Foot & Ankle Specialist (FAS) is a bimonthly journal offering peer-reviewed clinical information for foot and ankle caregivers. Written and edited by podiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons, FAS offers the latest techniques and advancements in foot and ankle treatment through research reports and reviews, technical perspectives, case studies, and other evidence-based articles. FAS enables practitioners to address a broad range of disorders and provide their patients with the best current diagnosis and therapy.
Foot and Ankle Specialist is a must-read for foot and ankle specialists such as:
- Podiatric Surgeons
- Orthopaedic Surgeons
- Plastic Surgeons
- Nerve Specialists
- Wound Specialists
- Nurse Practitioners
- Physician Assistants
- Podiatric Assistants
- Physical Therapists
- Topics covered in the journal include:
- Ankle Instability & Arthritis
- Sports Podiatry/Orthopaedics
- Diabetic Foot & Wound Care
- Heel Pain/Plantar Fasciitis/Heel Spurs
- Dermatology/Skin Care
- Surgeries and Infection
The content is divided into four sections: Practice, Research, Business, and Equipment.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
|John M. Schuberth, DPM||Foot and Ankle Surgery, Dept of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA|
|W. Bret Smith||Director of Foot and Ankle Division, Moore Center for Orthopedics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA|
|Gregory C. Berlet||Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center, Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, USA|
|Lowell Weil, Jr., DPM, MBA||CEO, Weil Foot and Ankle; Fellowship Director, Weil Foot and Ankle Institute, USA|
|Gregory C. Berlet||Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center, Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, USA|
|Babak Baravarian, DPM, FACFAS||Chief of Podiatry at Santa Monica UCLA and Orthopedic Hospital, USA|
|Stephen A. Brigido||Director, Fellowship for Foot and Ankle, Reconstruction Coordinated Health, Bethlehem, PA, USA|
|M. Truitt Cooper, MD||University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA|
|Anand M. Vora, MD||Illinois Bone & Joint Institute, Chicago, IL, USA|
|Sergio Abello, MD||Ortopedia y Traumatogia Clínica Shaio, Bogota, Colombia|
|Charles Andersen, MD, FACS, FAPWCA||Chief of the Vascular/Endovascular Surgery Service and Medical Director of the Wound Care Clinic, Madigan Army Medical Center, USA|
|David G. Armstrong, DPM, PhD||Southwester Academic Limb Salvage Alliance (SALSA), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA|
|Wang Bibo, MD||Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Medicine School of Shanghai Jiaotong Univerity, China|
|Thomas J. Chang, DPM||Redwood Orthopaedic Surgery Associates, USA|
|Emily A. Cook, DPM, MPH, CPH||Clinical Instructor in Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Director of Resident Training, Department of Surgery, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA, USA|
|Lawrence A. DiDomenico, DPM, FACFAS, FACFAOM, CWS||Reconstructive Rearfoot & Ankle Surgical Fellowship|
|Ivica Ducic, Dr., MD, PhD||Georgetown University Hospital, USA|
|Lawrence A. Ford, DPM||Richmond Medical Center, Richmond, CA, USA|
|Lisa Gould, MD, PhD, FACS||Wound Recovery and Hyperbaric Medicine Center, Kent Hospital, USA|
|Suzanne Hawson, PT, MPT, OCS||University Foot and Ankle Institute, USA|
|Christopher F. Hyer, DPM, FACFAS||Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center, USA|
|Christian Kinast, Dr.med.||Orthopaedie Zentrum Arabellapark, Muenchen, Germany|
|Jonathan Labovitz, DPM, FACFAS||Western University of Health Sciences|
|Tun Hing Lui, MBBS(HK)||North Disrict Hospital, Hong Kong, China|
|Xin Ma, MD, PhD||Huashan Hospital Fudan University, China|
|Peter G. Mangone, MD||Blue Ridge Bone & Joint Clinic, Asheville, NC, USA|
|Tristan Meusnier, MD||Clinique Saint Charles, Lyon, France|
|Murray J. Penner, MD, FRCSC||University of British Columbia, Canada|
|Mark A. Reiley||Berkeley Orthopaedic MEdical Group, Inc., USA|
|Kevin B. Rosenbloom, C.Ped||Foot In Motion, Inc., USA|
|Niten Singh, MD||Chief, Endovascular Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, USA|
|Dishan Singh, MBChB, FRCS(Orth)||Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, UK|
|David Soomekh, DPM||University Foot and Ankle Institute, USA|
|Thomas Zgonis, DPM, FACFAS||Department of Orthopaedics/Podiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, USA|
Foot & Ankle Specialist Manuscript Submission Guidelines
Editorial Purpose and Policies
Foot & Ankle Specialist (FAS) serves as a multidisciplinary journal dedicated to advancement of foot and ankle care. The primary audiences for FAS are podiatric surgeons and orthopaedists specializing in foot and ankle care. Authors should focus on the needs and interests of these individuals with particular emphasis on clinical relevance to any data cited or recommendations made.
