- Indexed In: PubMed, Google Scholar, HINARI, SCOPUS, and DOAJ
- Published by SAGE since 2012
- Publication is subject to payment of an article processing charge (APC)
- Submit here
Global Advances in Health and Medicine (Global Advances) is a peer-reviewed open access journal created to provide catalytic global communications services to the rapidly developing worldwide movement in health and medicine that integrates all knowledge of therapeutic approaches and lifestyle practices that promote health and healing. Please see the Aims and Scope tab for further information.
This journal is published in association with Academic Consortium for Integrative Medicine & Health.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Submit your manuscript today at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gahm.
Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.
Open access article processing charge (APC) information
Publication in the journal is subject to payment of an article processing charge (APC). The APC serves to support the journal and ensures that articles are freely accessible online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.
The APC for this journal is currently an introductory rate of $900 USD discounted from the full rate of 1800 USD. This introductory rate is available for a limited time.
The article processing charge (APC) is payable only if your article is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Tax-exempt status can be indicated by providing appropriate registration numbers when payment is requested. Please see further details here.
Please direct any queries to email@example.com
- Contact the editorial office with general inquiries only. Submissions must go through the submission site here.
Why Publish in Global Advances?
- Visibility and Impact: Anyone anywhere in the world can read, use and cite your research
- Rigorous Standards: Single-blind peer review policy
- Flexibility: Authors can publish full data sets, figures, tables, etc.
- Copyright: Authors retain copyright under a Creative Commons License. Click here for more information.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine (Global Advances) is the peer reviewed, open access journal that is the official publication of the Academic Consortium for Integrative Medicine & Health. It was created to provide catalytic global communications services to the rapidly developing worldwide movement in health and medicine that integrates all knowledge of therapeutic approaches and lifestyle practices that promote health and healing.
From the onset, its objective has been to improve health outcomes worldwide by promoting more and broader dialogue and collaboration among healthcare providers from various disciplines, and across diverse practice patterns, cultures, and industry fields—all to create a solid multidimensional foundation for a timely shift in the direction of healthcare. With an emphasis on whole-person care, Global Advances recognizes that the causes and manifestations of illness, health, and wellbeing reflect an interplay between the individual’s mind, body, and spirit as each person encounters all elements of the human condition—physical, social, and environmental—as coherently organized, interconnected, and interdependent parts.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine publishes original research, brief reports, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, case reports and case series dealing with the full range of whole-person health and well-being, from the perspective of the individual to the community. The journal’s goal is to provide the broad diversity of health professionals with the latest knowledge from basic, clinical, epidemiological research to population health.
Topics of interest include but are not limited to:
- Interventions to promote health and wellness, prevent illness, foster healthier lifestyles
- Treatments for symptoms and disease that focus on whole-person approaches
- Strategies to prevent disease progression and provide palliative care
- Randomized clinical trials of lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity in adolescents in underserved populations
- Investigations of biomarkers that are associated with greater responses to specific dietary approaches for Type II diabetes
- Predictors of enrollment in mindfulness or lifestyle interventions following myocardial infraction
Articles dealing with policy, ethical, and economic issues relevant to health and medicine will be included to inform the global health community. To foster exchange and insight, letters to the editor, viewpoints, feature articles, personal narrative essays, healing images, and poems will be included. Global Advances will also report on new tools and use technologies to drive innovation and improve the communication of journal content
- You can submit your manuscript through the submission website here: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gahm
- Please refer to the Submission Guidelines tab for more information before submitting your manuscript.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine is an Open Access journal that requires authors to pay a fee for production and Open Access publication of accepted articles. An introductory rate of $900 USD is available for a limited time, discounted from the full rate of $1,800
|Gurjeet Birdee, MD||Vanderbilt University Medical Center, USA|
|Holger Cramer, PhD||University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany|
|Nicole Culos-Reed, PhD||University of Calgary, Canada|
|Adam Goode, PhD, DPT||Duke University, USA|
|Linda Carlson||University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada|
|Margaret Chesney, PhD||University of California, San Francisco, USA|
|Delia Chiaramonte, MD||University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA|
|Lorenzo Cohen||M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, USA|
|Chris D'Adamo, PhD||University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA|
|Richard J. Davidson, PhD||University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA (cognitive neuroscience)|
|Maryanna Klatt||Ohio State University, USA|
|Ben Kligler, MD||Veterans Health Administration, USA|
|Helene Langevin MD||Harvard University, USA|
|Paul J. Mills||University of California, San Diego, USA|
|Arya Nielson PhD||Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA|
|Don Penzien, PhD||Wake Forest School of Medicine, USA|
|Melinda Ring||Northwestern University, USA|
|Paolo Roberti di Sarsina, MD||University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy|
|Rob Saper MD||Boston University, USA|
|Karen Sherman PhD||Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, USA|
|Victor S. Sierpina||University of Texas, Medical Branch at Galveston, USA|
|David Victorson, PhD||Northwestern University, USA|
|Peter Wayne PhD||Harvard University, USA|
|Ruth Wolever, PhD||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Gloria Yeh MD||Harvard University, USA|
|Fadel Zeidan, PhD||Wake Forest School of Medicine, USA|
This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.
Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Global Advances in Health and Medicine will be reviewed.
As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.
Please Read the Manuscript Submission Guidelines below before submitting your manuscript here:
- Open Access
- Article processing charge (APC)
- What do we publish?
3.1 Aims & scope
3.2 Article types
3.3 Writing your paper
3.3.1 Making your article discoverable
- Editorial policies
4.1 Peer Review Policy
4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
4.7 Clinical Trials
4.8 Reporting guidelines
- Publishing policies
5.1 Publication ethics
5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
- Preparing your manuscript
6.1 Word processing formats
6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
6.3 Supplementary material
6.4 Reference style
6.5 English language editing services
- Submitting your manuscript
7.1 How to submit your manuscript
7.2 Title, keywords and abstracts
7.3 Information required for completing your submission
- On acceptance and publication
8.1 SAGE Production
8.2 Continuous publication
8.3 Promoting your article
- Further information
Global Advances in Health and Medicine is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted
by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a
Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are
covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or
author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.
If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge
(APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely
available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons licence.
An introductory article processing charge (APC) of $900, discounted from the full rate of $1,800, is
available for a limited time.
Before submitting your manuscript to Global Advances in Health and Medicine, please ensure
you have read the Aims & Scope.
It is preferred that submissions do not exceed the word counts listed below. Structured
abstracts should be 150 to 250 words depending on the article type. Abstracts should include
the following sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. For a clinical
trial, include the ClinicalTrials.gov or other such registry identification number at the end of the
These articles include but are not limited to intervention studies, randomized controlled trials,
nonrandomized controlled trials, cost and comparative effectiveness analyses, observational
studies, qualitative and mixed methods, survey research, basic and translational science, and
quality improvement reports. Most manuscripts should be prepared according to the standard
format of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion, as recommended by the International
Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The Discussion should present possible
explanations for the results, place the results into the context of the existing literature, state
study limitations, and suggest any implications for future studies, practice, policy, or education.
For randomized controlled trials, please refer to the CONSORT Statement guidelines. Extensions
of the Consort Statement should be used when appropriate and available (eg, herbal medicine
interventions, acupuncture interventions, nonpharmacologic treatment interventions). For
observational studies, please refer to the STROBE Statement checklists.
Maximum manuscript length: 3500 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and
references), up to 50 references, and no more than 5 tables and/or figures. A structured 300-
word abstract is required.
Brief reports are a format for pilot studies, small-scale studies, and reports on research that
extend beyond previously reported results.
Maximum length: 150-word structured abstract, 1200 words (not including abstract, tables,
figures, and references), one table or figure, and up to 10 references.
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
Systematic reviews address a specific question or issue and provide an evidence-based,
balanced, and comprehensive review of the literature on a focused topic. Meta-analyses are
systematic, critical, quantitative summaries of literature and data sources on a focused topic.
Reviews should include the clinical question, its relevance, the search strategy used, a
description of databases, inclusion and exclusion criteria, a synthesis of the evidence, and
discussion of controversial or unresolved issues. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of
randomized controlled trials should follow the PRISMA reporting guidelines and checklist. Meta-
analyses of observational studies should follow the MOOSE reporting guidelines and checklist.
Maximum length: 3500 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references), no more
than 5 tables or figures, and up to 75 references. A structured 300-word (maximum) abstract is
Case Reports/Case Series
Occasionally, the editors will publish case reports in the journal. A case report is a narrative
description of the clinical course of one patient. A case series includes more than one case
report of a similar intervention or problem. Case reports of interventions at the level of the
healthcare team, organization, community, or health system will also be considered. Case
reports can function to generate hypotheses, suggest novel therapeutic approaches, stimulate
future studies, raise awareness of safety concerns, or highlight underappreciated aspects of
patient care. Authors are encouraged to include a timeline with precise dates and times. The
narrative of a case report usually includes (1) presenting concerns, history, timeline, and
diagnosis, (2) intervention(s), (3) intervention tolerability and unanticipated events, and (4)
discussion. The discussion can include placing the case report into the context of the existing
literature (if any), limitations, and implications. Case reports should follow the standardized
guidelines as developed by Global Advances in Health and Medicine and provided here.
Maximum manuscript length: 1500 words and up to 10 references. An abstract of no more than
200 words is required.
