# Fundamental Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences

- Howard T. Tokunaga - San Jose State University, USA

**Fundamental Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences,**, places statistics within the research process, illustrating how they are used to answer questions and test ideas. Students learn not only how to calculate statistics, but also how to interpret and communicate the results of statistical analyses in light of a study’s research hypothesis. Featuring accessible writing and well-integrated research examples, the book gives students a greater understanding of how research studies are conceived, conducted, and communicated.

*Second Edition*The

**Second**

**Edition**includes a new chapter on regression; covers how collected data can be organized, presented and summarized; the process of conducting statistical analyses to test research questions, hypotheses, and issues/controversies; and examines statistical procedures used in research situations that vary in the number of independent variables in the study. Every chapter includes learning checks, such as review questions and summary boxes, to reinforce the content students just learned, and exercises at the end of every chapter help assess their knowledge.

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1.1 What Is Statistics? |

1.2 Why Learn Statistics? |

1.3 Introduction to the Stages of the Research Process |

1.4 Plan of the Book |

1.5 Looking Ahead |

1.6 Summary |

1.7 Important Terms |

1.8 Exercises |

2.1 An Example From the Research: Winning the Lottery |

2.2 Why Examine Data? |

2.3 Examining Data Using Tables |

2.4 Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables |

2.5 Examining Data Using Figures |

2.6 Examining Data: Describing Distributions |

2.7 Looking Ahead |

2.8 Summary |

2.9 Important Terms |

2.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

2.11 Using IBM® SPSS® Software |

2.12 Exercises |

3.1 An Example From the Research: The 10% Myth |

3.2 Understanding Central Tendency |

3.3 The Mode |

3.4 The Median |

3.5 The Mean |

3.6 Comparison of the Mode, Median, and Mean |

3.7 Measures of Central Tendency: Drawing Conclusions |

3.8 Looking Ahead |

3.9 Summary |

3.10 Important Terms |

3.11 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

3.12 Exercises |

4.1 An Example From the Research: How Many “Sometimes” in an “Always”? |

4.2 Understanding Variability |

4.3 The Range |

4.4 The Interquartile Range |

4.5 The Variance (s2) |

4.6 The Standard Deviation (s) |

4.7 Measures of Variability for Populations |

4.8 Measures of Variability: Drawing Conclusions |

4.9 Looking Ahead |

4.10 Summary |

4.11 Important Terms |

4.12 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

4.13 Using SPSS |

4.14 Exercises |

5.1 Example: SAT Scores |

5.2 Normal Distributions |

5.3 The Standard Normal Distribution |

5.4 Applying z-Scores to Normal Distributions |

5.5 Standardizing Frequency Distributions |

5.6 Looking Ahead |

5.7 Summary |

5.8 Important Terms |

5.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

5.10 Exercises |

6.1 A Brief Introduction to Probability |

6.2 Example: Making Heads or Tails of the Super Bowl |

6.3 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing |

6.4 Issues Related to Hypothesis Testing: An Introduction |

6.5 Looking Ahead |

6.6 Summary |

6.7 Important Terms |

6.8 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

6.9 Exercises |

7.1 An Example From the Research: Do You Read Me? |

7.2 The Sampling Distribution of the Mean |

7.3 Inferential Statistics: Testing One Sample Mean (? Known) |

7.4 A Second Example From the Research: Unique Invulnerability |

7.5 Introduction to the t-Distribution |

7.6 Inferential Statistics: Testing One Sample Mean (? Not Known) |

7.7 Factors Affecting the Decision About the Null Hypothesis |

7.8 Looking Ahead |

7.9 Summary |

7.10 Important Terms |

7.11 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

7.12 Using SPSS |

7.13 Exercises |

8.1 An Example From the Research: Salary Survey |

8.2 Introduction to the Confidence Interval for the Mean |

8.3 The Confidence Interval for the Mean (? Not Known) |

8.4 The Confidence Interval for the Mean (? Known) |

8.5 Factors Affecting the Width of the Confidence Interval for the Mean |

8.6 Interval Estimation and Hypothesis Testing |

8.7 Looking Ahead |

8.8 Summary |

8.9 Important Terms |

8.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

8.11 Using SPSS |

8.12 Exercises |

9.1 An Example From the Research: You Can Just Wait |

9.2 The Sampling Distribution of the Difference |

9.3 Inferential Statistics: Testing the Difference Between Two Sample Means |

9.4 Inferential Statistics: Testing the Difference Between Two Sample Means (Unequal Sample Sizes) |

9.5 Inferential Statistics: Testing the Difference Between Paired Means |

9.6 Looking Ahead |

9.7 Summary |

9.8 Important Terms |

9.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

9.10 Using SPSS |

9.11 Exercises |

10.1 Hypothesis Testing vs. Criminal Trials |

10.2 An Example From the Research: Truth or Consequences |

10.3 Two Errors in Hypothesis Testing: Type I and Type II Error |

10.4 Controlling Type I and Type II Error |

10.5 Measures of Effect Size |

10.6 Looking Ahead |

10.7 Summary |

10.8 Important Terms |

10.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

10.10 Exercises |

11.1 An Example From the Research: It’s Your Move |

11.2 Introduction to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) |

11.3 Inferential Statistics: One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) |

11.4 A Second Example: The Parking Lot Study Revisited |

11.5 Analytical Comparisons Within the One-Way ANOVA |

11.6 Looking Ahead |

11.7 Summary |

11.8 Important Terms |

11.9 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

11.10 Using SPSS |

11.11 Exercises |

12.1 An Example From the Research: Vote—or Else! |

12.2 Introduction to Factorial Research Designs |

12.3 The Two-Factor (A × B) Research Design |

12.4 Introduction to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for the Two-Factor Research Design |

12.5 Inferential Statistics: Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) |

12.6 Investigating a Significant A × B Interaction Effect: Analysis of Simple Effects |

12.7 Looking Ahead |

12.8 Summary |

12.9 Important Terms |

12.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

12.11 Using SPSS |

12.12 Exercises |

13.1 An Example From the Research: It’s good for you! |

13.2 Introduction to the Concept of Correlation |

13.3 Inferential Statistics: Pearson Correlation Coefficient |

13.4 Predicting One Variable From Another: Linear Regression |

13.5 Correlating Two Sets of Ranks: The Spearman Rank-Order Correlation |

13.6 Correlational Statistics vs. Correlational Research |

13.7 Looking Ahead |

13.8 Summary |

13.9 Important Terms |

13.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

13.11 Using SPSS |

13.12 Exercises |

14.1 Predicting One Variable From Another: Linear Regression |

14.2 Correlation With Two or More Predictors: Introduction to Multiple Correlation and Regression |

14.3 Looking Ahead |

14.4 Summary |

14.5 Important Terms |

14.6 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

14.7 Using SPSS |

14.8 Exercises |

15.1 An Example From the Research (One Categorical Variable): Are You My Type? |

15.2 Introduction to the Chi-Square Statistic |

15.3 Inferential Statistic: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test |

15.4 An Example From the Research (Two Categorical Variables): Seeing Red |

15.5 Inferential Statistic: Chi-Square Test of Independence |

15.6 Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests |

15.7 Looking Ahead |

15.8 Summary |

15.9 Important Terms |

15.10 Formulas Introduced in This Chapter |

15.11 Using SPSS |

15.12 Exercises |

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