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Foot & Ankle International

2016 Impact Factor: 1.872
2016 Ranking: 32/76 in Orthopedics
Source: 2016 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2017); Indexed in PubMed: MEDLINE
Published in Association with American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society

Editor
David B. Thordarson, MD Professor, Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA


eISSN: 19447876 | ISSN: 10711007 | Current volume: 38 | Current issue: 8 Frequency: Monthly

Foot & Ankle International (FAI), in publication since 1980, is the official journal of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS). This monthly medical journal emphasizes surgical and medical management as it relates to the foot and ankle with a specific focus on reconstructive, trauma, and sports-related conditions utilizing the latest technological advances. FAI offers original, clinically oriented, peer-reviewed research articles presenting new approaches to foot and ankle pathology and treatment, current case reviews, and technique tips addressing the management of complex problems. This journal is an ideal resource for highly-trained orthopaedic foot and ankle specialists and allied health care providers.

The journal’s Founding Editor, Melvin H. Jahss, MD (deceased), served from 1980-1988. He was followed by Kenneth A. Johnson, MD (deceased) from 1988-1993; Lowell D. Lutter, MD (deceased) from 1993-2004; and E. Greer Richardson, MD from 2005-2007. David B. Thordarson, MD, assumed the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2008.

The journal focuses on the following areas of interest:

• Surgery

• Wound care

• Bone healing

• Pain management

• In-office orthotic systems

• Diabetes

• Sports medicine

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Foot & Ankle International, the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society® (AOFAS®), is a monthly medical journal that emphasizes surgical and medical management as well as basic clinical research related to foot and ankle problems. In circulation since 1980, FAI offers peer-reviewed articles emphasizing surgical and medical management as well as basic clinical research related to foot and ankle problems. The journal focuses on the following areas of interest: surgery, wound care, bone healing, pain management, in-office orthotic systems, diabetes and sports medicine.

Managerial Board
Robert B. Anderson, MD Founder, Foot & Ankle Institute, OrthoCarolina, Charlotte, NC, USA
Donald R. Bohay, MD, FACS Clinical Professor, Orthopaedic Associates of Michigan, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
James W. Brodsky, MD, Chair Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSWMC) and Texas A&M Health Science College of Medicine, Dallas, TX, USA
Bruce E. Cohen, MD CEO, OrthoCarolina, Charlotte, NC, USA
Christopher W. DiGiovanni, MD Director, MGH Comprehensive Foot and Ankle Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
John S. Early, MD Orthopedic Surgeon, Texas Orthopaedic Associates LLP, Dallas, TX, USA
L. Daniel Latt, MD, PhD, ex-officio, Editor-in-Chief, FAO Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Thomas H. Lee, MD Private practice, Columbus, OH, USA
E. Greer Richardson, MD, ex-officio, Past Editor-in-Chief, FAI Campbell Clinic, Memphis, TN, USA (retired)
David B. Thordarson, MD, ex-officio, Editor-in-Chief, FAI Professor, Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Keith L. Wapner, MD Clinical Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Editorial Board
Kristian Buedts, MD Foot and Ankle Unit, ZNA Middelheim, Antwerpen , Belgium
Christopher P. Chiodo, MD Attending Orthopedic Surgeon and Chief of the Foot and Ankle Service, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
J. Chris Coetzee, MD Twin Cities Orthopedics, Edina, MN, USA
William R. Ledoux Dept. of Veteran Affairs, Rehabilitation Research & Development Ctr. for Limb Loss Prevention & Prosthetic Engineering, Affiliate Prof., Depts. of Mechanical Engineering & Orthopaedics & Sports Med., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Michael S. Pinzur, MD Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loyola University Health System, Maywood, IL, USA
Kodali S. Prasad, MD Prince Charles Hospital, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, UK
Robin M. Queen, PhD, FACSM, ex officio Associate Professor, Dept of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics; Director, Kevin P. Granata Biomechanics Lab, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Charles L. Saltzman, MD University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
David B. Thordarson, MD, Chair Professor, Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Robert A. Vander Griend, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Alastair S. E. Younger, MBChB, ChM, FRCSC BC Foot and Ankle Clinic, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Associate Editors
Christopher Bibbo, DO Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA
John T. Campbell, MD The Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction at Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
J. Chris Coetzee, MD Twin Cities Orthopedics, Edina, MN, USA
Steven L. Haddad, MD Illinois Bone & Joint Institute, Glenview, IL, USA
Sheldon S. Lin, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers, the New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA
Michael S. Pinzur, MD Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loyola University Health System, Maywood, IL, USA
Elly Trepman, MD Professional Associate, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Robert A. Vander Griend, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Arthur K. Walling, MD Florida Orthopedic Institute, Tampa, FL, USA
Continuing Medical Education Assistant Editor
Patrick B. Ebeling, MD University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Orthopedics, Burnsville, MN, USA
Current Concept Review Assistant Editors
Christopher P. Chiodo, MD Attending Orthopedic Surgeon and Chief of the Foot and Ankle Service, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Brian C. Toolan, MD Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitative Medicine, The University of Chicago, Medicine & Biological Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA
FootForum Assistant Editor
Michael S. Pinzur, MD Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loyola University Health System, Maywood, IL, USA
Gait Studies Assistant Editor
Robin M. Queen, PhD Associate Professor, Dept of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics; Director, Kevin P. Granata Biomechanics Lab, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
International Assistant Editor
Kodali S. Prasad, MD Prince Charles Hospital, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, UK
Surgical Strategies Assistant Editors
Eric Giza, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, UC Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA
Jeremy J. McCormick, MD Assistant Professor, Orthopedics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
Video Content Editor
Charles L. Saltzman, MD University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Managing Editor
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  • Foot & Ankle International (FAI) welcomes articles that contribute to orthopaedic science as it relates to the foot and ankle. Articles are welcome from all countries and all sources under the following conditions:

