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Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies

Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies

2016 Impact Factor: 1.242
2016 Ranking: 125/194 in Management
Source: 2016 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2017)
Published in Association with Midwest Academy of Management

Fred Luthans University of Nebraska at Lincoln, USA
John Slocum Southern Methodist University, USA
Kenneth R. Thompson DePaul University, USA
Julia Teahen Baker College, USA

eISSN: 19397089 | ISSN: 15480518 | Current volume: 24 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Quarterly
Edited by Fred Luthans and John Slocum, The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies (JLOS) is the official journal of the Midwest Academy of Management. JLOS publishes articles to advance the theory, research and practice of all aspects of leadership and organizations. Research results are preferred, but theoretical contributions and new applications are also appropriate. Although leadership topics are emphasized, any area of interest in organizational behavior, human resource management, strategy, international management, or entrepreneurship is also encouraged.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies publishes high-quality, peer-reviewed research articles on leadership and organizational studies, focusing in particular on the intersection of these two areas of study. JLOS aims to provide scholarly understanding of the effective application of leadership and other issues in an organizational context. In other words, the journal investigates all aspects of organizations/management (primarily leadership, but also organizational behavior, strategy, and human resource management). Unlike journals that focus only on leadership or only on organization and management, JLOS coalesces these areas of study into a coherent whole.
Though JLOS primarily publishes research findings derived from testing theory-driven hypothesis through strong methodologies, the journal also publishes value-added theoretical and cutting-edge application articles. Articles in JLOS apply to both the researcher and the professional, and in all types of articles, special attention should be given to practical implications. The Journal also encourages international implications and cross-cultural studies as they relate to leadership and organizational studies.

