# Fundamental Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences

- Howard T. Tokunaga - San Jose State University, USA

**Fundamental Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences,**, places statistics within the research process, illustrating how they are used to answer questions and test ideas. Students learn not only how to calculate statistics, but also how to interpret and communicate the results of statistical analyses in light of a study’s research hypothesis. Featuring accessible writing and well-integrated research examples, the book gives students a greater understanding of how research studies are conceived, conducted, and communicated.

*Second Edition*The

**Second**

**Edition**includes a new chapter on regression; covers how collected data can be organized, presented and summarized; the process of conducting statistical analyses to test research questions, hypotheses, and issues/controversies; and examines statistical procedures used in research situations that vary in the number of independent variables in the study. Every chapter includes learning checks, such as review questions and summary boxes, to reinforce the content students just learned, and exercises at the end of every chapter help assess their knowledge.

Also new to the Second Edition -- animated video tutorials! Watch the demo video from Chapter 2 now!

1.1 What Is Statistics? |

1.2 Why Learn Statistics? |

1.3 Introduction to the Stages of the Research Process |

1.4 Plan of the Book |

1.5 Looking Ahead |

1.6 Summary |

1.7 Important Terms |

1.8 Exercises |

2.1 An Example From the Research: Winning the Lottery |

2.2 Why Examine Data? |

2.3 Examining Data Using Tables |

2.4 Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables |

2.5 Examining Data Using Figures |

2.6 Examining Data: Describing Distributions |

2.7 Looking Ahead |

2.8 Summary |

2.9 Important Terms |

2.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

2.11 Using IBM SPSS Software |

2.12 Exercises |

3.1 An Example From the Research: The 10% Myth |

3.2 Understanding Central Tendency |

3.3 The Mode |

3.4 The Median |

3.5 The Mean |

3.6 Comparison of the Mode, Median, and Mean |

3.7 Measures of Central Tendency: Drawing Conclusions |

3.8 Looking Ahead |

3.9 Summary |

3.10 Important Terms |

3.11 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

3.12 Exercises |

4.1 An Example From the Research: How Many “Sometimes” in an “Always”? |

4.2 Understanding Variability |

4.3 The Range |

4.4 The Interquartile Range |

4.5 The Variance (s2) |

4.6 The Standard Deviation (s) |

4.7 Measures of Variability for Populations |

4.8 Measures of Variability for Nominal Variables |

4.9 Measures of Variability: Drawing Conclusions |

4.10 Looking Ahead |

4.11 Summary |

4.12 Important Terms |

4.13 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

4.14 Using SPSS |

4.15 Exercises |

5.1 Example: SAT Scores |

5.2 Normal Distributions |

5.3 The Standard Normal Distribution |

5.4 Applying z-Scores to Normal Distributions |

5.5 Standardizing Frequency Distributions |

5.6 Looking Ahead |

5.7 Summary |

5.8 Important Terms |

5.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

5.10 Exercises |

6.1 A Brief Introduction to Probability |

6.2 Example: Making Heads or Tails of the Super Bowl |

6.3 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing |

6.4 Issues Related to Hypothesis Testing: An Introduction |

6.5 Looking Ahead |

6.6 Summary |

6.7 Important Terms |

6.8 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

6.9 Exercises |

7.1 An Example From the Research: Do You Read Me? |

7.2 The Sampling Distribution of the Mean |

7.3 Inferential Statistics: Testing One Sample Mean (s Known) |

7.4 A Second Example From the Research: Unique Invulnerability |

7.5 Introduction to the t-Distribution |

7.6 Inferential Statistics: Testing One Sample Mean (s Not Known) |

7.7 Factors Affecting the Decision About the Null Hypothesis |

7.8 Looking Ahead |

7.9 Summary |

7.10 Important Terms |

7.11 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

7.12 Using SPSS |

7.13 Exercises |

8.1 An Example From the Research: Salary Survey |

8.2 Introduction to the Confidence Interval for the Mean |

8.3 The Confidence Interval for the Mean (s Not Known) |

8.4 The Confidence Interval for the Mean (s Known) |

8.5 Factors Affecting the Width of the Confidence Interval for the Mean |

8.6 Interval Estimation and Hypothesis Testing |

8.7 Looking Ahead |

8.8 Summary |

8.9 Important Terms |

8.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

8.11 Using SPSS |

8.12 Exercises |

9.1 An Example From the Research: You Can Just Wait |

9.2 The Sampling Distribution of the Difference |

9.3 Inferential Statistics: Testing the Difference Between Two Sample Means |

9.4 Inferential Statistics: Testing the Difference Between Two Sample Means (Unequal Sample Sizes) |

9.5 Inferential Statistics: Testing the Difference Between Paired Means |

9.6 Looking Ahead |

9.7 Summary |

9.8 Important Terms |

9.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

9.10 Using SPSS |

9.11 Exercises |

10.1 Hypothesis Testing vs. Criminal Trials |

10.2 An Example From the Research: Truth or Consequences |

10.3 Two Errors in Hypothesis Testing: Type I and Type II Error |

10.4 Controlling Type I and Type II Error |

10.5 Measures of Effect Size |

10.6 Looking Ahead |

10.7 Summary |

10.8 Important Terms |

10.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

10.10 Exercises |

11.1 An Example From the Research: It’s Your Move |