    • Articles are accepted only for exclusive publication in Foot & Ankle International.
    • Publication does NOT constitute official endorsement of opinions presented in articles.
    • Published articles and illustrations become the property of Foot & Ankle International.
    • Manuscripts not prepared according to the instructions below WILL be returned pending compliance.
    • Basic Science Models: All basic science models should represent clinically relevant and realistic situations. In general, there are three legitimate uses of surrogate bone models in clinically oriented foot and ankle biomechanical research studies: 
    1. Working out technical details of the testing model before switching to cadaver specimens. 
    2. Evaluating intrinsic mechanical properties of an implant or device exclusive of its method of attachment to bone. For example, quantifying the bending fatigue resistance of the plate that is contoured for attachment to a specific bone and for which attachment of simple bars or cylindrical rods for testing would result in inaccurate test results.
    3. Geometrical studies designed to demonstrate the amount of correction, angulation, etc., resulting from different surgical procedures.

    In addition, other biomechanical studies have been published periodically that have inaccurate models. One area that has had numerous publications over the last few years has been that of Achilles tendon rupture using an Achilles transection model which is very different from a clinical rupture with significant shredding of tissue at the rupture site. These types of studies should try to simulate an Achilles tendon rupture more accurately (i.e., some degree of shredding at the damaged tendon site).

    In addition the Editorial Board has decided not to publish any additional language/country specific translations of outcome instruments. While the methodology is important within the specific country or for the language of interest, it is not germane to the other countries of our international audience.

    MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

    Manuscripts must be submitted electronically at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fai, where authors will be required to set up an online account in the SAGE Track system powered by ScholarOne.

    GETTING HELP: If you need additional help while in the SAGE Track site, you can click on the ‘Online Help’ link in the upper right hand corner of any page. This will take you directly to ScholarOne Support.

    Before submitting your manuscript to be considered for publication in FAI using this system, please read over and follow the instructions below carefully. It is imperative that your submission be properly prepared and formatted. Failure to do so will result in your submission being returned to you for correction.