Associate Editors
Megan M. Gerhardt Miami University, USA
Joy Peluchette Lindenwood University, USA
Editorial Board
Michael A. Abebe The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA
Akram Al Ariss Toulouse Business School, France
Ramon Aldag University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
Arifin Angriawan Purdue University Calumet, USA
Mahfooz Ansari University of Lethbridge, Canada
Guclu Atinc Texas A&M University-Commerce
James L. Avey Central Washington University, USA
Mohga Badran The American University in Cairo, Egypt
John E. Barbuto, Jr. California State University at Fullerton, USA
Kathryn M. Bartol University of Maryland, USA
Erin Bass University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA
William Becker Texas Christian University, USA
Terry Beehr Central Michigan University, USA
Dennison S. Bhola HUMANeX Ventures, USA
Diana Bilimoria Case Western Reserve University, USA
Ben Blackford Northwest Missouri State University, USA
Laura Borgogni Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
David Bright Wright State University, USA
Rhett Brymer Miami University, USA
M. Ronald Buckley University of Oklahoma, USA
Paul Buller Gonzaga University, USA
Kim Cameron University of Michigan, USA
Arran Caza University of Manitoba, Canada
Guoquan Chen Tsinghua University, China
Jae Uk Chun Korea University, Korea
Rachel Clapp-Smith Purdue University Calumet, USA
Thomas G. Cummings University of Southern California, USA
Shanna R. Daniels Florida State University, USA
Sarah Dawkins University of Tasmania, Australia
Greg Dess University of Texas-Dallas, USA
Peter W. Dorfman New Mexico State University, USA
Ceasar Douglas Florida State University, USA
Dale Dwyer The University of Toledo, USA
Jarle Eid University of Bergen, Norway
B. Parker Ellen III Northeastern University, USA
Benjamin Everly University of Sussex, UK
Souha Ezzedeen York University, Canada
Steven Farner Bellevue University, USA
Xuan Feng Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Germany
Gerald Ferris Florida State University, USA
Carl Fey Nottingham University Business School China, China
Michelle Fleig-Palmer University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA
Robert Ford University of Central Florida, USA
Marilyn L. Fox Minnesota State University, Mankato, USA
Regina Frey University of Hohenheim, Germany
Joseph E. Garcia Western Washington University, USA
William Gardner Texas Tech University, USA
Megan Margaret Gerhardt Miami University of Ohio, USA
Michael Goldsby Ball State University, USA
Michele A. Govekar Ohio Northern University, USA
Paul Govekar Ohio Northern University, USA
David Graf United Arab Emirates University, UAE
Regina Greenwood Nova Southeastern University, USA
Jakari Griffith Salem State University, USA
Michael Gross Colorado State University, USA
Hannes Guenter Maastricht University, Netherlands
Jarrod M. Haar Massey University, New Zealand
Lynn Harland University of Nebraska-Omaha, USA
James K. Harter The Gallup Organization, USA
Paul Harvey University of New Hampshire, USA
Michael Heberling Baker College, USA
Ingrid Hickman Creating Psychological Capital Ltd, UK
Andy Hinrichs California State University, USA
Tim Hodges The Gallup Organization, USA
Erica Holley Central Washington University, USA
Willie Hopkins Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
Jeffrey Hornsby University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA
Lei Huang Auburn University, USA
John Humphreys Texas A&M University, USA
Amy E. Hurley-Hanson Chapman University, USA
Nicole Jackson University of Connecticut, USA
Peter Jennings Santa Clara University, USA
Susan Jensen University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA
Robert T. Keller University of Houston, USA
E. Kevin Kelloway Saint Mary's University, Canada
Kwanghyun Kim Korea University, Korea
Sang-Man Kim Kyung Hee University, Korea
Konstantin Korotov European School of Management and Technology, Germany
Dina Krasikova The University of Texas at San Antonio, USA
Maribeth Kuenzi Southern Methodist University, USA
Donald F. Kuratko Indiana University, USA
Milan Larson University of Northern Colorado, USA
Seung-Hyun Lee University of Texas, Dallas, USA
David Lei Southern Methodist University, USA
Grace Lemmon DePaul University, USA
Hannes Leroy KU Leuven, Belgium
Paul Lester United States Army, USA
Vance Lewis University of Texas, Dallas, USA
Jianwen (Jon) Liao Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
Peter Lorenzi Loyola University Maryland, USA
Kristen Lucas University of Louisville, USA