The journal welcomes review and research articles in addition to technical articles, letters to the editor, case reports, practice-based, treatment dilemmas, advancements in foot and ankle specialization care, and equipment usage. Please note that the journal will prioritize original research submissions over case reports submissions.
This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fas to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.
As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that FAS may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.
If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.
1. What do we publish?
1.2 Article types
1.3 Writing your paper
2. Editorial policies
2.1 Peer review policy
2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
2.7 Clinical trials
2.8 Reporting guidelines
2.9 Research Data
3. Publishing polices
3.1 Publication ethics
3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
3.3 Open access and author archiving
4. Preparing your manuscript
4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
4.3 Supplemental material
4.4 Reference style
4.5 English language editing services
5. Submitting your manuscript
5.2 Information required for completing your submission
6. On acceptance and publication
6.1 SAGE Production
6.2 Online First publication
6.3 Access to your published article
6.4 Promoting your article
7. Further information
There are monthly department columns, including:
- Technology column: an approximate 1,500-word first-person column about technological developments or what is going on in a foot and ankle surgeon's practice
- Master Surgeon: an approximate 1,500-word first-person column on a new surgical technique you use or are familiar with, or a step-by-step technique column on a topic such as reconstructive surgery, arthritis, etc.
- In the Profession: a 1,500-3,000 word educational column centered on research topics within the foot and ankle specialties. It should include descriptive information about various issues involving research for the foot and ankle surgeon, and not merely present the author’s opinion. The purpose of the column is to present topics not covered in research articles (such as business/administrative issues or pros and cons of industry regulations). Sample topics include “Why do we need an IRB and what is a Private IRB,” “What is 510K clearance and how are medical devices approved by the FDA, and “What is considered 'Off-label Use' and how does this effect the Foot and Ankle Practitioner”.
- Roundtable Discussion
- Current Trends in Foot and Ankle Surgery
- Evolving Techniques: The technique is a 3,000 word (4 pages max) article that must follow the folowing criteria. The technique must be innovative and must be abiding by standard of care and within scope of practice of author. The article must be evidenced-based and cinical follow-up should be a minimum of 1 year.
The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.
For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online
Manuscripts will be reviewed by at least two reviewers in a double-blind peer review. Manuscripts are considered with the stipulation that they are submitted solely to FAS and that no part of the submission has previously appeared elsewhere. Where questions exist, authors should submit copies of material that has appeared elsewhere. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain and submit permission for any copyrighted material in the manuscript (such as, tables or figures).
As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:
- The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
- The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
- Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted
- Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.
FAS is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for FAS can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.
The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.
Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:
- Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
- Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
- Approved the version to be published,
- Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
FAS requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
It is the policy of FAS to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.
Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants
FAS conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract
The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives
At SAGE we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. Where relevant, The Journal encourages authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository subject to ethical considerations and where data is included, to add a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file. Authors should also follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway, which includes information about SAGE’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.
SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway
FAS and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.
Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway
FAS offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.
If you or your funder wishes your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in SAGE Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let SAGE know directly if you are choosing SAGE Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit SAGE Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at SAGE, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.
