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International Journal of Surgical Pathology

International Journal of Surgical Pathology

eISSN: 19402465 | ISSN: 10668969 | Current volume: 29 | Current issue: 7 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

Keep your diagnostic skills sharp…..

Published 8 times a year, the International Journal of Surgical Pathology (IJSP) offers original research and observations covering all major organ systems, timely reviews of new techniques and procedures, discussions of controversies in surgical pathology, extraordinary case reports, and intriguing images in pathology. Each issue offers a truly global forum for basic and applied human studies that show important diagnostic and prognostic features of tissue and use standard techniques. IJSP also features diagnostic pearls, ground-breaking investigations from the forefront of molecular surgical pathology as it applies to surgical pathology, highlights pitfalls and possible mistakes, and profiles of tumors and immunomarkers.

Among the important topics covered in recent issues are:

  • Correlations between morphology and molecular biology in tumors
  • Thyroid tumor pathology
  • Diagnostic clues in tumors
  • Controversial aspects of tumor pathology
  • Thyroid tumors
  • Soft tissue tumors
  • Breast tumors and tumor-like conditions
  • Immunohistochemical profiles of tumors
  • Genetics and pathology of familial gastric cancer
  • Sentinel lymph node examination
  • Critical analysis of Image Analysis Systems in Pathology

IJSP includes the following sections in every issue: Guest Editorials; News; Essays; Consensus Conferences; Controversies in Surgical Pathology; Molecular Surgical Pathology; Review Articles; Techniques in Pathology; Original Articles; Diagnostic Clues; Pitfalls in Pathology; Legal Aspects of Pathology; History of Surgical Pathology; Images in Pathology; Case Reports, and Letters to the Editor.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

International Journal of Surgical Pathology is an official journal of the Italian Society of Anatomic Pathology and Diagnostic Cytopathology (SIAPEC) and of the Spanish and Hong King Divisions of the International Academy of Pathology (IAP). The following divisions of the IAP as well as additional societies are supporting sponsors of IJSP: Bolivian, Romanian, Brazilian, Australian, Portuguese, and Puerto Rican Divisions of the International Academy of Pathology, the Argentine Society of Pathology, the Brazilian Society of Pathology, and the Korean Society of Pathologists.


The mission of International Journal of Surgical Pathology is to provide a forum for the communication of scientific information in the field of surgical pathology. Studies that emphasize important diagnostic and prognostic features involving human tissue provide the basis for publication of works utilizing standard techniques, as well as those from applied and basic science. Manuscript categories include: original articles; review articles; molecular surgical pathology; case reports; news; diagnostic pearls, pitfalls and mistakes; profiles of tumors and immunomarkers; images in pathology; controversies in surgical pathology; historical aspects; and medicolegal issues (invited and submitted).

Sean R. Williamson Cleveland Clinic, USA
Editor Emeritus
John S. J. Brooks University of Pennsylvania,USA
Cyril Fisher University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Juan Rosai Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy
Associate Editors
Rondell Graham Mayo Clinic, USA
Konstantinos Linos Dartmouth-Hitchcock, USA
Steven C. Smith Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Aliyah Sohani Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Amitabh Srivastava Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Social Media Editor
Mahmut Akgul Albany Medical Center Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, USA
Editorial Board Members
Pedram Argani Johns Hopkins University, USA
Justin A. Bishop Clements University Hospital, USA
Thomas Brenn University of Calgary, Canada
Norman Carr Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Amy Chadburn Cornell University, USA
Genevieve Crane Cleveland Clinic, USA
Roger Feakins Queen Mary University of London, UK
Giovanni Fellegara Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Italy
Karen Fritchie Mayo Clinic, USA
Paula Ginter Cornell University, USA
Ondrej Hes Charles University, Czech Republic
Ye Lin Hock Walsall Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom
Syed Hoda Weill Cornell Medicine, USA
Tseng-Tong Kuo Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
Virginia Livolsi University of Pennsylvania, USA
Isidro Machado Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain
Ozgur Mete Toronto General Hospital/Research Institute, Canada
Michal Michal Charles University, Czech Republic
Sambit K. Mohanty Advanced Medical Research Institute, India
Elizabeth Montgomery Johns Hopkins Medicine Pathology, USA
Jane K. Nguyen Cleveland Clinic, USA
Christopher Przybycin Cleveland Clinic, USA
Alexandra Rice Royal Brompton Hospital, United Kingdom
Fausto Rodriguez The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA
Lisa Rooper The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA
Stuart J. Schnitt Harvard Medical School, USA
J Kenneth Schoolmeester Mayo Clinic, USA
Fattaneh Tavassoli Yale School of Medicine, USA
Khin Thway Royal Madison NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom
Kiril Trpkov University of Calgary, Canada
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • Elsevier BV: BIOBASE
  • Ovid: Allied and Complementary Medicine Database
  • Proquest: Health & Medical Collection
  • SciSearch
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)
  • Instructions for Authors