Emiko Magoshi J. F. Oberlin University, Japan
Terry L. Maris Ohio Northern University, USA
Steven E. Markham Virginia Tech University, USA
Angela Martin University of Tasmania, Australia
Mark Martinko Florida A&M University, USA
Daniel McCarthy Northeastern University, USA
Marie McHugh University of Ulster, Ireland
Jeff McLean Monash University, Australia
Kamel Mellahi University of Warwick, UK
Esra Memili University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA
Jennifer Mencl University of Minnesota-Duluth, USA
Snejina Michailova University of Auckland Business School, New Zealand
Ivana Milosevic University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, USA
Rakesh Mittal New Mexico State University, USA
Miriam Moeller University of Queensland , Australia
Dirk Moosmayer Nottingham University Business School, China
Alisa Mosley Jackson State University, USA
Richard Mowday University of Oregon, USA
Jeffrey Muldoon Emporia State University, USA
Timothy P. Munyon University of Tennessee, USA
Ed Murphy Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, USA
Sucheta Nadkarni Cambridge University, UK
Samuel Nelson University of Nebraska - Lincoln, USA
John Nirenberg Walden University, USA
Steven M. Norman Colorado State University - Pueblo, USA
Pankaj Patel Villanova University, USA
Ted Paterson Oregon State University, USA
Joy Peluchette Lindenwood University, USA
Suzanne Peterson Arizona State University, USA
Tim Peterson North Dakota State University, USA
Jenna Pieper University of Nebraska - Lincoln, USA
Tyrone Pitsis The University of Leeds, UK; The University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Edward Powley Naval Post Graduate School, USA
Bill Provaznik Central Washington University, USA
James Campbell Quick University of Texas at Arlington, USA
Rebecca J. Reichard Claremont Graduate University, USA
Roni Reiter-Palmon University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA
Shanggeun Rhee Kean University, USA
William Ruud Northern Iowa University, USA
Alan Saks University of Toronto, Canada
Carol M. Sanchez Grand Valley State University, USA
Klaus Scala University of Graz, Austria
Matt Shin Marist College
Seth M. Spain Binghamton University, USA
Greg Stephens Texas Christian University, USA
Joana Story Universidade Nova Ed Lisboa, Portugal
Cynthia Sutton Metro State College of Denver, USA
Lew Taylor University of North Texas, USA
Scott Taylor University of New Mexico, USA
Kenneth R. Thompson DePaul University, USA
Rosalie Tung Simon Fraser University, Canada
David Turnipseed University of South Alabama, USA
David Van Fleet Arizona State University, USA
Rene van Wyk University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Dusya Vera The University of Houston
Gretchen Vogelgesang Federal Management Partners, USA
Robert Waldersee Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Fred O. Walumbwa Florida International University, USA
Lei Wang Peking University, China
Peng Wang Miami University, USA
Meg Warren Claremont Graduate University, USA
Jeff A. Weekley The University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Dianne H.B. Welsh University of North Carolina, Greensboro, USA
Tara Wernsing IE Business School, Spain
Mark Andrew Wesolowski Miami University of Oxford, Ohio, USA
Carolyn Wiley Roosevelt University, USA
Thomas Wright Fordham University, USA
Keke Wu Central Washington University, USA
Therese Yaeger Benedictine University, USA
Francis Yammarino State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton, USA
Baiyin Yang Tsinghua University, China
Carloyn Youssef-Morgan Bellevue University, USA
Lena Zander Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden
Zhen Zhang Arizona State University, USA
Erhua Zhou Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Dov Zohar Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
MAM Board of Governors
Abel Adekola University of Wisconsin-Stout
Marilyn Bugenhagen Marian University, USA
Nancy Day University of Missouri - Kansas City
Dale Dwyer The University of Toledo, USA
Megan Gerhardt Miami University, USA
Sharon Heilmann Wright State University, USA
Leslie McKnight City of Peoria, USA
Patricia Meglich University of Nebraska-Omaha, USA
Debra Orr Roosevelt University, USA
Tracy Porter Cleveland State University, United States
Jennifer Schultz Metropolitan State University, Minnesota, USA
Brandon Soltwisch Southern Illinois University Carbondale, USA
Carolyn Wiley Roosevelt University, USA
Diana Wong Eastern Michigan University, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROSPECTIVE AUTHORS