    1. English Language Editing Services
    2. Manuscript Preparation
    3. Formatting
      3.1 Word Length and Artwork Limits
      3.2 Text
      3.2.1 Numbers
      3.2.2 Percentages and Units
      3.2.3 Decimals
      3.2.4 Ranges
      3.2.5 Word Usage
      3.3 Cover Letter/Title Page File
      3.4 Manuscript Body
      3.4.1 Title
      3.4.2 Abstract
      3.4.3 Level of Evidence
      3.4.4 Keywords
      3.4.5 Introduction
      3.4.6 Materials and Methods
      3.4.7 Results
      3.4.8 Discussion
      3.4.9 References
      3.4.10 Legends
      3.4.11 Artwork
    4. Case Reports
    5. Technique Tips
    6. Technique Videos
    7. Total Ankle Arthroplasty (TAA) Articles
      7.1 Guidelines for Reporting TAA Problems and Complications Resulting in Re-Operation
    8. NIH and Wellcome Trust-Funded Submissions
    9. Manuscript Clearances
      9.1 Authorship
      9.2 Conflict of Interest
      9.3 Plagiarism and Duplicate Submission
      9.4 Informed Consent
      9.5 Disclosure of Off-Label Use
    10. Manuscript Submission
      10.1 Uploading
      10.2 Downloading the ICMJE Form
      10.3 Checking Manuscript Status
    11. Post-Submission
      11.1 Review
      11.2 Revision
      11.3 Publication

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    1. English Language Editing Services

    Authors who would like to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of a professional English-language editing company. We highlight some of these companies at http://www.sagepub.com/journalgateway/engLang.htm. Please be aware that SAGE has no affiliation with these companies and makes no endorsement of them. An author's use of these services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and the particular company, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.

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    2. Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts must be submitted electronically at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fai, where authors will be required to set up an online account in the SAGE Track system powered by ScholarOne.

    GETTING HELP: If you need additional help while in the SAGE Track site, you can click on the ‘Online Help’ link in the upper right hand corner of any page. This will take you directly to ScholarOne Support.

    Before submitting your manuscript to be considered for publication in FAI using this system, please read over and follow the instructions below carefully. It is imperative that your submission be properly prepared and formatted. Failure to do so will result in your submission being returned to you for correction.

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    3. Formatting

    FAI follows the American Medical Association (AMA) style guidelines with some modifications to references listed alphabetically (see References). The majority of the following formatting settings are standard on most word processing software.

    3.1 Word Length and Artwork Limits

    Scientific Manuscript                                                 4,000 words
    Current Concept Review/Topical Review                  5,000 words
    Case Report/Technique Tip                                       2,000 words
    Number of Tables                                                      4
    Number of Figures                                                    8
    Abstract                                                                     300 words

    3.2 Text

    All text is 12-point font double-spaced in a clean and legible font (Times New Roman, Arial, etc). Margins are 1.25” on the sides and 0.5” top and bottom.

    MAIN HEADINGS are bold upper-case.

    Subheadings are simply bold.

    Manuscript titles are bold underlined.

    All lines of manuscript must be consecutively numbered using your software's continuous line numbering feature. Do NOT number the lines manually.

    Do not start each manuscript section on its own page.

    3.2.1 Numbers

    Numerals are used to express numbers except in the following circumstances:

    1. At the beginning of a sentence, title, subtitle, or heading
    2. Common fractions
    3. Accepted usage (idiomatic expressions and numbers used as pronouns)
    4. Other uses of “one” in running text
    5. Ordinals first through ninth
    6. Numbers spelled out in quotes or text

    3.2.2 Percentages and Units

    The numerator and denominator should be included for all percentages. Round off the percentages when the denominator is less than 100. Percentages should not be used when the value of n is less than 20.

    All measurements should be given in SI units.

    "Degrees" is always spelled out when measure angles; only use the degree symbol for temperature, followed by C or F or K.

    3.2.3 Decimals

    Place a zero before the decimal point in numbers less than 1, except when expressing probability values (P, α, and β). For example, 0.5 mg/kg, but P = .16. Commas are not to be used in decimals.

    Except for P values, round decimals to the value consistent with measurement.

    3.2.4 Ranges

    Ranges in running text should not be expressed using hyphens; try “to” or “through” as necessary. Ranges can be used in parenthetical text or in tables (unless one of the numbers is a negative number). When giving an average and a range in parenthesis, only list the unit once after the parenthesis, unless doing so would be confusing (such as an average in years with a range in months). When giving ranges for average values, please format as follows:

    The average age was 46 (range, 38-74) years.
    (median age, 46 years; range, 38-74)

    3.2.5 Word Usage

    Words placed in quotation marks, indicating that they have a meaning other than the one found in a dictionary, should be defined.

    The symbols > and < should only be used in equations, such as (p < 0.005). If used in a sentence, spell out: These studies showed less than 5% involvement.