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site,to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    SAGE Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of International Journal of Surgical Pathology will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that International Journal of Surgical Pathology may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    1.2 Article types

    1.3 Writing your paper

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    2.2 Authorship

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    2.4 Funding

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    2.7 Clinical trials

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    2.9 Research Data

    3. Publishing policies 

      3.1 Publication ethics

      3.3 Contributor’s publishing agreement

      3.4 Open access and author archiving

      4. Preparing your manuscript

      4.1 Formatting

      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

      4.3 Identifiable information

      4.4 Supplemental material

      4.5 Reference style

      4.6 English language editing services

      5. Submitting your manuscript

      5.1 ORCID

      5.2 Information required for completing your submission

      5.3 Permissions

      6. On acceptance and publication

      6.1 SAGE Production

      6.2 Online First publication

      6.3 Access to your published article

      6.4 Promoting your article

      7. Further information


      1. What do we publish?

      1.1 Aims & Scope

      Before submitting your manuscript to International Journal of Surgical Pathology, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

      1.2 Article types

      The mission of the International Journal of Surgical Pathology is to provide a forum for the communication of scientific information in the field of surgical pathology. Studies that emphasize important diagnostic and prognostic features involving human tissue provide the basis for publication of works utilizing standard techniques, as well as those from applied and basic science. Manuscript categories include: original articles; review articles (by invite only); case reports; news; letter to the Editor; profiles of tumors and immunomarkers; controversies in surgical pathology (by invite only); historical aspects; and medicolegal issues (invited and submitted). Please note that we no longer accept Images in Pathology articles.

      We are not currently considering biomarker studies without a significant component of diagnostic surgical pathology, or a direct impact on pathologic diagnosis.

      Letters to the Editor should provide thoughtful, scientific, constructive commentary pertaining to articles or research published in International Journal of Surgical Pathology.

      1.3 Writing your paper

      The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

      1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

      For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online


      2. Editorial policies


      2.1 Peer review policy

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology adheres to a rigorous double-blind reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties.

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for [Journal] can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website

      The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.


      2.2 Authorship

      Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

      The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

      1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,

      2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,

      3. Approved the version to be published,

      4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

      Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

      Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.


      2.3 Acknowledgements

      All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

      Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

      2.3.1 Third party submissions
      Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

      • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
      • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
      • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

      Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

      2.3.2 Writing assistance

      Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.


      2.4 Funding

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

      : It is the policy of International Journal of Surgical Pathology to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

      Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

      Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

      Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

      For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

      Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

      Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants


      2.7 Clinical trials

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.


      2.8 Reporting guidelines 

      The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

      Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives


      2.9. Research Data

      The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the SAGE Research Data policy pages.

      Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

      • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
      • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
      • cite this data in your research

      3. Publishing Policies

      3.1 Publication ethics

      SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

      3.1.1 Plagiarism

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.


      3.1.2 Prior publication

      If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.


      3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement      

      Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway


      3.3 Open access and author archiving

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information on Open Access publishing options at SAGE please visit SAGE Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.


      4. Preparing your manuscript for submission         

      4.1 Formatting

      The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

      Manuscripts should be prepared using the AMA Style Guide (11th Edition).


      One inch margins are required around the text.

      Line Spacing
      Single space is required within the abstract, notes, titles and headings, block quotes, tables and figures, and references etc; double space is required before and after each single spaced block.

      Text should be in 10-point or 12-point, Times New Roman.

      Half-inch indents are standard.

      Page Numbers
      All the pages must be numbered sequentially.

      The manuscript should include four major sections (in this order): Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

      Sections in a manuscript may include the following (in this order): (1) Title page, (2) Abstract, (3) Keywords, (4) Text, (5) References, (6) Tables, (7) Figures, and (8) Appendices.

      1. Title page. Please include the following:

      • Full article title

      • Acknowledgments and credits

      • Each author’s complete name, academic degrees, and institutional affiliation(s)

      • Grant numbers and/or funding information

      • Corresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail)

      2. Abstract. Abstracts should be structured for reports of original data, systematic reviews (including meta-analyses), and clinical reviews (word limit should be 250-300, depending on the journal style) and should be unstructured for other major manuscripts (word limit should be150, depending on the journal style).

      Type the abstract on a separate page headed by the full article title. Omit author(s)’s names.

      Abstracts are not required for special features such as letters, news articles, editorial etc.

