Journal of Travel Research

Journal of Travel Research

2014 Impact Factor: 2.442
2014 Ranking: 4/43 in Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism
Source: 2014 Journal Citation Reports ® (Thomson Reuters, 2015)

Outgoing Editor
Richard R. Perdue Virginia Tech
Incoming Editor
Geoffrey I. Crouch La Trobe University, Australia

eISSN: 15526763| ISSN: 00472875|Current volume: 54|Current issue: 5 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

Indexed in the Social Sciences Citation Index® with an Impact Factor of 2.442, and is ranked 4/43 in Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism.

The Journal of Travel Research (JTR) is the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focusing on travel and tourism behavior, management and development. JTR provides researchers, educators, and professionals with up-to-date, high quality research on behavioral trends and management theory for one of the most influential and dynamic industries. Founded in 1961, JTR is the oldest of the world’s top-ranked scholarly journals focused exclusively on travel and tourism, reflecting the worldwide importance of tourism, both economically and socially.

Published by SAGE, an international leader in social science and business publishing, JTR publishes the most current and influential scholarship on travel and tourism.

The Journal of Travel Research publishes state-of-the-art research on the most important trends and issues in travel and tourism. JTR offers an international and multidisciplinary perspective on the best development and management practices by publishing research which enhances knowledge of important travel and tourism phenomena. JTR thereby contributes to the development of theory which enables improvements in tourism development policy and strategy; managerial practice; economic, social and environmental outcomes; and education and training programs.

All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Travel Research are double-blind, peer-reviewed by leading tourism scholars. The JTR editorial review board includes top tourism scholars identified on the basis of their current research and scholarly contributions.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The mission of the Journal of Travel Research is to be the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focused on travel and tourism management, development and business. Given the multifaceted, multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder character of the tourism economy, this focus implies a concern for both the public and private sector spheres of interest as well as economic, socio-cultural, political, environmental, legal, technological, and demographic issues. Specific goals are to be international in scope with geographic diversity, to be multidisciplinary with diversity in research topics and methodologies, and to be germane to the needs of the travel and tourism industry and its stakeholders.

All manuscripts published in the Journal of Travel Research are double-blind, peer-reviewed by accomplished scholars in the topical area. The standard for publication in the Journal of Travel Research is that a paper must make a substantive contribution, either theoretically or methodologically, to the travel and tourism research literature. Additionally, a paper should specify its contribution to pragmatic tourism management concerns and practice.

Published manuscripts must be on research of the highest standards, on topics of major significance and widespread interest, and relevant to the progress of this important global sector.

