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Introduction to Criminal Justice

Introduction to Criminal Justice
Practice and Process

Third Edition
Experience with SAGE edge

January 2018 | 520 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

A practical and applied introduction to criminal justice

Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process shows students how to think practically about the criminal justice system by offering them a proven, problem-based approach to learning.  Bestselling authors Kenneth J. Peak and Tamara D. Madensen draw on their many years of combined practitioner and academic experience to explain the importance of criminal justice and show how key trends, emerging issues, historical background, and practical lessons can be applied in the field.

The Third Edition of this highly anticipated text continues to build on its success by discussing core topics—policing, corrections, criminal behavior, criminal law, and courts—as well as current issues—ethics, mental illness and crime, illegal immigration—to demonstrate how to solve common problems faced by practitioners in today’s criminal justice system. This student-friendly book offers a palpable, real-world flavor typically missing in other texts for the course.

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Interactive eBook
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Careers in Criminal Justice, Second Edition
Prepare students to plan, pursue, and realize their career goals!
Save when you bundle Careers in Criminal Justice, 2e with the new edition by Peak. Order using bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-2186-8

Part I. Criminal Justice as a System: The Basics
Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: Essential Themes and Practices
Foundations of Criminal Justice: Legal and Historical Bases  
Crime Control and Due Process: Do Ends Justify Means?  
Discretion: Making and Applying the Law  
The Criminal Justice Process: An Overview of Flow and Functions  
The Wedding Cake Model of Criminal Justice  
Ethics Throughout the Criminal Justice System  
Chapter 2. Foundations of Law and Crime: Nature, Elements, and Defenses
Common Law and Its Progeny  
Modern-Day Sources and Hierarchy of Law  
Criminal and Civil Law  
Substantive and Procedural Law  
Essential Elements: Mens Rea and Actus Reus  
Felonies and Misdemeanors  
Offense Definitions and Categories  
Chapter 3. Theories of Crime and Measuring Victimization
Classical and Positivist Theories  
Biological, Trait, and Developmental Theories  
Social Structure Theories  
Social Process Theories  
Social Conflict Theories  
Feminist Theories  
Environmental Criminology Theories  
In Their Own Words: Offenders Speak  
Measuring Crime and Victimization  
Chapter 4. Ethical Essentials: “Doing Right When No One Is Watching”
Good Examples of Bad Examples  
Philosophical Foundations  
Ethics in Policing  
Ethics in the Courts  
Ethical Conduct of Federal Employees  
Ethics in Corrections  
The Ethical Decision-Making Process  
Ethics Tests for the Criminal Justice Student  
Part II. The Police
Chapter 5. Police Organization: Structure and Functions
English and Colonial Roots: An Overview  
Policing Comes to the United States  
Federal Law Enforcement  
State Agencies  
Local Agencies: Municipal Police and Sheriff’s Departments  
Interested in a Career? Some General Considerations  
On Guard: The Private Police  
Chapter 6. Police at Work: Patrolling and Investigating
From Citizen to Patrol Officer  
Having the “Right Stuff”: A Working Personality  
Defining the Role  
Stressors of Police Work  
Police Discretion  
Community Policing and Problem Solving  
The Work of Forensics and Detectives  
Chapter 7. Policing Methods and Challenges: Issues of Force, Liability, Technologies
Use of Force: A Sacred Trust  
When Failing the Public Trust: Civil Liability  
Selected Technologies: Uses and Concerns  
Chapter 8. Expounding The Constitution: Laws of Arrest, Search, and Seizure
The Fourth Amendment  
The Fifth Amendment  
The Sixth Amendment  
Part III. The Courts
Chapter 9. Court Organization: Structure, Functions, and the Trial Process
Our Adversarial System  
American Courts: A Dual Court System  
State Courts  
Federal Courts  
Making Preparations: Pretrial Processes  
The Trial Process  
Chapter 10. The Bench And The Bar: Those Who Judge, Prosecute, and Defend
Those Who Would Be Judge: Selection Methods and Issues  
Jurists’ Benefits, Training, and Challenges  
The Art of Judging, Courtroom Civility, and Judicial Misconduct  
The Attorneys  
Courtroom Work Group  
Chapter 11. Court Methods and Challenges: Sentencing and Punishment
Purposes of Punishment  
Types of Sentences to Be Served  
Sentencing Guidelines  
Victim Impact Statements  
Capital Punishment  
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances  
Criminal Appeals  
Part IV. Corrections
Chapter 12. Prisons and Jails: Structure and Function
Correctional Facilities as Organizations  
State Prisons as Organizations  
Federal Prisons  
Supermax Prisons  
Private Prisons  
Jails as Organizations  
Technologies in Correctional Facilities: The Good and the Bad  
Chapter 13. The Inmates’ World: The “Keepers” and the “Kept”
The Nature of Incarceration  
Prison as Work  
Issues of Prison Governance  
Preparation for Reentry and Aftercare  
Prisoners’ Constitutional Rights  
Jail Personnel  
Chapter 14. Corrections in the Community: Probation, Parole, and Other Alternatives to Incarceration
Why Alternatives to Incarceration?  
Origins of Probation and Parole  
Probation and Parole Today  
Do Probation and Parole Work?  
Functions of Probation and Parole Officers  
Other Alternatives: Intermediate Sanctions  
Confronting Recidivists: The Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) Model  
Restorative Justice  
Part V. Spanning the System: Methods and Issues
Chapter 15. Juvenile Justice: Philosophy, Law, and Practices
History of Juvenile Justice  
Unique Philosophy, Principles, and Goals  
Juvenile Offending Today  
Case Flow of the Juvenile Justice Process  
The Problem of Labeling  
Youth Gangs: An Overview  
Significant Court Decisions  
Chapter 16. On the Crime Policy and Prevention Agenda: Terrorism, the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System, and the Threat of Illegal Immigration
The “New Asylums”: The Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System  
Immigration and Crime  


Student Study Site

SAGE EDGE FOR STUDENTS enhances learning, it’s easy to use, and offers:

  • Mobile-friendly flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, and make it easy to maximize your study time, anywhere, anytime
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes that allow you to assess how much you’ve learned and where you need to focus your attention
  • Learning objectives that reinforce the most important material
  • Video resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives, and make learning easier.
  • Exclusive access to influential SAGE journal articles, that ties important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning.
Instructor Resouce Site

SAGE COURSEPACKS FOR INSTRUCTORS makes it easy to import our quality content into your school’s learning management system (LMS)*. Intuitive and simple to use, it allows you to



Say NO to…

·         required access codes

·         learning a new system



Say YES to…

·         using only the content you want and need

·         high-quality assessment and multimedia exercises



*For use in: Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle


Don’t use an LMS platform? No problem, you can still access many of the online resources for your text via SAGE edge.


SAGE coursepacks includes:

·         Our content delivered directly into your LMS

·         Intuitive, simple format that makes it easy to integrate the material into your course with minimal effort

  • Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the interactive eBook version, linked through SAGE coursepacks) that is tied to learning objectives, and curated and produced exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to diverse learner, featuring:

o    Student on the Street videos that breathe life into concepts with stories drawn from common student misconceptions of criminal justice

    • Video interviews with criminal justice professionals offer students career advice, provide insights into a variety of career paths, and discuss challenges and misconceptions of each profession.
    • Corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to your gradebook

o    Comprehensive, downloadable, easy-to-use Media Guide in the Coursepack for every video resource, listing the chapter to which the video content is tied, matching learning objective(s), a helpful description of the video content, and assessment questions

·         Assessment tools that foster review, practice, and critical thinking, and offer a more complete way to measure student engagement, including:

o    Diagnostic chapter pre tests and post tests that identify opportunities for improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives

o    Test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy that provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation

o    Activity and quiz options that allow you to choose only the assignments and tests you want

o    Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and resources provided

·         Chapter-specific discussion questions to help launch engaging classroom interaction while reinforcing important content

·         EXCLUSIVE, influential SAGE journal and reference content, built into course materials and assessment tools, that ties important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning

·         Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures so you don’t have to start from scratch but you can customize to your exact needs

·         Sample course syllabi with suggested models for structuring your course that give you options to customize your course in a way that is perfect for you

·         Lecture notes that summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help you with preparation for lectures and class discussions

·         Integrated links to the interactive eBook that make it easy for your students to maximize their study time with this “anywhere, anytime” mobile-friendly version of the text. It also offers access to more digital tools and resources, including SAGE Premium Video

·         All tables and figures from the textbook

“This text provides a clear and interesting format through which students may understand often difficult criminal justice concepts. Peak provides students with an interactive format for learning, complete with up-to-date supplementary information. The text is concise, informative and interesting.”

Tameka Samuels-Jones
University of Florida
Key features


  • New video interviews with criminal justice professionals offer students career advice, provide insights into a variety of career paths, and discuss challenges and misconceptions of each profession.
  • An emphasis on constitutional policing, legitimacy, and procedural justice stresses the importance for police to develop a “guardian” mindset over a “soldier” mindset.
  • New discussions of contemporary criminological theories—such as social structure theories, social process theories, social conflict theories, feminist theories, and environmental criminology theories—provide students with a concise explanation on why people commit crimes and how to prevent them in the modern world.
  • An in-depth view of three particularly challenging problems and policy issues—terrorism, the mentally ill population, and illegal immigration—demonstrate how today’s society and the criminal justice system are affected by these issues and what can be done to address the problems.
  • New examples and case studies of ethical dilemmas illustrate today's climate of distrust, dissension, and dysfunction to encourage students to think critically about what is considered “ethical”. 


  • An Interactive eBook includes all of the pages from the printed text in an easy-to-use electronic format, plus video and audio links, links to helpful learning tools from the student study site and interactive study features such as highlighting, roll-over terms definitions, note-taking, and more.
  • Practitioner’s Perspectives allow students to hear from police, court, and corrections professionals about the nature of their work, academic preparation, and the decisions they make every day.
  • Investigating Further feature boxes highlight high-interest topics, such as the Boston Marathon Bomber, social media and crime, and the use of drones.
    Going Global boxes offer comparative content to show students how similar criminal justice matters have been handled in other countries.
  • Learn by Doing exercises at the ends of chapters give students an opportunity to apply what they learn to real-life scenarios.
  • An entire chapter dedicated to current policy issues includes up-to-date coverage of terrorism, criminal justice and mentally ill offenders, and changing drug laws.
  • Chapter-opening self-assessments, case studies, Learning Objectives, and Chapter Introductions help orient students to the material ahead.
  • Chapter Summaries, Key Terms, and Review Questions enhance student mastery and help them prepare for exams.
  • You Be the?.?.?.? boxes offer a broader range of perspectives for students to take on, such as those of sentencing commissioners and policy makers.

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