      References should not be cited in abstract.

      3. Keywords. A short list of keywords should be given at the end of the abstract.

      4. Text. Begin article text on a new page headed by the full article title.

      IMPORTANT: Please remove all author identifying information in the manuscript for the purpose of double blind peer review.



      Centered / Flush Left

      Upper lower case, bold


      First Level Heading

      Flush Left

      Upper lower case, bold

      Second Level Heading

      Flush Left

      Upper lower case, italics

      Third Level Heading

      Paragraph indented

      Upper lower case, italics, end with a dot and run-on with the next para





      Items to Avoid in Headings:

      Ø Avoid using a single abbreviation as a heading, even if the abbreviation has been expanded earlier in the text.

      Ø Avoid expanding abbreviations for the first time in a heading. Spell the abbreviation out in the heading if that is its first appearance and introduce the abbreviation, if appropriate, at the next appearance of the term.

      Ø Avoid citing figures or tables and references in headings. Cite them in the appropriate place in the text that follows the heading.



      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

      For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

      Electronic submission of figures is highly preferred, except for Case Reports. If hard copies of photographs are submitted, rather than digital images, they should be submitted in triplicate. Photographs should be black-and-white or color glossy prints, not films or negatives, and should not be mounted or trimmed. Mark lightly on the back, in soft pencil, the lead author’s name, figure number, and correct orientation ("top"). Photographs may be as large as 7" wide and 9" long (including legend). Artwork includes charts and graphs, maps, photographs, and line art. Acceptable file formats include the following: TIFF, EPS, JPEG, and PDF. Microsoft application files are acceptable for line art (vector art). These are figures that only contain black and white lines, such as charts, and no gray-shaded or color areas.

      Scanned images

      Line art should be scanned as a bitmap at 900 ppi. Photos should be scanned as a grayscale or CMYK at 300 ppi.

      Color figures

      Color figures that will enhance the article will be accepted for publication. Color figures should be be submitted at 300 ppi resolution.

      4.3 Identifiable information

      Where a journal uses double-blind peer review, authors are required to submit: 

      1. A version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymised. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers. 
      2. A separate title page which includes any removed or anonymised material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers. 

      See for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.

      4.4 Supplemental material

      This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files


      4.5 Reference style

      International Journal of Surgical Pathology adheres to the AMA Manual of Style, 11th edition. View the guide here to ensure your manuscript conforms to this style, with the modifications noted below.

      In-text citation.

      For each text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list and for each reference list citation there must be a corresponding text citation.

      Cite references in consecutive order using superscript Arabic numbers.

      Each superscript must match one reference in the References list.

      Use commas to separate multiple citation numbers in text. Corresponding references should be listed in numeric order at the end of the document. Unpublished works and personal communications (oral, written, and electronic) should be cited parenthetically (and not on the reference list). Superscript numbers are placed outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.

      When more than 2 references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space to separate other parts of a multiple citation.

      For eg., As reported previously, 1,3-8,19

      The derived data were as follows3,4

      Page numbers may be used in the superscript numbers; they are enclosed in parentheses.

      Page numbers are required for direct quotations.


      Basic rules for the reference list

      Ø The title “References” is centered at the top of a separate page at the end of the document.

      Ø Entries are preceded by their number and are given in numerical order.

      Ø The reference list should be single-spaced. Single-space between entries.

      Ø The second line and all subsequent lines of each item in the reference list should be indented (hanging indent).


      4.6 English language editing services

      Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.


      5. Submitting your manuscript

      Manuscripts must be submitted electronically at, where authors will be required to set up an online account in the SAGETRACK system powered by ScholarOne. Files should be submitted in Microsoft Word and should include the following elements: complete author names; author contact information, including credentials; departmental and institutional affiliations; acknowledgments; abstract (150 or fewer words); keywords; references; tables; illustrations; and legends. Original works will be accepted with the understanding that they are contributed solely to the International Journal of Surgical Pathology and have not been published by and are not under simultaneous review by another publication. Accepted manuscripts become the sole property of the journal and may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. A form stating that the authors transfer all copyright ownership to the publisher will be sent from the editorial office when the manuscript is accepted; this form must be signed by all authors of the article (faxes are accepted). Average time from submission to first decision: 16 days.

      IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.


      5.1 ORCID

      As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

      The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

      If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.


      5.2 Information required for completing your submission

      You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).


      5.3 Permissions

      Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

      6. On acceptance and publication           

      6.1 SAGE Production

      Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.


      6.2 Online First publication

      Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.


      6.3 Access to your published article

      SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

      6.4 Promoting your article

      Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

      7. Further Information

      Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

      If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at

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