Adaptive Behavior

Adaptive Behavior

2015 Impact Factor: 1.098
2015 Ranking: 81/130 in Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence | 30/95 in Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary | 75/85 in Psychology, Experimental
2016 Release of Journal Citation Reports, Source: 2015 Web of Science Data
Published in Association with International Society for Adaptive Behavior

Editor in Chief
Tom Froese Faculty Member at the UNAM, México

eISSN: 17412633 | ISSN: 10597123 | Current volume: 25 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Bi-monthly

Adaptive Behavior is an indexed, international peer reviewed journal that publishes original research and review articles on adaptive behavior in biological systems and autonomous artificial systems.

Since 1992 it has offered ethologists, psychologists, behavioral ecologists, computer scientists, philosophers, neuroscientists, and robotics researchers a forum for discussing new findings as well as for comparing insights and approaches across disciplines. The journal explores mechanisms, organizational principles, and architectures that can be expressed in computational, physical, or mathematical models related to the both the functions and dysfunctions of adaptive behavior.

The journal publishes articles, reviews, short communications, target articles and commentaries addressing challenges in the cognitive and behavioral sciences, and including topics such as perception and motor control, embodied cognition, learning and evolution, neural mechanisms, action selection and behavioral sequences, motivation and emotion, characterization of materials and environments, decision making, collective and social behavior, navigation, foraging, communication and signaling.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Electronic access:

Adaptive Behavior is available electronically on SAGE Journals Online at

The study and simulation of adaptive behavior in natural and artificial systems has always involved the convergence of several disciplines, interests, and methods. Since its inception in 1992, the pages of this journal have reflected a cross-fertilization between the sciences of the artificial, the sciences of living systems, and the sciences of the mind. As a result, Adaptive Behavior has been, and continues to be, a forum for innovative, creative, yet rigorous and peer-reviewed work on complex adaptive systems, robotic and computational investigations of behavior and cognition, as well as novel theoretical developments and applications.

The general mission of Adaptive Behavior has not changed fundamentally even as the journal, like any good adaptive system, assimilates and accommodates to new challenges and open questions. Accordingly, our particular aims are constantly on the move, as they are driven no only by general advances in knowledge, as occurs within any well-defined research discipline, but also by the birth of new research programs out of the stimulating intellectual milieu of interdisciplinary debate and collaboration. A key purpose of this journal is to facilitate such creative work by being the source of new ideas, the forum for novel recombination, and a place to ask difficult questions that are rarely asked at the core of individual disciplines.

Realizing these goals means encouraging high-quality publications and debate in several exciting and emerging research areas. In particular, the journal aims to contribute to the consolidation of new approaches to cognitive science, especially research related to the consolidation of new approaches to cognitive science, especially research related to "4E cognition" (embodied, embedded, extended, and enactive cognition), including the predictive coding framework, autopoietic and sensorimotor theory, as well as dynamical and ecological approaches to psychology. This journal is equally a fitting home for expanding research on the possibilities of intelligence without a central nervous system, such as behavior-based approaches to the origin of life, plant cognition and the adaptive capacities of multi-agent and social systems. Another important area is living technology, which includes morphological computation, deep neural networks, soft robotics, and other advances in the methods and practical applications of bio-inspired robotics and self-optimization. 

In particular, we identify the following research challenges:

- To better understand the adaptive and cognitive capacities of (bio-)chemical systems
- To concretize predictive coding into a framework that can be more easily applied to advancing actual examples of cognitive robotics
- To replicate biological autonomy in artificial systems (or to demonstrate why this cannot be done)
- To determine whether the various new approaches to the science of mind are compatible or, alternatively, to determine their competing predictions
- To better understand what (if any) are the limits of intelligence without a nervous system and intelligence without representations
- To clarify the nature of the normativity inherent in living systems in such a way that it could improve cognitive robotics and living technology
- To better understand the conditions under which multi-agent and social systems generate collective properties that benefit their components
- To search for new materials that allow for more adaptive robot bodies

Contributions that address one or more of these research challenges are particularly welcomed. 

