confidence With a Research Mentality and Quality Assurance  
References  
 
Section V. The Future Role of Forensic Science in the Administration of Justice
Max M. Houck and Paul J. Speaker
Chapter 12. Developing New Business Models for Forensic Laboratories
Introduction  
Economic Foundations  
Metrics and Measurement  
A Balanced View  
Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness  
Identifying the Best Business Models for Forensic Laboratories  
Conclusion  
References  
Kevin J. Strom and Matthew J. Hickman
Chapter 13. Rethinking the Role of the Crime Laboratory in Criminal Justice Decision Making
Introduction  
The Changing Role of the Crime Laboratory  
Laboratory Decision Making  
Promising Examples of Crime Laboratory Decision-Making Policies  
Conclusion  
References  
Walter F. Rowe
Chapter 14. The Future of Forensic Science
Introduction  
Technological Developments  
Administrative Changes in Forensic Science  
Forensic Science Education  
Conclusion  
References  
 
Index
 
About the Editors
 
About the Contributors

Great for additional resources.

Miss Nicole Waters
Accounting , New College Durham
September 12, 2016

Useful as a great teacher resource to present back to students.

Miss Nicole Waters
Accounting , New College Durham
June 27, 2016

This book contains two excellent chapters that are relevant to this course. The first is on bias, and this has been added to the syllabus for the first time this academic year. It is very useful to have a concise chapter that the students can read as an introduction to the area. The other useful chapter for this course is the one on ethics in forensic science. We are preparing our students for roles as practitioners, therefore they should be aware of, and prepared for, any ethical issues they may encounter in their work.

Dr Hilary Hamnett
College of Medical, Veterinary & Life, Glasgow University
February 18, 2016
Key features

KEY FEATURES:

  • Fills a void in the market through a unique and much-needed perspective
  • Reflects the central theme that social science research can inform us about the utility of forensic science with respect to both the criminal investigative and adjudicative processes
  • Explores the scientific underpinnings of forensic services, including the accuracy and scientific methods of certain forensic disciplines, as well as the influence of externalities (such as potential biases that can be presented by analysts)

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1


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ISBN: 9781452276885

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