    The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies (JLOS) is published quarterly to advance the knowledge and practice of leadership and organizations. JLOS deals with all aspects of leadership and organizations. Our intent is to serve as a forum for the expression of theory, research and practice, with special emphasis given to emerging ideas, issues, trends, and innovations. An issue that deals with leadership and/or the functioning of organizations is appropriate for JLOS. This could include such diverse topics or organizational settings as: civic, grassroots, corporate, non-profit, philanthropic, educational, international, political, or military.


    As a matter of editorial policy, we will not decline to review (or return without review) any manuscript submitted solely on the basis of format. However, it is our expectation that final versions of papers submitted for publication will follow the style of the American Psychological Association in terms of headings, referencing, etc.


    Manuscripts submitted for publication consideration should be typed on a standard size paper (8.5 by 11) and should be double-spaced throughout. These manuscripts should include a title page that includes the title of the article and appropriate contact information for the author. The second page should repeat the title of the article and include a brief (not to exceed 100 words) abstract. We recognize and understand that sometimes length of the article does not reflect value or content. There is, therefore, no minimum length. However, complete manuscripts (including references) normally should not exceed 25-30 pages in length. Please submit your article through the Sage Publications website, . Click on the "SAGETRACK" link or visit to begin the submission process.


    Manuscripts receive a screening review for appropriateness and then at least two reviews in the process. Authors will receive acknowledgement of receipt of manuscripts and will (under normal circumstances) be notified within 60 days of the results of the review. If reviewers recommend revision, authors will receive a copy of suggested changes and a timeline for re-submission of their manuscripts.


    The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies assumes the following (and the author affirms): At time of acceptance and before publication, authors will sign a copyright release form to JLOS. Authors have made every effort to ensure accuracy of documentation. Manuscripts submitted for consideration are not under concurrent review with any other journals or publications and has not been previously published in any form. Generally accepted ethical standards of conduct have been met in the research and/or preparation of the manuscript submitted for publication. The author has submitted original work so that the publication of the manuscript would not violate any copyright or other personal or proprietary rights of others, and the author will inform the Editor of any portions of the manuscript, including the underlying data, that have been previously published. Authors have made every attempt to use nondiscriminatory language.

    Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts should be prepared using the APA Style Guide (Sixth Edition). All pages must be typed, double-spaced (including references, footnotes, and endnotes). Text must be in 12-point Times Roman. Block quotes may be single-spaced. Must include margins of 1inch on all the four sides and number all pages sequentially.

    The manuscript should include four major sections(in this order): Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

    Sections in a manuscript may include the following (in this order): (1) Title page, (2) Abstract, (3) Keywords, (4) Text, (5) Notes, (6) References, (7) Tables, (8) Figures, and (9) Appendices.

    1. Title page. Please include the following:

    • Full article title
    • Acknowledgments and credits
    • Each author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s)
    • Grant numbers and/or funding information
    • Corresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail)

    2. Abstract. Print the abstract (150 to 250 words) on a separate page headed by the full article title. Omit author(s)’s names.

    3. Text. Begin article text on a new page headed by the full article title.

    a. Headings and subheadings. Subheadings should indicate the organization of the content of the manuscript. Generally, three heading levels are sufficient to organize text. Level 1 heading should be Centered, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase, Level 2 heading should be Flush Left, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase, Level 3 heading should be Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period, Level 4 heading should be Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period, and Level 5 heading should be Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period.

    b. Citations. For each text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list and for each reference list citation there must be a corresponding text citation. Each corresponding citation must have identical spelling and year. Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information, author(s) and year of publication. Following are some examples of text citations:

    (i)Unknown Author: To cite worksthatdo not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Eg. The findings are based on the study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using XXX," 2001)

    (ii) Authors with the Same Last Name: use first initials with the last names to prevent confusion. Eg.(L. Hughes, 2001; P. Hughes, 1998)

    (iii) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: For two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. The lower-case letters should follow the year in the in-text citation.Eg.Research by Freud (1981a) illustrated that…

    (iv) Personal Communication: For letters, e-mails, interviews,and other person-to-person communication, citation should include the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.Eg.(E. Clark, personal communication, January 4, 2009).

    (v) Unknown Author and Unknown Date: For citations with no author or date, use the title in the signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").Eg. The study conducted by of students and research division discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

    5. Notes. If explanatory notes are required for your manuscript, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. The Footnotes should be added at the bottom of the page after the references. The word “Footnotes” should be centered at the top of the page.

    6. References. Basic rules for the reference list:

    • The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names.
    • If there is more than one work by the same author, order them according to their publication date – oldest to newest (therefore a 2008 publication would appear before a 2009 publication).
    • When listing multiple authors of a source use “&” instead of “and”.
    • Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there are one, and any proper names – i. e. only those words that are normally capitalized.
    • Italicize the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial and the title of the web document.
    • Manuscripts submitted to XXX [journal acronym] should strictly follow the XXX manual (xth edition) [style manual title with ed].
    • Every citation in text must have the detailed reference in the Reference section.
    • Every reference listed in the Reference section must be cited in text.
    • Do not use “et al.” in the Reference list at the end; names of all authors of a publication should be listed there.