Associate Editors
Eran Agmon Columbia University, USA
Nathaniel Barrett University of Navarra, Spain
Manuel G. Bedia University of Zaragoza, Spain
Randall D. Beer Indiana University, USA
Joost Broekens Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Joanna J Bryson University of Bath, UK
Seth Bullock University of Bristol, UK
Kerstin Dautenhahn University of Hertfordshire, UK
Ezequiel Di Paolo University of the Basque Country, Spain
Matthew Egbert University of Auckland, New Zealand
Inman Harvey University of Sussex
Hiroyuki Iizuka Hokkaido University, Japan
Takashi Ikegami University of Tokyo, Japan
Robert Lowe University of Skövde, Sweden
Georg Martius Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Germany
Marek McGann University of Limerick, Ireland
Frank Paseman Institute of Cognitive Science, Germany
Andrew Philippides University of Sussex, UK
Erol Sahin Middle East Technical University, Turkey
Jeffrey Schank University of California (UC Davis), USA
Jun Tani Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
Peter M Todd Indiana University, USA
Editorial Board
David H. Ackley University of New Mexico, USA
Michael Arbib University of Southern California, USA
Andrew Barto University of Massachusetts, USA
Rodney A Brooks Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Holk Cruse University of Bielefeld, Germany
Daniel Dennett Tufts University, USA
Marco Dorigo Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Jörg-Peter Ewert University of Kassel, Germany
Dario Floreano Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
Nicolas Franceschini Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), France
Charles Gallistel Rutgers University, USA
David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, USA
John Grefenstette George Mason University, USA
Stephen Grossberg Boston University, USA
John Hallam University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
John H Holland University of Michigan, USA
Keith Holyoak University of California (UCLA), Los Angeles, USA
Phil Husbands University of Sussex, UK
Jean-Arcady Meyer Institute for Intelligent Systems and Robotics (ISIR), France
Alvaro Moreno University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain
Stefano Nolfi Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CNR-ISTC), Italy
Rolf Pfeifer Osaka University, Japan
Herbert L. Roitblat OrcaTec LLC, USA
Olaf Sporns Indiana University, USA
Luc Steels Vrij Universiteit Brussels (VUB), Belgium
Frederick M. Toates The Open University, UK
Barbara Webb University of Edinburgh, UK
Stewart W. Wilson Prediction Dynamics, USA
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    1. Article types
    2. Editorial Policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgments
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Data
    3. Publishing Policies
      3.1 Publication Ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open Access and author archiving
      3.4 Permissions
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Word processing formats
      4.2 Formatting
      4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.4 Supplementary material
      4.5 Journal layout
      4.6 Reference style
      4.7 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 How to submit your manuscript
      5.2 Title, keywords and abstracts
      5.3 Corresponding author contact details
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Access to your published article
      6.3 Online First publication
    7. Further Information

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Adaptive Behavior will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

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    1. Article types

    Article, editorial, review and short communication

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Adaptive Behavior operates under a conventional single-blind reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is always concealed from the submitting author.
    All manuscripts are reviewed initially by one of the Editors and only those papers that meet the scientific and editorial standards of the journal, and fit within the aims and scope of the journal, will be sent for peer review.  Generally, reviews from at least two independent referees are required.

    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of 3 peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below: 

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
    When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.3.1 Writing Assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communciations company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.4 Funding

    Adaptive Behavior requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.  

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Adaptive Behaviorto require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    2.6 Data

    SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

    Adaptive Behavior requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. [The editor(s) may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data.] The editor(s) can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office at

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    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Adaptive Behavior and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the journal or all SAGE journals, or appropriate legal action.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open Access and author archiving

    Adaptive Behavior offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    3.4 Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway

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    4. Preparing your manuscript

    4.1 Word processing formats

    Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted. The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    For a LaTeX use (LaTeX Template). NOTE: The size of this journal is “short A4”. Please use the “ShortAfour” option when using the SAGE classfile. That is: \documentclass[ShortAfour]{sagej}  (please see the classfile documentation in the guidelines for full instructions).

    For Word use the Word Template.

    4.2 Formatting

    Manuscripts for normal articles should not normally exceed the equivalent of 20 printed journal pages (about 10,000 words). More space is allowed for review articles, but the situation should be discussed with the editor before submission. Manuscripts for short communications should not normally exceed 4, 000 words. It is highly recommended to contact the editor before submitting a manuscript that significantly exceeds the allowed length as there is a risk that the manuscript may not be sent to review and the authors may be asked to shorten it.

    4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  
    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.4 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article.  For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files, which can be found within our Manuscript Submission Guidelines page.

    4.5 Journal layout

    Adaptive Behavior conforms to the SAGE house style.  Click here to review guidelines on SAGE UK House Style.

    4.6 Reference style

    Adaptive Behavior adheres to the APA reference style. Click here to review the guidelines on APA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    4.7 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    5.1 How to submit your manuscript

    Adaptive Behavior is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.2 Title, keywords and abstracts

    Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    5.3 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.

    6.2 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.3 Online First publication

    Online First allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a final journal issue which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. For more information please visit our Online First Fact Sheet

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    7. Further Information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Adaptive Behavior Editor-in-Chief:

    Dr. Tom Froese:

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