Founding Editor
Charles R. Goeldner University of Colorado, USA
Foundations of Tourism Research Series Editor
Sara Dolnicar University of Queensland, Australia
Editorial Policy Board
Kathleen L. Andereck Arizona State University West, USA
Sara Dolnicar University of Queensland, Australia
James F. Petrick Texas A&M University, USA
Muzaffer Uysal Virginia Tech, USA
Editorial Review Board
Jorge Araña Universidad de Las palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Albert Assaf University of Massachusetts, USA
George Athanasopoulos Monash University, Australia
Carlos Pestana Barros Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Kenneth R. Bartkus Utah State University, USA
Susanne Becken Griffith University, Australia
Pierre Benckendorff University of Queensland, Australia
Pietro Beritelli University of St Gallen, Switzerland
David Bojanic University of Texas, San Antonio, USA
Soyoung Boo George Washington University, USA
Kelly Bricker University of Utah, USA
Dimitrios Buhalis Bournemouth University, UK
Rachel Chen University of Tennessee, USA
Shu Tian Cole Indiana University, USA
Antónia Correia Universidade Europeia, Portugal
Robertico Croes University of Central Florida, USA
John Crotts College of Charleston, USA
Larry Dwyer University of New South Wales, Australia
Yuksel Ekinci Reading University, United Kingdom
Eyal Ert The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
David Fennell Brock University, Canada
Daniel R. Fesenmaier University of Florida, USA
Aliza Fleischer Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Isabelle Frochot Universite de Savoie, France
Matthias Fuchs Mid-Sweden University, Sweden
Nancy Gard-McGehee Virginia Tech, USA
Alison Gill Simon Fraser University, Canada
Juergen Gnoth University of Otago, New Zealand
Ulriek Gretzel University of Queensland, Australia
Sameer Hosany Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Cathy H. C. Hsu The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Twan Huybers University of New South Wales, Australia
Ken Hyde AUT University, New Zealand
SooCheong Shawn Jang Purdue University, USA
Alexander Josiassen Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
David B. Klenosky Purdue University, USA
Carol Kline Appalachian State University, USA
Ljubica Kneževic University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Metin Kozak Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Nada Kulendran Victoria University, Australia
Christian Laesser University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Jennifer Laing Latrobe University, Australia
Timothy Lee Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan
Patrick Legohérel University of Angers, France
Maria Lexhagen Mittuniversitetet, Sweden
Gang Li University of Surrey, UK
Mimi Li Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Xiang (Robert) Li Temple University, USA
Stephen W. Litvin College of Charleston, USA
Kevin Lyons University of Newcastle, Australia
Kelly J. MacKay Ryerson University, Canada
Yoel Mansfeld University of Haifa, Israel
Robert McKercher Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Tanja Mihalic University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Laurie Murphy James Cook University, Australia
Sarah Nicholls Michigan State University, USA
Norma Nickerson University of Montana, USA
Juan Nicolau University of Alicante, Spain
Robin Nunkoo University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Gyan Nyaupane Arizona State University, USA
Haemoon Oh University of South Carolina, USA
Harmen Oppewal Monash University, Austalia
Bing Pan College of Charleston, USA
Harald Pechlaner University of Eichstaett, Germany
Nicolas Peypoch University of Perpignan Via Domitia, France
Christoff Pforr Curtin University, Australia
Yaniv Poria Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Girish Prayag University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Arie Reichel Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Brent Ritchie University of Queensland, Australia
Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon Curtin University, Australia
Carla A. Santos University of Illinois, USA
Neelu Seetaram Bournemouth University, UK
Amir Shani Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Marianna Sigala University of South Australia, Australia
Ercan Sirakaya Turk University of South Carolina, USA
M. Joseph Sirgy Virginia Tech, USA
Egon Smeral MODUL University, Austria
Haiyan Song Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Beverly Sparks Gold Coast Campus, Griffiths University, Australia
Svetlana Stepchenkova University of Florida, USA
Lindsay W. Turner Victoria University, Australia
Natan Uriely Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Christine A. Vogt Arizona State University, USA
David B. Weaver Griffith University, Australia
Betty Weiler Southern Cross University, Australia
John Williams University of Otago, New Zealand
Peter W. Williams Simon Fraser University
Karl Wöber MODUL University, Austria
Kyle Woosnam Texas A&M University, USA
Zheng Xiang Virginia Tech, USA
Honggen Xiao Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Anita Zehrer MCI Management Center, Austria
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  • Manuscript Submission:

    The Journal of Travel Research publishes articles examining travel and tourism behavior, management, development and business. Its purpose is to serve as a medium through which those with research interests can exchange ideas and keep abreast of the latest theoretical, methodological and best practices research.

    Three types of manuscripts can be submitted to the Journal of Travel Research.

    Empirical Research Articles:
    The Journal of Travel Research encourages data-based articles which describe, explain, or predict a tourism phenomenon. Articles using quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods data are encouraged. These articles should be “problem based”, focusing on a practical tourism development, management or marketing problem. The standard for acceptance is that a paper must make a substantive theoretical and/or methodological contribution to the tourism research literature.

    Foundations of Tourism Research Conceptual Articles:
    The Journal of Travel Research encourages the submission of potentially high-impact articles which are broadly conceptual with the goal of building theory and/or reviewing and evaluating the body of research in a substantive and important area. The goals of these papers should be improved conceptual clarity, holistic review of the current research, theory building and expansion, and innovation with forward looking outcomes which propose new opportunities and ideas. These articles can be wholly conceptual or conceptual/empirical with meta-analytic data. Authors may be invited, or may suggest manuscripts of this type. Authors considering submitting such a manuscript should first discuss their idea in advance with the Editor of this Foundation Series, Professor Sara Dolnicar at

    Letters to the Editor:
    The Journal of Travel Research encourages conversation! The purpose of these letters will be to provoke conversation, review our research endeavors, and commentary on our research problems, assumptions, methodologies and evaluation. Also included are comments about our publication process and expectations. Finally, constructive commentary concerning research publications is encouraged.

    All Empirical Research Articles and Foundations of Tourism Research Conceptual Articles submitted to the Journal of Travel Research will be double-blind, peer reviewed by accomplished scholars in the topical area. Acceptance of Letters to the Editor will be the prerogative of the Editor. In all cases, the standard for publication in the Journal of Travel Research is that a paper must make a substantive theoretical and/or methodological contribution to the tourism research literature.