    Use the following words:
    'Operative' instead of 'surgical' whenever possible for consistency.
    'Medical history' instead of 'past medical history.'
    'Tibialis posterior' instead of 'posterior tibial.'
    'Tibialis anterior' instead of 'anterior tibial.'
    No. 2 suture instead of number 2 suture.

    Use the following words without hyphens as shown:
    dorsiflexion
    intraobserver
    interobserver
    nonoperative
    nonweightbearing
    plantarflexion
    preevaluation
    preoperative
    postoperative
    posttraumatic
    posttreatment
    weightbearing

    Other
    Use the term 'significant' only to describe statistical significance. A P value is required when this word is used.
    Surgical procedures should be described in the past tense.
    In-text figure callouts must be spelled out and included BEFORE punctuation: (Figure 1).

    Always list manufacturer, city, and USPS state abbreviation or country of origin for devices and
    brand names.
    Power ranges and correlations should be italicized: P = .05, r = 0.0003.
    Student t test should have Student capitalized because it is a proper noun (but the phrase is not italicized).
    Do not capitalize 'scarf osteotomy' or 'chevron osteotomy' unless they begin a sentence.

    3.3 Cover Letter/Title Page File

    All submissions to FAI must include a cover letter containing the manuscript title and the full names, academic degrees, academic status, and affiliation of all authors (corresponding AND contributing) attributed to the manuscript. A corresponding author must be clearly designated, with a full mailing and e-mail address for correspondence with that author included. Please make sure all cover letter information is as correct as possible; it will be used to set how the authors are listed in the printed article. The cover letter should be uploaded as the title page file on the manuscript submission.

    Authors may list up to 2 academic degrees after their names, but no initials for organizations.

    3.4 Manuscript Body

    Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

    3.4.1 Title

    The manuscript title does not need to be on its own page or included in a repeating header.

    3.4.2 Abstract

    Abstracts are not required for case reports or clinical tips.

    When required, an abstract should be approximately 250 to 300 words long and broken into four sections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. A fifth section (Clinical Relevance) should be added for basic-science articles.

    NOTE: The SAGE Track site has a 250-word limit on the text of abstracts entered into the system. Therefore, a SAGE Track version of a manuscript's abstract may be abridged to fit this requirement. However, the complete abstract must be included in the body of the manuscript.

    3.4.3 Level of Evidence

    If your manuscript has an applicable Level of Evidence, please include it here.
    Case Reports and Clinical Tips should be assigned Level V.

    Authors are encouraged to follow the JBJS guidelines found at:
    J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2015 Jan 07; 97 (1): 1 -2. http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.N.01112

    3.4.4 Keywords

    Keywords should describe the information contained in the paper, including any terms unique to the paper’s subject. All keywords should have the first letter of each word capitalized and listed using semicolons.

    3.4.5 Introduction

    State the problem that led to the study and the specific purpose of the study. It can include a brief review of the literature that is dealt with in the Discussion section.

    3.4.6 Materials and Methods

    Provide demographic data on the study population and define the period during which the study was conducted, the specific criteria for inclusion and exclusion of patients, the indications for the operative procedure, and the duration of follow-up.

    The section must also describe the statistical methods used in the study:

    • The statement that "no significant difference was found between two groups" cannot be made unless a power study was done and the value of alpha or beta is reported. A large number of patients (at least 60, and often more, in each group or subgroup) is required to make such a statement. If no such power study was done, the author must state: "With the numbers available, no significant difference could be detected."
    • Ninety-five percent confidence in intervals is required whenever the results of survivorship analysis are given in the text or in graphs. Authors are encouraged to use 95% confidence intervals in addition to or instead of standard deviations when reporting results.
    • Use of the word "correlation" requires reporting of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient r.

    STATISTICAL SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATION

    With regard to sample size for a study we would make the following suggestions:

    1. It would be optimal if all applicable submitted research to address in the methods section consideration for sample size calculation. This means a post-hoc calculation for retrospective research, and ideally an a priori calculation for prospective research (or a post-hoc calculation when an a priori calculation was not completed).
    2. If an a priori sample size calculation was not done at all, then this should be addressed in the discussion as a weakness in the design and should warn the reader of this shortfall. Furthermore, in this circumstance, the authors should discretely provide the reader with the data necessary to be able to calculate a post hoc power analysis on their own.
    3. If a sample size calculation was done and the study was found to be underpowered, then, in the discussion exactly how many subjects would be required for the research to be completed with adequate power should be provided.