The manuscript is typed on white paper, 22 × 28 cm (8½ × 11 in.), with margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 in.) at top, bottom, and both sides.
- Use double spacing.
- Arrange the manuscript with the following sections and begin each section on a separate page: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) key words, (4) Level of Evidence, (5) text, (6) references, (7) glossary (if needed), (8) tables (each table on a separate page), (9) figures, and (10) legends.
- Abbreviated terms are spelled out at first use and followed with the abbreviation in parentheses. Avoid overuse of contrived abbreviations.
- Written permission to use non-original material (quotations exceeding 100 words, any table or illustration) from both author and publisher of the original is included, and the source is credited in the manuscript. No article will be accepted as a submission to FAS without all required permissions.
- Title page: Include (1) the full title of the paper—short, clear, and specific; (2) authors’ full names, (3) degrees and institutional affiliation of all authors; (4) name, address (including zip code), e-mail address, and phone number of all contributing authors; (5) a running title of 3 or 4 words; (6) any acknowledgments; and (7) any conflicts of interest or funding information. Indicate the author to whom communications should go to regarding the manuscript and reprint requests.
- Abstract: Provide an article summary of 200 words or less.
- Key words: Include 4-5 key words.
- Grant and other acknowledgments: Specify support of any work discussed, by a grant or otherwise, as well as the meeting, if any, at which the paper was presented (including place and date).
Level of Evidence
The journal requires that authors self-report Level of Evidence and Study Design in their submission (for example, Therapeutic, Level IV: Retrospective). For more information on the Level of Evidence guidelines of the journal, which closely mirror those of other orthopaedic journals, click here. Our editors will review your classification and reserve the right to change it. The author will be informed if there is a difference of opinion regarding classification. The Level of Evidence should be listed after the abstract within the main document.
Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications appearing in the journal are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the editors and publisher. The editors and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the editors nor the publisher guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.
The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.
For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines
Electronic Art Submission
Acceptable file formats:
- TIFF (identified *.TIF) Tag Image File Format
- EPS (identified *.EPS) Encapsulated Postscript File
- JPEG (identified *.JPG) Joint Photographic Experts Group
- The submission system will NOT accept PDF files
- Line art (black and white) should be scanned at 1200 dpi at 1 bit
- Color and grayscale images should be scanned at 300 dpi at 8 bit
- Save each figure as its own file and do not include any extra text (ie, figure captions).
- Sizing: Save the image to the size of the final printed version with an allowance of not more than 10% larger.
This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files
Double-space references throughout, number them in the sequence in which they appear in the text, and identify them in text by superscript Arabic numerals. Accuracy and completeness of references are the author’s responsibility. References follow the American Medical Association’s Manual of Style. If there are more than 6 authors, the first 3 authors are used followed by “et al” including names and initials of all authors. Index Medicus abbreviations are used for journal titles, volume, inclusive page numbers, and year:
- Journal: Mazze RI, Cousins MJ, Kosek JC. Strain differences in metabolism and susceptibility to the nephrotoxic effects of methoxyflurane in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1973;184:481-488.
- Book: Baston HC. An Introduction to Statistics in the Medical Services. Minneapolis, Minn: Burgess; 1956:110-114.
- Chapter: Cohen PJ, Marshall BE. Effects of halothane on respiratory control in rat liver mitochondria. In: Fink BR, ed. Toxicity of Anesthetics. Baltimore, Md: Williams and Wilkins; 1968:24-36.
- Tables: Double space on pages separate from the text. Tables should not duplicate material text or illustrations.
- Legends: Credit for any previously published illustration must be given in the corresponding legend. All symbols should be explained in the legend.
Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.
FAS is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fas to login and submit your article online.
IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.
You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).
Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway
Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.
Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.
SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.
Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. In addition, SAGE is partnered with Kudos, a free service that allows authors to explain, enrich, share, and measure the impact of their article. Find out how to maximise your article’s impact with Kudos.
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the FAS editorial office as follows:
Questions regarding manuscript submission or preparation can be directed to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.
If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at email@example.com