11.2 Introduction to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) |

11.3 Inferential Statistics: One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) |

11.4 A Second Example: The Parking Lot Study Revisited |

11.5 Analytical Comparisons Within the One-Way ANOVA |

11.6 Looking Ahead |

11.7 Summary |

11.8 Important Terms |

11.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

11.10 Using SPSS |

11.11 Exercises |

12.1 An Example From the Research: Vote—or Else! |

12.2 Introduction to Factorial Research Designs |

12.3 The Two-Factor (A × B) Research Design |

12.4 Introduction to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for the Two-Factor Research Design |

12.5 Inferential Statistics: Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) |

12.6 Investigating a Significant A × B Interaction Effect: Analysis of Simple Effects |

12.7 Looking Ahead |

12.8 Summary |

12.9 Important Terms |

12.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

12.11 Using SPSS |

12.12 Exercises |

13.1 An Example From the Research: It’s Good for You! |

13.2 Introduction to the Concept of Correlation |

13.3 Inferential Statistics: Pearson Correlation Coefficient |

13.4 Correlating Two Sets of Ranks: The Spearman Rank-Order Correlation |

13.5 Correlational Statistics vs. Correlational Research |

13.6 Looking Ahead |

13.7 Summary |

13.8 Important Terms |

13.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

13.10 Using SPSS |

13.11 Exercises |

14.1 Predicting One Variable From Another: Linear Regression |

14.2 Correlation With Two or More Predictors: Introduction to Multiple Correlation and Regression |

14.3 Looking Ahead |

14.4 Summary |

14.5 Important Terms |

14.6 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

14.7 Using SPSS |

14.8 Exercises |

15.1 An Example From the Research (One Categorical Variable): Are You My Type? |

15.2 Introduction to the Chi-Square Statistic |

15.3 Inferential Statistic: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test |

15.4 An Example From the Research (Two Categorical Variables): Seeing Red |

15.5 Inferential Statistic: Chi-Square Test of Independence |

15.6 Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests |

15.7 Looking Ahead |

15.8 Summary |

15.9 Important Terms |

15.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

15.11 Using SPSS |

15.12 Exercises |

### Supplements

** SAGE edge for Instructors** supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

**Test banks**in Word format and ExamView provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.**Sample course syllabi**forsemester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring your courses. - Editable, chapter-specific
**PowerPoint® slides**offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course. **Multimedia content**includes original SAGE videos featuring tutorials with author Howard T. Tokunaga that bring concepts to life and appeal to diverse learners.**Lecture notes**summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.**Course cartridge**for easy LMS integration**Answers to even-numbered questions from the text**help facilitate grading.**SPSS datasets**are available for use with exercises from the text.

__SAGE edge____ for Students__

**provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.**

- Mobile-friendly
**eFlashcards**strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts. - Mobile-friendly practice
**quizzes**allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material. **Multimedia content**includes original SAGE animated tutorial videos bring concepts to life and appeal to diverse learners.**SPSS datasets**are available for use with exercises from the text.

“I think this is some of the best explanation for these concepts that I have read.”

**Longwood University**

“I appreciate the structures, the simplicity in the language, the clarity and the ability to pull material that is appropriate for college level courses.”

**Fleming College**

“I think the author has a strong command and grasp of the material which he demonstrates by providing students with a multitude of examples and formulas that are easy to understand and broken down into digestible portions for students to absorb at their own pace. The writing style of the author is excellent…He spends a significant amount of time decomposing and deconstructing complex ideas related to the measures of central tendency for both novice and expert students of statistics in a user-friendly and approachable tone.”

**Albright College**

“The writing style is nice and easy to follow.”

**University of Pennsylvania**

HEOA Compliance

####
**Available formats**

ISBN: 9781506377476 | Electronic Version | Suggested Retail Price: $80.00 | Bookstore Price: $64.00 |

ISBN: 9781506377483 | Paperback | Suggested Retail Price: $100.00 | Bookstore Price: $80.00 |

Should you need additional information or have questions regarding the HEOA information provided for this title, including what is new to this edition, please email sageheoa@sagepub.com. Please include your name, contact information, and the name of the title for which you would like more information. For information on the HEOA, please go to http://ed.gov/policy/highered/leg/hea08/index.html.

We hope you'll consider this SAGE text. Email us at info@sagepub.com, or click here to find your SAGE rep.

**SAGE**

2455 Teller Road

Thousand Oaks, CA 91320

www.sagepub.com

### Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 4 Measures of Variability

Chapter 9 Testing the Difference Between Two Means