    Here are a few examples of commonly found references. For more examples please check APA(6th Ed).


    Book with place of publication--Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

    Book with editors & edition-- Collins, C., & Jackson, S. (Eds.). (2007). Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society. South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.

    Book with author & publisher are the same-- MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author.

    Chapter in an edited book--Dear, J., & Underwood, M. (2007). What is the role of exercise in the prevention of back pain? In D. MacAuley& T. Best (Eds.), Evidence-based sports medicine (2nd ed., pp. 257-280). Malden, MA: Blackwell.


    Journal article with more than one author (print)--Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583.

    Journal article – 8 or more authors-- Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., … Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). Retrieved from

    Internet Sources:

    Internet – no author, no date--Pet therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from htttp://

    Internet – Organisation / Corporate author-- SPCA New Zealand. (2011). Your dog may be dying from the heat [Press release]. Retrieved from

    • Examples of various types of information sources:

    Act (statute / legislation)--Copyright Act 1994. (2011, October 7). Retrieved from

    Blog post-- Liz and Ellory. (2011, January 19). The day of dread(s) [Web log post]. Retrieved from

    Brochure / pamphlet (no author)--Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

    Conference Paper--Williams, J., &Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand.

    DVD / Video / Motion Picture (including Clickview&Youtube)--Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), &Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. New Zealand: Transmission.

    Magazine--Ng, A. (2011, October-December). Brush with history. Habitus, 13, 83-87.

    Newspaper article (no author)--Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, November 23). Manawatu Standard, p. 5

    Podcast (audio or video)--Rozaieski, B. (2011). Logan cabinet shoppe: Episode 37: Entertainment center molding [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

    Software (including apps--UBM Medica.(2010). iMIMS (Version1.2.0) [Mobile application software].Retrieved from

    Television programme--Flanagan, A., &Philipson, A. (Series producers & directors).(2011). 24 hours in A & E [Television series]. Belfast, Ireland: Channel 4.

    Thesis (print)--Smith, T. L. (2008). Change, choice and difference: The case of RN to BN degree programmes for registered nurses (Master’s thesis). Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

    Thesis (online)--Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia). Retrieved from

    Non- English reference book, title translated in English

    Real Academia Espanola. (2001). Diccionario de la lenguaespanola [Dictionary of the Spanish Language] (22nded.). Madrid, Spain: Author

    IMPORTANT NOTE: To encourage a faster production process of your article, you are requested to closely adhere to the points above for references. Otherwise, it will entail a long process of solving copyeditor’s queries and may directly affect the publication time of your article. In case of any question, please contact the journal editor at mailto: 

    7. Tables. They should be structured properly. Each table must have a clear and concise title. When appropriate, use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically.Eg.Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC).Headings should be clear and brief.

    8. Figures. They should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. The figure resolution should be 300dpi at the time of submission.

    IMPORTANT: PERMISSION- The author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published in (journal acronym). A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.

    9. Appendices. They should be lettered to distinguish from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”).Cross-check text for accuracy against appendices.

    Note for authors whose primary language is other than English:

    Authors who would like to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of a professional English-language editing company. We highlight some of these companies at

    Please be aware that SAGE has no affiliation with these companies and makes no endorsement of them. An author's use of these services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and the particular company, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.


    All articles and materials printed in the Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies are copyrighted by JLOS and Sage Publications. Permission requests to reprint any materials from the Journal must be sent to Sage Publications. Although Contributors have retained the copyright in the Contribution, Contributors have granted SAGE an exclusive license to exercise the rights under copyright.

    SAGE Choice

    If you or your funder wishes your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in SAGE Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let SAGE know directly if you are choosing SAGE Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit SAGE Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at SAGE, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.


    All authors must provide an e-mail address to facilitate communications with JLOS.


    Dr. Julia Teahen, Managing Editor
    Journal of Leadership and Orgnizational Studies
    Baker College
    1116 W. Bristol Road
    Flint, MI 48507-9843


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