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines and instructions to authors provided herein. The Journal of Travel Research (JTR) is hosted on SAGETRACK: a web-based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Please read the Manuscript Submission guidelines below, and then simply visit to login and submit your article online.

    Important note: If you are submitting to your journal via SAGE Track, please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online, please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    Manuscripts are submitted as two files. The first file is the cover page with the manuscript title, author names, affiliations, and both postal and e-mail addresses. The second file, the body of the article, includes the title, abstract, text body, references, tables and figures.

    The process of manuscript submission requires that authors log into the Manuscript Central website and follow the outlined steps for manuscript submission.

    Questions concerning manuscript submission and processing should be addressed to the Editor at

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing/fair use for criticism and review, please visit our FAQ: Permission section on SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    Manuscript Preparation
    To be considered for publication in the Journal of Travel Research, manuscripts must meet the following standards:

    • Everything is double spaced.
    • Everything is left justified, with a ragged right-hand margin (no full justification)
    • Format is one inch margins on all sides. Minimum print size is 12 point, except in tables and figures where 10 pt may be used.
    • Manuscripts are submitted as two files: The cover page and the manuscript body.
    • The cover page should include the manuscript title, ALL authors’ name, position, affiliation, address, telephone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses, and any acknowledgements.
    • The manuscript file should contain the title, abstract, 4 to 5 keywords, text, appendices, notes, references, each table, and each figure.
    • Authors’ names are to appear only on the cover page. There should be nothing in the manuscript file that identifies the authors either by name or institution.
    • Tables and figures are not to be embedded in the manuscript – each table and figure should be provided as a separate page at the end of the manuscript. Tags should be inserted in the manuscript indicating approximately where tables and figures should be located.
    • Within the manuscript file, Title, Abstract and keywords should be on one page. After that, each section is to begin with a new page.
    • Abstract is to be 150 words or less
    • Manuscripts must be 10,000 words or less. Due to page limitations and the desire to accommodate as many authors as possible, this should be considered a hard limit.
    • American English spellings are used in all sections except references. SAGE Publications requires English translations of all reference citations.
    • Endnotes are to be grouped on a separate page. There are to be no footnotes
    • All in-text citations should be included in the reference list, and all references should have in-text citations
    • The reference list is to follow the Journal’s style, The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed). While preparing the reference list, please do not truncate first names and change them to initials if the original source has the first names spelled out, in keeping with Chicago manual of Style. Further, the in-text citations can be set without a comma preceding the year, e.g., "Smith 1990" instead of "Smith, 1990" and the "pp." or "p." can be omitted when citing page numbers in the text, "Smith 1990, 23-24" instead of "Smith, 1990, pp. 23-24"·

    See the following examples:

    Journal article:

    Agrusa, J., S. S. Kim, and K.-C.Wang. 2011. “Mainland Chinese Tourists to Hawaii: Their Characteristics and Preferences.” Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 28:261–78.

    Journal article with issue number:

    Beerli, A., and J. D. Martín. 2004. “Factors Influencing Destination Image.” Annals of Tourism Research 31 (3): 657–81.


    Pallant, J. 2005. SPSS: Survival Manual. 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press.

    Chapter in a multi-author, edited book:

    Butler, R. W., and B. Mao. 1995. “Tourism between Quasi-states: International, Domestic or What?” In Change in Tourism: People, Places, Processes, edited by R. W. Butler and D. G. Pearce, 92–113. London: Routledge.

    Editor (instead of author) of a book:

    Butler, R. W., and D. G. Pearce, eds. 1995. Change in Tourism: People, Places, Processes. London: Routledge.

    Book with author plus editor or translator:

    Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated [or Edited] by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.

    Dissertation (unpublished):

    Beerli, A., and J. D. Martín. 2004. “Factors Influencing Destination Image.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles.

    Beerli, A., and J. D. Martín. 2004. “Factors Influencing Destination Image.” Master’s thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.

    Beerli, A., and J. D. Martín. 2004. “Factors Influencing Destination Image.” Unpublished manuscript, last modified December 3, 2013. Microsoft Word file.

    Paper presented at a symposium or annual meeting:

    Guthrie, John, and P. Gale. 1991. “Positioning Ski Areas—A Case Study: Central Otago, New Zealand.” Paper presented at the New Horizons in Tourism Conference, Calgary, Canada, March 10–14.

