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How to Teach Balanced Reading and Writing
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How to Teach Balanced Reading and Writing

Second Edition
Edited by:


May 2006 | 288 pages | Corwin

"Any teacher can use this book regardless of the reading program a district may be using. It brings the various practices of reading and writing together in a practical and useful way."
-Betty Ann Collinge, Kindergarten/First Grade Teacher
Green Acres Elementary School, North Haven, CT

"This book's major strengths include straightforward writing, clear discussion of topics, excellent graphic samples, strong attention to a balanced perspective, and practical ideas."
-Jennifer Trujillo, Assistant Professor, Teacher Education
Fort Lewis College

"The book is easy to follow and very accessible. It is not too esoteric or philosophical, yet includes important theory and knowledge about learning. The suggestions are excellent, relevant, and inclusive."
-Karen Heath, Literacy Coordinator
Barre Schools, VT  

Use these practical strategies to help students develop strong reading and writing skills!

Reading is a complex process. And in today's increasingly diverse classrooms, each student has unique learning needs. In the face of these challenges, how can teachers ensure that all students develop essential literacy skills?

How to Teach Balanced Reading and Writing provides practical, research-based strategies for all aspects of literacy education. Presenting best practices in an easy-to-use format, literacy expert Bonnie Burns supplies guidance for providing direct instruction in phonics, using authentic texts, building word recognition, strengthening comprehension, and implementing writing across the curriculum. Aligned with the National Reading Panel Report (2000) and Reading First legislation, this book offers strategies to use with students at all developmental levels.

This second edition has been extensively revised to include ·

  • A discussion of language acquisition
  • Strategies for assessing phonemic awareness
  • Techniques for developing fluency
  • Increased attention to the needs of diverse learners
  • Additional instructional activities in every chapter

Because of its flexibility, this book is suitable for both novice and experienced teachers. Its friendly, accessible format also makes it an ideal text for preservice teachers and students in education courses.


 
Preface
 
Publisher's Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
1. Balanced Reading and Writing
The Reading Wars  
Combined Approaches  
Whole-Part-Whole Model of Instruction  
Continuing to Define Balanced Instruction  
Integrating the Language Arts  
Levels of Support and Intensity of Instruction  
Balancing Student- and Teacher-Centered Instruction  
 
2. Getting Ready to Read
Concept of Reading  
Language Acquisition  
Sociocultural and Other Factors That Affect Reading  
Emergent Literacy  
Letter and Word Recognition  
Comprehension and Beginning Readers  
Choosing Texts for Beginning Readers  
Emergent Writing  
Success in First Grade Is Critical  
 
3. Developing Phonemic Awareness
Developing Phonemic Awareness  
The Alphabetic Principle  
Phonological Awareness and Alphabet Knowledge  
Phonemic Awareness Skills  
When Should Phonemic Awareness Be Taught?  
Balancing Phonemic Awareness  
Initial Activities for Learning Phonological Awareness  
Phonemic Awareness Activities  
At-Risk Readers  
Resources for Phonemic Awareness  
 
4. Teaching Word Recognition
The Debate About Phonics  
How Does Word Recognition Develop?  
Word Recognition in a Balanced Reading Program  
Approaches to Teaching Phonics  
Activities to Teach Word Recognition  
Phonics and Older Students Who Struggle With Reading  
Assessing Sound-Symbol Relationships  
 
5. Fluency
Fluency Is Linked to Comprehension  
Assessing Fluency  
Factors Affecting Fluency  
Individual Methods for Improving Fluency  
Whole-Class Methods for Improving Fluency  
Reading Rates  
Other Fluency Issues  
Thinking About Rate for Older Students  
 
6. Guided Reading
What Is Guided Reading?  
Leveled Groups  
Planning and Logistical Management  
Procedures  
Teaching Comprehension During Guided Reading  
Questioning  
Variations  
 
7. Grouping for Reading and Choosing Books
Reading Groups  
Whole-Group Instruction  
Small-Group Instruction  
Independent Reading  
Responding to Literature  
Children Need to Read Extensively  
Choosing Books  
The Advantage of Great Literature  
 
8. Instruction for Comprehension
Capable and Less-Capable Readers  
An Instructional Model for Teaching Comprehension  
Factors Affecting Comprehension  
Comprehension Strategies  
Comprehension Activities for Before Reading  
Comprehension Skills and Strategies During Reading  
Comprehension Strategies for After Reading  
Strategies for Higher Level Thinking: Inferring, Generalizing, Evaluating  
Putting It All Together  
Influencing the Attitude and Motivation of Readers  
 
9. Vocabulary Instruction
Vocabulary Development  
Depth of Word Knowledge  
Is It Worthwhile to Teach Vocabulary?  
Indirect Teaching of Vocabulary  
Choosing Words for Direct Teaching  
Prereading Activities for Teaching Vocabulary Directly  
Extension Activities for Directly Teaching Vocabulary  
Teaching Students Strategies for Learning New Words  
Reviewing Vocabulary With a Magic Square  
Assessing Vocabulary  
 
10. Teaching and Learning Spelling
Stages of Spelling Development  
Characteristics of Good and Poor Spellers  
Spelling Should Be Taught Developmentally  
Activities to Encourage or Teach Spelling  
Techniques for Transitional Spellers  
Spelling Rules  
What About Spelling Tests?  
 
11. Balanced Writing
Elements of the Writing Process  
Developmental Stages of Writing  
Balanced Writing Instruction  
Writers’ Workshop  
Structured Writing  
Audiences and Genres  
Writing in Response to Reading  
Looking Back at Objectives and Balanced Writing  
 
12. Reading and Writing in the Content Areas
The Differences Between a Textbook and a Novel  
Trade Books and Text Sets  
Removing Obstacles to Comprehension With Prereading Activities  
Removing the Obstacles of Concept Vocabulary  
Guiding Comprehension During the Reading Process  
Responding to Texts After Reading  
Standard Techniques That Do Not Work Well  
 
13. Assessment
Determining Reading Level With an Informal Reading Inventory  
Diagnostic Assessment  
Informal Classroom Assessment  
Standardized Assessment  
Assessing Assessment  
 
References
 
Index

"The idea of balance in literacy is critical. This book models the fact that good teachers need to draw from a variety of approaches to achieve balance. Its major strengths include straightforward writing, clear discussion of topics, excellent graphic samples, strong attention to a balanced perspective and practical ideas."

Jennifer Trujillo, Assistant Professor, Teacher Education
Fort Lewis College

"One of the strongest aspects of this book is that any teacher can use it regardless of the reading program a district may be using. It brings the various practices of reading and writing and pulls them together in a practical and useful way that any teacher can incorporate into a reading/writing program."

Betty Ann Collinge, Kindergarten and First Grade Teacher
Green Acres Elementary School, North Haven, CT

"The book is easy to follow, very accessible - not too esoteric or philosophical, but includes important theory and knowledge about learning - and the messages are right on. As a discerning language arts specialist, I can honestly say that the positions and suggestions are excellent, relevant, and inclusive."

Karen Heath, Literacy Coordinator
Barre Schools, VT

"This volume offers practical examples and will be especially appreciated by novice teachers."

Curriculum Connections, Spring 2007
School Library Journal

Voted by Faculty

Mrs Tonya Nwaneri
College Of Education, Austin Peay State University
May 8, 2015

Sample Materials & Chapters

Preface

Chapter 1


Preview this book

For instructors

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