    We recommend that authors use the following UCSF "sample size and power calculation" web page: http://www.epibiostat.ucsf.edu/biostat/sampsize.html.

    3.4.7 Results

    Provide a detailed report on the data obtained during the study. Results obtained after less than two years of follow-up are rarely accepted. It is essential that all data in the text be consistent with data both in the Abstract and in any illustrations, legends, or tables included.

    Total ankle studies should have two year follow-up for positive outcomes; there is no required follow-up length for negative outcomes.

    3.4.8 Discussion

    Include a review of the literature, with emphasis on previous findings that agree with those of the present study. The Discussion should also state both the strengths and the weaknesses of the study.

    3.4.9 References

    References MUST be listed alphabetically and consecutively numbered in the reference section, and that
    numbering must be used in the reference citations within the text of the article. Follow the instructions below.

    A journal article reference listing breaks down into the following sections:

    [Authors]. [Title]. [Journal Abbreviation]. [Year];[Volume(Issue)]:[Page Range]. doi: 10.1177/1071100713511435.

    The bibliography must be titled “References” and be an alphabetical listing of references that are cited in the preceding text. Titles of foreign-language articles and books should appear in their published language. When citing a book, give the specific pages used unless the entire book was used. If an article has a DOI, it may be included at the end of the reference as shown above.

    In cases where there are more than 6 authors for a given article, list the first 3 authors with an “et al.”
    after them.

    Reference examples:

    Journal article:

    1. Ostrum RF, Meo PD, Subramanian R. A critical analysis of the anterior-posterior radiographic anatomy of the ankle syndesmosis. Foot Ankle Int. 1995;16(3):128-131. doi: 10.1177/107110079501600304.

    Book:

    1. Basmajian JV. Primary Anatomy. Baltimore, MD: William & Wilkins; 1970.

    All references must be cited in the text. Citations must be superscript and be placed after periods and commas and before semi-colons and colons. For example:

    The foot is connected to the ankle.15

    The foot is connected to the ankle4,6-9,22; the knee,4 thigh,10 and ankle54 are all parts of the leg.

    We no longer accept references of papers given at meetings, personal communications, doctoral theses, or obscure references that cannot be verified.

    3.4.10 Legends

    All artwork (figures and tables) submitted must have text included here, listed in order. Explain what each illustration shows rather than simply defining it. Give the amount of magnification of all photomicrographs. Define all arrows and other such indicators appearing, when necessary. If an illustration is of a patient who is identified by a case number in the text or table, include that case number in the legend. If a piece of artwork has been published elsewhere prior to this article and permission to include it has been granted, include proper attribution in the figure legend here.

    3.4.11 Artwork

    Submit artwork figure files in color, as color will display in the online version. The print version will run in black and white; color illustrations will not be printed unless the author or institution pays the expense of including the color in the print issue (contact the publisher for cost).

    Resolution on artwork files provided must be at least 300 dpi or higher to ensure best-quality reproduction in the printed article. Tables must be submitted in editable software (Word or Excel) and may appear following references in the main manuscript file or as separate files.

    Label each illustration (i.e. Fig. 1, Fig. 2A, etc.) in the order they are to appear in print before uploading them to SAGE Track. When uploading, please upload each figure or table as a separate file.

    Although FAI discourages submission of artwork previously published elsewhere, when such artwork is deemed essential, the author MUST include a letter from the original holder of the copyright, granting permission for their use. Give full information about the previous publication, including the specific page on which the illustration appeared.

    All artwork figures must comply with HIPAA regulations and remove any identifiable information on the patient, author or author institution.

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    4. Case Reports

    VERY FEW CASE REPORTS ARE ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION.

    Case reports must either offer new information that has been previously unpublished, offer completely new information or information that will change the current practice patterns of our readers. Entities that are unique in and of themselves bizarre, or common, will NOT be accepted as case reports.

    Case reports must contain the following sections: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, and Summary/Conclusion.