    Journal article consulted online:

    Agrusa, J., S. S. Kim, and K.-C.Wang. 2011. “Mainland Chinese Tourists to Hawaii: Their Characteristics and Preferences.” Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 28:261–78. doi:10.1086/525508.

    For an article published online ahead of the official publication date, when the pagination may not be available, the posted publication date should be used, as follows:

    Agrusa, J., S. S. Kim, and K.-C.Wang. 2011. “Mainland Chinese Tourists to Hawaii: Their Characteristics and Preferences.” Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 28.Published online July 14.doi:10.1086/525508.

    [The DOI can be replaced by a URL, but Chicago prefers the DOI as it applies to all media, print or electronic. Also, for formally published electronic sources, Chicago does not require access dates.]

    Website content:

    Microsoft Corporation. 2006. “WD2000: Visual Basic Macro.” Revision 1.3.Microsoft Help and Support.Last modified November 23.

    Lasar, Matthew. 2008. “FCC Chair Willing to Consecrate XM-Sirius Union.” ArsTechnnica (blog). June 16.


    McDonald, M. 2008. “Direct Flights between China and Taiwan Begin.” (accessed December 12, 2014).

    IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2009. “World Economic Outlook. April 2009. Crisis and Recovery.” (accessed December 12, 2014).

    Newspaper Article:

    Carey, Benedict. 2008. “For the Brain, Remembering Is Like Reliving.” New York Times, September 4. http://www.xxxxxxxxx

    · For a quick link to the Chicago manual of style: Chicago Manual of Style

    · Figures are to be camera ready; they must appear exactly as they should in the journal. The Journal of Travel Research is published in black and white. Figures should be black and white with gray and pattern shading if necessary. Any color requirements for the printed manuscript version will incur a charge to the author(s).

    · Tables should not have cells or lines dividing the different elements. Preferably, each element should be separated by a tab.

    Artwork Guidelines
    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit the Artwork Guidelines section in SAGE’s manuscript submission guidelines page. Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article from the production editor.

    Maximizing online discoverability
    The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting SAGE’s Journal Author Gateway Guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    Promoting your article
    If you think your article may be suitable for promotion, please flag this for the journal editor or your production contact at SAGE as early as possible in the publishing process. We have a variety of different promotional channels at our disposal to ensure your article reaches the widest possible audience. See Promote Your Journal for more information.

    Author Guidelines for Revision

    As you revise your paper for resubmission to the Journal of Travel Research, please make sure it meets the following guidelines. If the paper is ultimately accepted, you will receive the list of formatting requirements again with a “it must meet…” statement. It is critical that you take care to ensure you meet these requirements as it can save a great deal of your time and our time at the typesetting stage.

    Please submit your revised paper via the Journal of Travel Research Manuscript Central process. It is important that the paper be submitted as a revision of your first submission. Specifically, this means it would be submitted under the same manuscript number and be treated both by Manuscript Central and by the Editorial Office as a revised paper. This will result in a much faster review process.

    Include with your submission a supplementary file indicating how the paper has been revised relative to the substantive comments made by the reviewers of the original version. It is important that this file be submitted as part of the manuscript so that it can be forwarded it to the reviewers. This paper must explain how the authors have addressed the concerns raised in the initial review. Subsequent reviews focus specifically on this response. When you finish with your resubmission, you can review a pdf file of the complete submission – make sure the supplementary file is included. Also, since it is potentially going back to the reviewers, please be sure not to include your name or identity in the supplementary file.

    To create this supplementary file you should:

    1. Cut and paste all comments by each reviewer.
    2. For each substantive comment provide a detailed explanation and justification of your response.
    3. Where applicable, provide a clear cross-reference to the relevant changes in the revised manuscript.
    4. If you are in disagreement with the reviewer comments or suggestions, or prefer an alternative approach to address an issue they have raised, this is quite acceptable however, in such cases, you need to discuss and explain your views and justify your preferred approach either not to change the manuscript, or to change it in a different manner.

    Attending to these points adequately will significantly benefit the further review of revised manuscripts.

    In addition to responding to the reviewer comments, it is important to make sure the paper is current in its review of the literature. Often the manuscript process, from inception to completion, can take many months. It is important that, during each revision process, you update the review of literature, including, as appropriate, how this paper fits within the related papers published in the tourism literature and JTR over the past few years. Please also make sure to check for relevant manuscripts in the JTR Online First ( listing as that is the most current papers that will be published in advance of your paper.


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