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Introductory Statistics Using SPSS
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Introductory Statistics Using SPSS

Second Edition


© 2017 | 312 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The updated Second Edition of Herschel Knapp’s friendly and practical introduction to statistics shows students how to properly select, process, and interpret statistics without heavy emphasis on theory, formula derivations, or abstract mathematical concepts. Each chapter is structured to answer questions that students most want answered: What statistical test should I use for this situation? How do I set up the data? How do I run the test? How do I interpret and document the results? Online tutorial videos, examples, screenshots, and intuitive illustrations help students "get the story" from their data as they learn by doing, completing practice exercises at the end of each chapter using prepared downloadable data sets.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
PART I: STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES
 
1. Research Principles
Learning Objectives  
Overview—Research Principles  
Rationale for Statistics  
Research Questions  
Treatment and Control Groups  
Rationale for Random Assignment  
Hypothesis Formulation  
Reading Statistical Outcomes  
Accept or Reject Hypotheses  
Variable Types and Levels of Measure  
Continuous  
Interval  
Ratio  
Categorical  
Nominal  
Ordinal  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
2. Sampling
Learning Objectives  
Overview—Sampling  
Rationale for Sampling  
Time  
Cost  
Feasibility  
Extrapolation  
Sampling Terminology  
Population  
Sample Frame  
Sample  
Representative Sample  
Probability Sampling  
Simple Random Sampling  
Stratified Sampling  
Proportionate and Disproportionate Sampling  
Systematic Sampling  
Area Sampling  
Nonprobability Sampling  
Convenience Sampling  
Purposive Sampling  
Quota Sampling  
Snowball Sampling  
Sampling Bias  
Optimal Sample Size  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
3. Working in SPSS
Learning Objectives  
Video  
Overview—SPSS  
Two Views: Variable View and Data View  
Variable View  
Name  
Type  
Width  
Decimals  
Label  
Values  
Missing  
Columns  
Align  
Measure  
Role  
Data View  
Value Labels Icon  
Codebook  
Saving Data Files  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
PART II: STATISTICAL PROCESSES
 
4. Descriptive Statistics
Learning Objectives  
Videos  
Overview—Descriptive Statistics  
Descriptive Statistics  
Number (n)  
Mean (µ)  
Median  
Mode  
Standard Deviation (SD)  
Variance  
Minimum  
Maximum  
Range  
SPSS—Loading an SPSS Data File  
Run SPSS  
Data Set  
Test Run  
SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Continuous Variables (age)  
Statistics Tables  
Histogram With Normal Curve  
Skewed Distribution  
SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Categorical Variables (gender)  
Statistics Tables  
Bar Chart  
SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Continuous Variable (age) Select by Categorical Variable (gender)—Female or Male Only  
SPSS—(Re)Selecting All Variables  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
5. t Test and Mann-Whitney U Test
Learning Objectives  
Videos  
Overview—t Test  
Example  
Research Question  
Groups  
Procedure  
Hypotheses  
Data Set  
Pretest Checklist  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance  
Test Run  
Results  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance  
p Value  
Hypothesis Resolution  
a Level  
Documenting Results  
Type I and Type II Errors  
Type I Error  
Type II Error  
Overview—Mann-Whitney U Test  
Test Run  
Results  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
6. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis Test
Learning Objectives  
Videos  
Layered Learning  
Overview—ANOVA  
Example  
Research Question  
Groups  
Procedure  
Hypotheses  
Data Set  
Pretest Checklist  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance  
Test Run  
Results  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance  
Comparison 1—Text : Text With Illustrations  
Comparison 2—Text : Video  
Comparison 3—Text With Illustrations : Video  
Hypothesis Resolution  
Documenting Results  
Overview—Kruskal-Wallis Test  
Test Run  
Results  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
7. Paired t Test and Wilcoxon Test
Learning Objectives  
Videos  
Overview—Paired t Test  
Pretest/Posttest Design  
Step 1: Pretest  
Step 2: Treatment  
Step 3: Posttest  
Example  
Research Question  
Groups  
Procedure  
Step 1: Pretest  
Step 2: Treatment  
Step 3: Posttest  
Hypotheses  
Data Set  
Pretest Checklist  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality of Difference  
Test Run  
Results  
Hypothesis Resolution  
Documenting Results  
?% Formula  
Overview—Wilcoxon Test  
Test Run  
Results  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
8. Correlation and Regression—Pearson and Spearman
Learning Objectives  
Videos  
Overview—Pearson Correlation  
Example 1—Pearson Regression  
Research Question  
Groups  
Procedure  
Hypotheses  
Data Set  
Pretest Checklist  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality  
Test Run  
Correlation  
Regression (Scatterplot With Regression Line)  
Results  
Scatterplot Points  
Scatterplot Regression Line  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—Linearity  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homoscedasticity  
Correlation  
Hypothesis Resolution  
Documenting Results  
Negative Correlation  
No Correlation  
Overview—Spearman Correlation  
Example 2—Spearman Correlation  
Research Question  
Groups  
Procedure  
Hypotheses  
Data Set  
Pretest Checklist  
Test Run  
Results  
Hypothesis Resolution  
Documenting Results  
Alternative Use for Spearman Correlation  
Correlation Versus Causation  
Overview—Other Types of Statistical Regression: Multiple Regression and Logistic Regression  
Multiple Regression (R2)  
Logistic Regression  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
9. Chi-Square
Learning Objectives  
Video  
Overview—Chi-Square  
Example  
Research Question  
Groups  
Procedure  
Hypotheses  
Data Set  
Pretest Checklist  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—n = 5 per Cell  
Test Run  
Results  
Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—n = 5 per Cell  
Hypothesis Resolution  
Documenting Results  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
PART III: DATA HANDLING
 
10. Supplemental SPSS Operations
Learning Objectives  
Data Sets  
Overview—Supplemental SPSS Operations  
Generating Random Numbers  
Sort Cases  
Data Set  
Select Cases  
Data Set  
Recoding  
Data Set  
Importing Data  
Importing Excel Data  
Data Set  
Importing ASCII Data (Generic Text File)  
Data Set  
SPSS Syntax  
Data Set  
Data Sets  
Good Common Sense  
Key Concepts  
Practice Exercises  
 
Glossary
 
Index

Supplements

Student Study Site

The Student Study Site includes:

  • Data sets for use with exercises
  • Tutorial videos demonstrating how to use SPSS to work with data
  • Solutions to the odd-numbered exercises in the book
Instructor Teaching Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides that offer complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course
  • Tutorial videos demonstrating how to use SPSS to work with data
  • Solutions to the all of the exercises in the book

"This student-friendly text, coupled with an ample number of practice exercises and instructional videos for each chapter, provided my students with the resources to become proficient in using SPSS to perform and interpret the statistical analyses covered in the course. In addition, this text emphasizes and models the written communication of results and conclusions derived from research."

Linda Ritchie
Centenary University

“I find the videos extremely helpful. Of particular note was the pre-test checklist. This list helps students to understand what criteria need to be met for the test to be used. The directions provided are incredibly detailed and provide ample guidance to students with limited computer skills….Overall, I found this book to be the best of those that I have used or reviewed.” 

Christopher Salvatore
Montclair State University

“This is one of the best introductory SPSS texts on the market. It is easy to read, clear, concise and does not overwhelm the reader with abstract statistical theory. The exercises and examples are good and will be really useful both in class and for homework assignments. The online resources are a great addition and really help in understanding the material in the text.”

Barbra Teater
College of Staten Island, City University of New York

I highly recommend this book for everyone who wish to use SPSS. It is well written, easy to understand and to follow. The learning objectives at the beginning of the chapters give a good starting point.

Ms Eva Mikuska
Childhood and Youth study, Univeristy of Chichester
October 26, 2017

Finally a clear and concise book that presents with parametric and non-parametric equivalents together. I'm a fan!

Dr Cecile Muller
Department of Psychology, Surrey University
April 6, 2017
Key features
NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • Nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Wilcoxon Test, and Spearman Test) have been added to Chapters 5 – 9.
  • New illustrations help to clarify abstract concepts, such as Treatment/Control groups and various forms of probability and non-probability sampling techniques.
  • Pretest Checklist criteria for each statistical test are now presented in easy-to-read dialogue boxes to help ensure robust statistical processing.
  • Multiple downloadable resources on an accompanying website include prepared SPSS data sets for all examples and exercises (eliminating data entry time and errors) and solutions to all odd-numbered exercises.
  • A combined Pretest Checklist/Run Procedure video allows students to navigate directly to the section of interest to make video tutorial study more efficient.
KEY FEATURES:

  • Tutorial videos on the accompanying website provide an overview of each statistical process; step-by-step SPSS processing guidance; instructions for configuring data and running statistical tests; and tips on interpreting tables and graphics in the results reports.
  • A focus on the most commonly used statistics include descriptive/summary statistics, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, paired t test, Wilcoxon test, Correlation and Regression: Pearson and Spearman, and Chi-square.
  • SPSS screenshots, graphics, and illustrations throughout the book provide visual representations of analyses to support student learning.
  • Students learn by doing through exercises that provide ample opportunities to practice processing data sets and documenting the results in plain language.
  • Instructor support includes all data sets, solutions to all exercises, and PowerPoint presentation files for each chapter.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 6

Chapter 8


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