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    5. Technique Tips

    Technique tips must offer a tip for, or a modification of, a pre-existing, documented procedure or clinical application. Entirely new procedures are NOT considered clinical tips and MUST be prepared and submitted according to the instructions for manuscript submissions outlined above. In general, a clinical tip should consist of the following:

    • An Introduction/Discussion section consisting of a clinical discussion about the process, procedure, or the actual diagnosis. It should state the problem that led to the use of the process, procedure or diagnosis as well as the reason(s) it is more useful than another process, procedure, or diagnosis.
    • A Technique section in which the technique or exam itself is described in detail. This section should contain illustrations.

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    6. Technique Videos

    Authors submitting articles that describe an operative technique are invited to submit a technique video to accompany and enhance the article. Please follow the guidelines below:

    • Submit within 20 days of article acceptance if possible (video displays in-line with online article) or Submit within 60 days (video attached as supplement to online article)
    • No industry advertisements or logos
    • Must remove any identifiable information on the patient (per HIPAA regulations)
    • Goal < 3 minutes; maximum 5 minutes. 
    • No background music 
    • Acceptable formats are avi, mov, mp4, and mpeg. FLV (Flash video) is NOT accepted.
    • Minimum resolution level: 1280 x720p
    • Includes these elements of a procedure
      • Equipment needed
      • Positioning
      • Critical steps described with narration
      • Postop dressing/Protocol

    The article will be posted with the online version of your article at FAI in perpetuity. In addition, the FAI contributor agreement gives AOFAS non-exclusive rights to use (WHICH MEANS YOU CAN STILL USE FOR OTHER PURPOSES) and distribute the video for educational purposes, including posting on the AOFAS Physician Resource Center (PRC). If an identifiable non-author participant is featured in the video, an additional release form will be required.

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    7. Total Ankle Arthroplasty (TAA) Articles

    1. TAA manuscripts must have a minimum of two-year follow-up for all patients in the study. Complications or implant issues can be reported with shorter follow-up. All repeat surgeries must be documented for all time points from the time of the index TAA
    2. The template below should be used as a guide for authors in reporting complications resulting in reoperation(s). This is based on the COFAS Ankle Arthritis Study Group coding system for reporting reoperations. Overlap will occur for some of these categories as individual patients may have had more than one re-operation. The intent is to distinguish between different types of complications resulting in reoperation (instead of simply reporting that a certain number of patients in a study had re-operations).
    3. The Editorial Board of FAI also recognizes the need for an international consensus in reporting TAA outcomes. This includes patient reported outcomes, objective clinical and radiographic measurements, and a system for reporting complications and adverse events. TAA joint registries are also essential so that we can learn from our successes but also from our failures and maintain surveillance to identify non-random causes for failure.
    4. Repeat surgery can be reported individually or as a series of events. The authors should outline which method was used. Documentation of resource utilization (additional surgery time, days in hospital or additional clinic visits) for repeat surgery will assist in determining the impact of the complication or repeat surgery.
    5. Non-surgical complications (such as DVT, pulmonary embolism or infection treated by antibiotics) should also be documented.

    7.1 Guidelines for Reporting TAA Problems and Complications Resulting in Re-Operation

    1. No reoperation
    2. Hardware removal related to TAA
                (e.g. medial malleolus screw(s), fibular plate)
    3. Subsequent operative treatment related to TAA but not involving TAA components
                (e.g. osteotomy, fusion of other joint(s) of the foot, ligament repair/reconstruction)
    4. Operative treatment of periprosthetic fracture(s)
           a. At the time of the index procedure
           b. After the index procedure
    5. Debridement of gutter or heterotopic ossification with retention of components
    6. Polyethylene liner exchange for polyethylene wear or fracture
    7. Operative treatment of postoperative arthrofibrosis
                (e.g. joint debridement +/- capsulotomy, Achilles lengthening, PE liner exchange),
    8. Debridement +/- grafting of osteolytic cyst(s)
                (with retention of metal components +/- polyethylene exchange)
    9. Operative treatment of superficial infection or incision problem
                (e.g. I & D, secondary closure)
    10. Operative treatment of deep infection requiring debridement 
                (+/- polyethylene liner exchange but NOT removal of metal components)
    11. Deep Infection requiring removal of ALL components 
           a. One stage TAA revision to TAA
           b. Two stage TAA revision to TAA
           c. Conversion to “long term” cement spacer
           d. Conversion to arthrodesis
    12. Revision of metal components because of implant failure
                (e.g. aseptic loosening, subsidence, malposition, implant fracture----not for infection)
           a. Tibia
           b. Talus
           c. Both tibia and talus revised to TAA
           d. Removal of components and conversion to arthrodesis
    13. Amputation related to complications from TAA
                State reason(s): pain, infection, vascular compromise, failed prior treatments, patient choice, etc.