Viewpoints are opinion-based essays supported by evidence that typically focus on important
problems, challenges, or controversies related to advancing global health and well-being
through whole-person, whole-systems care.
Maximum length: 1500 words and 10 references.
Narrative manuscripts focus on innovative, cutting-edge clinical, educational, program, or policy
developments related to advancing global health and well-being through whole-person, wholesystems
Maximum manuscript length: 3000 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and
references) with no more than 5 tables or figures and up to 50 references. A nonstructured
abstract (250-word limit) is required.
“In My Own Words”
These are personal narrative essays written in the first person by clinicians, patients, or those
close to them. Essays may reflect a personal or professional experience related to whole-person,
whole-systems health and care that would be of interest to our readers.
Maximum length: 1500 words and up to 5 references.
Contributors are invited to submit timely information for periodically run columns. Format,
length, and topics vary with different columns. Although these are usually solicited by the
editors, authors may contact the editors with a proposed column relevant to the mission
of Global Advances in Health and Medicine.
Letters to the Editor
Letters in response to a recent issue of Global Advances in Health and Medicine should be
submitted within 4 weeks of the article’s publication in print. Letters to the editor should have
no more than 3 authors. Include the full name, academic degrees, a single institutional affiliation
for each author, and the email address of the corresponding author. If a letter is accepted for
publication, the authors of the original Global Advances in Health and Medicine article will be
given the opportunity to write a reply.
Maximum length: 400 words of text and 5 references, 1 of which should be the recent Global
Advances in Health and Medicine article
The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to
When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title,
keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search
engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article,
write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway:
How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online
The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. Global Advances
in Health and Medicine utilizes a single-blind peer review process in which the reviewer’s name
and information is withheld from the author. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible,
while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the
Editor who then makes the final decision.
The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for
possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by
alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor / Board member will have no
involvement in the decision-making process.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine is committed to delivering high quality, fast peerreview
for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service
that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for Global Advances in
Health and Medicine can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them
automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their
review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and
the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons
Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing
authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed
to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all
(i) Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition,
analysis or interpretation of data,
(ii) Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
(iii) Approved the version to be published,
(iv) Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public
responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have
participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the
When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the
individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully
meet the criteria for authorship.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone
does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for
authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International
Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an
Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person
who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
4.3.1 Writing assistance
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do
not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors
must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of
input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of
Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a
consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page
on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the
event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency
in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
It is the policy of Global Advances in Health and Medicine to require a declaration of conflicting
interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all
Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of
your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists,
please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.
For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical
Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct,
Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers
reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant
Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure
that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether
participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in
the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for
patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally
Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants
All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics
committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has
adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals
published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials
are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient
enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and
registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.
The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type
of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include
a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should
be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and metaanalyses
should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed
PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The
EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to
refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the
Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement,
plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect
the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published
articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted
articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is
found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without
permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is
contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an
erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head
of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies;
or taking appropriate legal action.
5.1.2 Prior publication
If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE
journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be
considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in
doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.
Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s
Publishing Agreement. Global Advances in Health and Medicine publishes manuscripts under
Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by
Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows others to re-use the work without
permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more
information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page
Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder
mandates, made at the author’s request.
The preferred formats for your manuscript are Word, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted.
Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our
The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right
hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point.
For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please
visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines
Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.
This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images
etc) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the
article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files,
which can be found within our Manuscript Submission Guidelines page.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine adheres to the AMA reference style. Please review the
guidelines on AMA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.
For an additional fee, Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or
figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE
Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further
Global Advances in Health and Medicine is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online
submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit
https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gahm to login and submit your article online.
IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to
create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely
that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript
online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.
Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. The title,
keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search
engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your
article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author
Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.
More information on abstracts for Global Advances in Health and Medicine can be found in
section 3.2 Article types.
Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and
telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should
be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.
You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the
submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must
match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the
required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files
(including reporting guidelines where relevant).
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process
SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID
provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher
and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission,
supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities ensuring that
their work is recognized.
We encourage all authors to add their ORCIDs to their SAGE Track accounts and include their
ORCIDs as part of the submission process. If you don’t already have one you can create one
Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any
illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further
information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our
Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.
If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the
contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been check for SAGE Production,
the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link.
Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online
within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the
APC has been received.
Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the
production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be
returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all
author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and
that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there
are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign
a form authorizing the change.
One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to
publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully
citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time
it will be completely free to view and download for all. Articles are batched every year and are
then available in the Archive.
Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is
as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help
you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.
In addition, SAGE is partnered with Kudos, a free service that allows authors to explain, enrich,
share, and measure the impact of their article. Find out how to maximize your article’s impact
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission
process should be sent to the Global Advances in Health and Medicine editorial office as follows: