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Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine

Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine

eISSN: 2515690X | ISSN: 2515690X | Current volume: 28 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Yearly

Journal Highlights

  • Indexed In: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Medline, PubMed, and Scopus
  • Publication is subject to payment of an article processing charge (APC)
  • Submit here

Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine (JEBIM) is a peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on hypothesis-driven and evidence-based research in all fields integrative medicine. Please see the Aims and Scope tab for further information.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Submission Information

Submit your manuscript today at

Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.

Open access article processing charge (APC) information

Publication in the journal is subject to payment of an article processing charge (APC). The APC serves to support the journal and ensures that articles are freely accessible online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

The APC for this journal is currently $2000 USD. 

The article processing charge (APC) is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Please see further details here.


Please direct any queries to

This journal was previously known as Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (JEBCAM). It combined with Integrative Medicine Insights at the end of 2017.

Why Publish Open Access in JEBIM

  • Visibility and Impact: Anyone anywhere in the world can read, use and cite your research
  • Rigorous Standards: Double-blind peer review policy
  • Flexibility: No page limits or page charges, and authors can publish full data sets, figures, tables, etc
  • Copyright: Authors retain copyright under a Creative Commons License

Useful Links

 The Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine (JEBIM) is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed, open access, biomedical journal whose aim is to create a global platform for hypothesis-driven and evidence-based research in all fields of integrative medicine. The journal’s objective is to publish papers which impart scientific validity to Integrative Medicine methods that are indispensable and inevitable in today’s world. All papers will be peer reviewed by experts in their respective fields, and papers will be accepted based on their scientific merit. It is the goal of the Journal to help remove the “myth” and provide scientific rationale for the various methodologies and theories of Integrative Medicine. All submissions will be reviewed based on their scientific merit and only papers with sound study design, valid statistical analyses and logical conclusions will be accepted.

The journal is currently accepting original research articles, research reviews, brief communications, correspondences, brief letters to the editor and editorials. Please note that the journal rarely publishes case reports.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Nutrition therapy and supplementation
  • Massage Therapy
  • Non-traditional treatments
  • Preventative medicine
  • Integrative health and medicine
  • Mindfulness
  • Yoga

The journal accepts studies with both positive and negative outcomes.

The journal is not currently accepting papers on the following topics or content:

  • Homeopathy
  • Non-objective endpoints
  • Unscientific methodology or pseudoscience
  • Reiki
  • Chiropractic medicine
  • Theology based medicine

Manuscript Submission

Christopher Chang University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Editorial Board
Donald Patrick Albert, PhD Sam Houston State University, USA
Thomas Arcury Wake Forest University, USA
Julia T. Arnold, PhD Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Ann Linda Baldwin University of Arizona, USA
Marianna K. Baum Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA
Catheryn Booth-LaForce University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Changyi Chen Baylor College of Medicine, USA
Lawrence J. Cheskin John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Ian D. Coulter University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), USA
Edzard Ernst, MD, PhD, FMed Sci, FSB, FRCP, FRCP(Edin) Exeter, England, UK
Patricia Evans, MD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA
Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur McMaster University, Canada
David Griesemer, MD Levine Children's Hospital, Charlotte, NC, USA
Oliver Grundmann University of Florida, USA
Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, PhD University of Mauritius, the Republic of Mauritius
Mitchell Haas, DC, MA University of Western States, USA
Andrew D. Halpner, PhD Douglas Laboratories, USA
Gary Hoff, DO Des Moines University, USA
Randolph M. Howes, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA
Merrijoy Kelner University of Toronto, Canada
Kathi J. Kemper, MD, MPH Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Qisheng Li National Institutes of Health, USA
Chenghai Liu Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Tieraona Low Dog, MD Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona College of Medicine, USA
Laurie Mischley, ND Bastyr University, USA
Gerard E. Mullin Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA
Delvac Oceandy University of Manchester, UK
Kenneth R. Pelletier University of Arizona School of Medicine, USA
Karen Pilkington, PhD University of Westminster
Todd D. Porter, PhD University of Kentucky, USA
Bashar Saad, PhD Al-Qasemi Academic College, Israel
Zahoor Shah University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy, USA
Rakesh Sharma Florida State University, USA
Paul D. Terry, PhD, MPH University of Tennessee, USA
Gail Tudor, PhD Husson University, USA
Guo-qing Zheng, PhD, MD Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China
Former Editors-in-Chief
Bruce Buehler University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA
Roger A. Brumback, MD  
Carolyn Chambers Clark, EdD, RN, ARNP, FAAN  
Susan Gaylord, PhD The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Rena J. Gordon, PhD  
Jonathan Zeuss, MD  
  • Alt-HealthWatch - Ebsco
  • Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts (ASSIA)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • EBSCOhost: Allied and Complementary Medicine Database
  • EBSCOhost: Current Abstracts
  • InfoTrac (full text)
  • Ovid: Allied and Complementary Medicine Database
  • PubMed: MEDLINE
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Please also be sure to look over the submission checklist here before submitting.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of JEBIM will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    Please Read the Manuscript Submission Guidelines below before submitting your manuscript here:

    1. Open Access
    2. Article processing charge (APC)
    3. What do we publish?
      3.1 Aims & scope
      3.2 Article types
      3.3 Writing your paper
      3.3.1 Making your article discoverable 
    4. Editorial policies
      4.1 Peer Review Policy
      4.2 Authorship
      4.3 Acknowledgements
      4.3.1 Writing assistance
      4.4 Funding
      4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      4.7 Clinical Trials
      4.8 Reporting guidelines
      4.9 Data
    5. Publishing policies
      5.1 Publication ethics
      5.1.1 Plagiarism
      5.1.2 Prior publication
      5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
    6. Preparing your manuscript
      6.1 Word processing formats
      6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      6.3 Supplemental material
      6.4 Reference style
      6.5 English language editing services
    7. Submitting your manuscript
      7.1 How to submit your manuscript
      7.2 Title, keywords and abstracts
      7.2.1 Title page
      7.2.2 Abstract
      7.2.3 Body
      7.2.4 Artwork submissions (Figures)
      7.2.5 Tables
      7.3 Information required for completing your submission
      7.4 ORCID
      7.5 Permissions
    8. On acceptance and publication
      8.1 Sage Production
      8.2 Continuous publication
      8.3 Promoting your article
    9. Further information

    1. Open Access

    JEBIM is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.

    For general information on open access at Sage please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

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    2. Article processing charge (APC)

    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

    An APC of $2,000 USD is payable upon acceptance. 

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    3. What do we publish?

    3.1 Aims & scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to JEBIM, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    3.2 Article types

    All submissions (including invited material) are subjected to peer review. Authors are invited to submit original articles of all types for consideration. The journal is currently accepting original research articles, research reviews, brief communications, correspondences, editorials, and book reviews.

    Original Research: These are reports of original data and findings in a topic within the scope of JEBIM. Original research must add to scientific knowledge on the subject and must be completed in accordance with ethical principles. Research on humans or animals must have applicable ethical approvals.

    Research Reviews: Reviews should be a detailed examination of literature, which includes the benefits, and drawbacks of a medicine, therapeutic technique, or anything else appropriate to the journal. They are substantially composed of reports on previous research.

    Brief Communications: This is a broad-scoped category for short papers discussing a topic relevant to the journal. Brief Communications should be between 1,000 and 1,500 words with no more than 3 figures. Word limit excludes references, but references should be limited to no more than 20.

    Case reports can be submitted as brief communications. However, please note that case reports are rarely published.

    Correspondence: Letters to the editor can be submitted on any topic relevant to the journal and are usually in response to an article published in the journal. They can suggest new subjects to be incorporated by the journal or commend and review papers published in the journal. We recommend that individuals considering submitting a letter to the editor should contact the editor in chief first to discuss their manuscript. Authors should be aware that letters to the editor are not always added to some databases/indexes.

    Commentary: Commentaries are by invitation only. These are short summaries of significant recent and forthcoming papers, published elsewhere, that provide additional insights, new interpretations or speculation on the relevant topic. These manuscripts may include models, which due to space limitations were not included or discussed in the original paper. Commentaries may be written in free form, meaning that they do not need to be structured as a research paper, however it must include an abstract of 150-200 words. They should be between 1000-2000 words and have no more than 25 references. Please include keywords for indexing purposes. Figures are encouraged, but no more than three. Please give your commentary a brief title and add the phrase “Comment on (citation to your original article).” underneath the keywords. Commentary material may be peer reviewed at the editor’s discretion.

    Letters to the Editor: A letter to the Editor is a brief communication that either addresses the contents of a published article, or is a correspondence unrelated to a specific article. Its purpose is to make corrections, provide alternative 
    viewpoints, or offer counter arguments. Avoid logical fallacies and ad hominem attacks. Letters to the Editor must be written in a professional tone and include references to support all claims if appropriate.

    A letter to the Editor unrelated to a specific article should not exceed 500 words or have more than 3 references. A letter to the Editor pertaining to a recently published article or to be published concurrently with an article within the journal should not exceed 800 words or have more than 5 references. If an abstract is included, it will automatically be made the first paragraph. Letters should not include figures or research material. Letters to the editor are not charged an APC.

    3.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    3.3.1 Making your article discoverable 

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    4. Editorial policies

    4.1 Peer review policy

    The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. JEBIM utilizes a double-anonymize peer review process in which the reviewer and authors’ names and information are withheld from the other. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief who then makes the final decision.

    Due to the nature of the anonymizing, it is extremely important that authors are mindful to list information on funding, acknowledgements and conflicts of interest on the title page rather than in the main document. Documents not adhering to this policy will be returned for correction. 

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor / Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    JEBIM is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for JEBIM can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    4.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors. The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    (i) Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    (ii) Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    (iii) Approved the version to be published,
    (iv) Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section on the title page. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    4.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    4.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Please supply any acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    4.4 Funding

    JEBIM requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion on the title page. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not for profit sectors.”

    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of JEBIM to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included on your title page. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    4.7 Clinical trials

    JEBIM endorses the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered if the justification for late registration is acceptable. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    4.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    4.9 Data

    At Sage we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. JEBIM requests all authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository as a condition of publication. This is subject to ethical considerations and in such cases the journal editor may grant an exception and authors should contact the Editorial Office at Authors are also required to include a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file and to follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway, which includes information about Sage’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.

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    5. Publishing policies

    5.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    JEBIM and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice.

    Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    5.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. JEBIM publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The  standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit Sage's OA licenses page.

    Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

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    6. Preparing your manuscript

    6.1 Word processing formats

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.

    6.3 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files, which can be found within our Manuscript Submission Guidelines page.

    6.4 Reference style

    JEBIM adheres to the AMA reference style. Please review the guidelines on AMA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    6.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    7. Submitting your manuscript

    7.1 How to submit your manuscript

    JEBIM is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    7.2 Title, keywords and abstracts

    Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. Abstracts need to be a minimum of 150 words. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the Sage Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.


    The title should be brief and meaningful. Following the title, there should be a listing of first and last names of all authors, along with highest academic or medical degrees and affiliations. Authorship should be limited to direct participants. List the complete name, postal address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address for the corresponding author (authors who do not have an e-mail account can obtain one from among the free sites such as “,” “,”' or “”'). List the word count for the manuscript [generally 7000 words in a manuscript].

    All manuscript submissions of any type must include disclosure sections in the title page. To be complete, a response (even a negative response) is required in each disclosure section. The sections that are required are: Acknowledgements, Author Contributions (Roles), Declaration of Conflicting Interests, Funding (Financial Disclosure) and Ethical Approval.


    An unstructured abstract of no less than 150 words should be provided on a separate page and should be factual, presenting the reason for the study, main findings, and conclusions. A list of 3 to 5 keywords should be included at the end of the abstract.


    The manuscript should be divided by subheadings (for example: introduction, methods, case summary, results, and discussion). The hypothesis or reason for publication of the material must be clearly described.


    Artwork includes charts and graphs, maps, photographs, and line art. Electronic (computer generated) art should be prepared as sharp, clear, high-quality computer images with a minimum width of 2100 pixels and saved in uncompressed TIFF or JPEG file formats as grayscale or CMYK images. Microsoft application files are acceptable for vector art (line art). Graphs should be submitted as figure files and should be finished drawings, not requiring further artwork (line art is preferable). All patient identifiers must be removed from pictures of radiographs or other imaging modalities. Recognizable photographs of patients must be accompanied by written permission for publication. Reproduction of any previously published illustration must be accompanied by written permission from both the original author and the publisher. Figure legends should include full explanations of the figures with numbers corresponding to those on the figure files themselves. Abbreviations appearing in figures must be fully identified in the legend. All figures must be specifically referred to in the text and numbered in order of appearance in the text.


    Each table should be prepared on a separate page at the end of the text document (after the reference list) and preferably should be no larger than a single page. Include a brief descriptive title of the table and a footnote with explanation of any abbreviations. All tables must be specifically referred to in the text and numbered in order of appearance in the text.

    7.3 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed on the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    7.4 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    7.5 Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

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    8. On acceptance and publication

    If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been check for Sage Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.

    8.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit, or by email to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    8.2 Online publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    8.3 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    9. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the JEBIM editorial office as follows:

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