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    8. NIH and Wellcome Trust-Funded Submissions

    Authors should check the box at submission if a manuscript was funded by NIH or Wellcome Trust.  If the article is accepted to FAI, the article will be automatically deposited to PubMed Central (PMC). This service previously cost $3,000 and was only available after the print publication of the article.  It is now completely free and the article will be deposited automatically within 6 months for Wellcome Trust and 12 months for NIH.

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    9. Manuscript Clearances

    9.1 Authorship

    The corresponding author is required at submission to verify that the work has been submitted solely to FAI and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere.

    It is to be clearly understood that each author has participated in the design of the study, has contributed to the collection of the data, has participated in the writing of the manuscript, and assumes full responsibility for the content of the manuscript. Normally, no more than six authors should be listed. Individuals who have contributed to only one segment of the manuscript or have contributed only cases should be credited in a footnote. (FAI does not allow use of such footnotes to thank individuals who made secretarial, technical, or other contributions that were part of their normal jobs, for which they were compensated.) If extenuating circumstances prevail, the cover letter should detail why the authors have taken exception to these recommendations and should state how each author has contributed to the manuscript.

    9.2 Conflict of Interest

    For each manuscript accepted for publication, authors are responsible for recognizing and disclosing any conflict of interest that could be perceived to bias their work, acknowledging all financial support and any other personal connections. The ICMJE forms should be submitted for each author upon initial manuscript submission to provide the reviewers and editors information regarding any reported conflicts during the review process. If necessary, authors will be required to submit one of the following statements:

    1. One or more of the authors has received or will receive benefits for personal or professional use from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
    2. One or more of the authors has received or will receive benefits for personal or professional use from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article. In addition, benefits have been or will be directed to a research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other nonprofit organization with which one or more of the authors is associated.
    3. Although none of the authors has received or will receive benefits for personal or professional use from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article, benefits have been or will be received but are directed solely to a research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other nonprofit organization with which one or more of the authors is associated.
    4. No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
    5. The authors of this manuscript have chosen not to furnish information to FAI and its readers concerning any relationship that might exist between a commercial party and material contained in this manuscript that might represent a conflict of interest.

    In addition to the above, authors will also be asked to submit one of the following two statements:

    1. The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
    2. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: _______.

    The statements selected by the author or authors will be printed on the first page of the published article. COPYRIGHT Material appearing in FAI is covered by copyright. As a general rule, permission will be given to recognized medical journals to reprint anything in these pages if permission is first obtained from FAI and if the material used is properly credited to FAI.

    9.3 Plagiarism and Duplicate Submission

    Plagiarism simply defined is using previously published work without properly citing the original publication in the text of a paper. It is unethical, infringes upon copyrighted material and the manner in which to deal with it has been discussed extensively by organizations such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Since it is difficult to identify plagiarism by simply reading an article, the Editorial Board of Foot & Ankle International decided to begin screening submitted papers with plagiarism software, iThenticate, in August 2013. This software identifies passages in a paper that are identical to previously published papers.

    The Editorial Board discussed plagiarism and established a policy on October 28, 2013. With the policy, all papers and revisions of papers submitted to Foot & Ankle International will be screened with the iThenticate plagiarism software. Those papers that are identified to potentially have significant overlap with previous publications will then be reviewed by the Editorial Board. If the paper is found to have significant duplication with previous publications, it will be rejected before review and all of the authors of the paper will receive a letter giving the reason for rejection along with the iThenticate report for the paper in question. Authors may appeal if they feel the decision was unjustified or they may revise the text to eliminate the duplicated text at which time the article can be submitted to the journal again at which time the article will again be analyzed with the iThenticate software. If authors wish, they can have their papers analyzed by iThenticate prior to submission at their own cost.

    Duplicate submission refers to act of submitting a manuscript to more than one journal at the same time. Duplicate publication refers to the practice of publishing the same article in two or more different journals. Upon submitting an article to Foot & Ankle International, all corresponding authors must acknowledge by checking a box "Confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to this journal and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere." The Editorial Board has established a policy on duplicate submission or publication that authors who are found to have a duplicate submission or publication will be barred from submitting any papers for 1 year from the time of discovery of the duplicate submission or publication.

    9.4 Informed Consent

    All manuscripts dealing with a study of human subjects must include a statement that the subjects have given informed consent, and that the study has been approved by an institutional review board or similar committee. All studies should be carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki [Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 79-A 1089-1098, July 1997].

    9.5 Disclosure of Off-Label Use

    FDA/ Regulatory Agency Statement

    Some drugs or medical devices discussed in articles may not have been approved by the FDA or appropriate regulatory agency for the author’s country for the specific purpose reported upon in the article. The FDA has stated that it is the responsibility of the physician to determine the FDA clearance status of each drug or medical devices he or she wishes to use in clinical practice. The FAI Editorial Board has approved a policy that “off label” uses of a drug or medical device may be reported so long as the “off label” use of the drug or medical device is specifically disclosed (ie, it must be disclosed that the FDA or the appropriate regulatory agency for the author’s country has not cleared the drug or device for the described purpose). Any drug or medical device has been used “off label” if the described use was not set forth on the product’s approval label.

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    10. Manuscript Submission

    10.1 Uploading

    Before submitting a manuscript, please gather the following information:

    • Author information: first and last names, institutions, degrees, and active e-mail addresses.
    • Manuscript title.
    • Manuscript abstract, where applicable (Can be cut and pasted from your manuscript).
    • Manuscript files in Word, WordPerfect, EPS, LaTeX, text, Postscript, or RTF format.
    • Figures/Images in TIFF, JPG, or Postscript.

    10.2 Downloading the ICMJE Form

    The Conflicts of Interest form is a PDF that is made to be filled out with the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Do not open the form with third-party PDF readers (this includes the Apple Preview app) and do not open the form in your browser. Instead, download the form to your desktop by right-clicking the link to the form and choosing the Save Target As... or Save Link as... command from the pop-up menu. Save the file to your desktop and then open it with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

    Note for Mac Users: Make sure the form does not open with the Mac Preview application. Preview cannot correctly handle this form.

    The manuscript submission process starts by pressing the "click here to submit a manuscript" link on your "Author Dashboard" page. The manuscript submission process is broken intoseveral screens that gather detailed information about your manuscript and allow you to upload the manuscript files. The sequence of screens is as follows:

    • SCREEN 1: General manuscript information. Please be as complete and accurate as possible.
    • SCREEN 2: Selection of the manuscript keywords.
    • SCREEN 3: Completion of author information.
    • SCREEN 4: The Details & Comments step collects additional manuscript details and includes conflict of
    • interest and disclosure questions.
    • SCREEN 5: File Upload. Supply all relevant files here using the appropriate file designations.
    • SCREEN 6: Review and Submit. Here you are required to view the proof of your submission.

    After the manuscript is submitted, you will be taken to a confirmation page where you receive your manuscript ID.

    10.3 Checking Manuscript Status

    After you submit your manuscript, you will receive an email confirmation with instructions on how you can view the status at any time. In your ‘My Manuscripts’ list on your Author Dashboard, you can view the details for submitted manuscripts.

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    11. Post-Submission

    11.1 Review

    Manuscripts are evaluated by the FAI editorial staff and sent to outside reviewers for blind peer review. A decision on a manuscript that has been rejected is returned as quickly as possible. It usually takes more time to make a decision regarding a paper being considered for publication.

    11.2 Revision

    The editorial staff may require revisions be made to accepted manuscripts before publication. In this case, authors must follow the instructions for revisions included with the revision request. All changes to the text must be highlighted in the submitted revision to aid in the review process. Revised manuscripts will be evaluated by the editorial staff and further requests for revision may be made. All
    communication regarding revisions will be made with the corresponding author. Revisions should be made within 60 days of receiving the revision request. Revisions taking longer will be deleted from our files unless we are contacted by the author.

    11.3 Publication

    Once the final revised manuscript has been accepted, all authors (corresponding and contributing) will receive a letter stating that the manuscript is ready for publication. The corresponding author will sign the Contributor Agreement and all authors will complete the ICMJE disclosure form.

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