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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

Published in Association with Institution of Mechanical Engineers

eISSN: 20412983 | ISSN: 09544062 | Current volume: 238 | Current issue: 11 Frequency: 24 Times/Year

The Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science advances the understanding of both the fundamentals of engineering science and its application to the solution of challenges and problems in engineering.

'The Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science is dedicated to the publication of high quality papers on all aspects of mechanical engineering science. It represents one of the oldest parts of the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the first issue being published under the guidance of a distinguished Editorial Board in June 1959.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

For more information about the Journal please contact

Recommend this journal to your library

The Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science publishes peer-reviewed original papers that advance understanding of both the fundamentals of engineering science and its application to the solution of problems in mechanical engineering systems, machines and components. The Journal has an international reputation for excellence and is regarded as core material for every engineering collection.

Principal topics include:

Materials; metrology; mechanisms; solid mechanics; dynamic systems; thermofluid mechanics; tribology; reliability engineering; mechatronics; nano-and micro-mechanical engineering devices; biomedical engineering and systems and design.

For editorial purposes, the Journal uses the following classifications, but submissions of a multidisciplinary nature or in new and emerging areas are also welcome.


a. Properties (metals-polymers-composites-ceramics) and processing

b. Additive manufacturing

d. Dynamics behavior

e. Numerical methods and simulations

f. Experimental techniques

g. Mechanics of Layered (Meta)


a. Stresses in machines and structures

b. Contact stresses

c. Fatigue

d. Computational methods and simulations for deformable structures ?

e. Experimental techniques
f. Analysis of (Meta)Structures

g. Additive manufacturing


a. Inviscid flows, Aerodynamics, Acoustics

b. Viscous flows, Boundary layers, Thin films

c. Multi-phase flows

d. Rheology

e. Fluid-Structure Interaction


a. Thermodynamics

b. Thermodynamic aspects of reciprocating and rotating machinery

c. Energy use

d. Energy-sources (renewable and non-renewable) and analysis

e. Combustion process

f. Single and two-phase heat transfer

g. Industrial processes

h. Heating and Ventilating

i. Computational fluid mechanics (CFD)


a. Lightweight design

b. Green design

c. Sustainable Design

d. Biomimetic design

e. Ship and offshore design

f. Computer aided design (CAD)

g. Optimization


a. Manufacture

b. Additive manufacturing

c. Rapid prototyping

d. Welding


a. Tribology (fundamental aspects of surface interactions, lubrication, friction and wear)

b. Lubricant Rheology

c. Metrology (surface representation and analysis), Measuring systems (contacting and non-contacting)

d. Corrosion and Erosion

e. Coating


a. Biomechanics

b. Bio-tribology

c. Medical equipment and systems

d. Biofluids

e. Orthopaedic Bioengineering and Prosthetics

f. Biomaterials


a. Systems theory, control systems, kinematics, dynamics

b. Unmanned systems, field robotics, multi-robot teams and networked swarms

c. AI, intelligent sensing and perception


a. Micro & Nano Actuators

b. Mechanical Sensors and Systems

c. Energy Harvesting and Power Systems


a. Theoretical Kinematics

b. Computational Kinematics

c. Analysis and Synthesis

d. Design, Characteristics

e. Reconfigurable Mechanisms

f. Compliant Mechanisms

g. Cam, Linkages


a. Gears, Shafts, Belts and Bearings

b. Power transmissions and couplings

c. Bolted joints

d. Welded connections

e. Fatigue behaviour

f. Performances of additively manufactured components

g. Fault Diagnosis and reliability


a. Mechanics

b. Dynamics

c. Vibrations


a. Control

b. Vehicle engineering (road, off-road, rail, aerospace)

c. Sports engineering

Editor in Chief
J W Chew University of Surrey, UK
I Atanasovska Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Serbia
D Croccolo University of Bologna, Italy
V Crupi University of Messina, Italy
Xiaosheng Gao University of Akron, USA
Tassos Karayiannis Brunel University London, UK
P Liatsis Khalifa University of Science and Technology, UAE
V Lopresto University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Demetri Mathioulakis National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Aldo Sorniotti University of Surrey, UK
Associate Editors
R Al-Dadah University of Birmingham, UK
A Alaimo University of Enna, Italy
Antonio Formisano University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Vincenza Antonucci National Research Council, Italy
M V A Raju Bahubalendruni National Institute of Technology-Puducherry
B Bai Xi'an Jiaotong University, China
YUANLI BAI University of Central Florida, USA
J C S Bermejo Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
T Berruti Politecnico di Torino, Italy
L Boccarusso University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Simonetta Boria University of Camerino, Italy
F Bottiglione Politecnico di Bari, Italy
R Bustamante Universidad de Chile, Chile
F Canella Italian Institute of Technology, Italy
Zhengcai Cao Beijing University of Chemical Engineering, China
Elaine Maria Cardoso Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" , Brazil
M Castellani University of Birmingham, UK
A Catapano Bordeaux INP, France
M Cavazzuti University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
M Cinefra Politecnico di Torino, Italy
A Cioncolini University of Manchester, UK
P Corigliano University of Messina, Italy
Ersilia Cozzolino Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Doriana D'Addona University of Naples Federico II, Italy
J Dai King's College London, UK
M De Agostinis University of Bologna, Italy
K Dearn University of Birmingham, UK
C Delprete Politecnico di Torino, Italy
J M M Dias Khalifa University, UAE
X Dong University of Nottingham, UK
H Duan Beihang University (BUAA), China
G Epasto University of Messina, Italy
Jian Fang STFC Daresbury Laboratory, UK
Andrea Ferrero Politecnico di Torino, Italy
S Fini University of Bologna, Italy
F Franco University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
D Gan Purdue University, USA
Feng Gao Beihang University, China
C Gastaldi Politecnico di Torino, Italy
I C Gebeshuber Vienna University of Technology, Austria
G Genta Politecnico di Torino, Italy
W Grabon Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland
Michele Guida University of Naples Federico II, Italy
K Gupta University of Johannesburg, South Africa
H. D. Haustein Tel-Aviv University, Israel
M Hodes Tufts University, USA
Xuqu Hu Dalian University Of Technology, China
W Huang Tsinghua University, China
X Huang Tianjin University, China
M Ichchou École Centrale de Lyon, France
V Ivanov Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany
Ze Ji Cardiff University, UK
C Jiang Hunan University, China
F Kanizawa University of Campinas (FEM-Unicamp), Brazil
Zafer Kazanci Queen’s University Belfast, UK
R Kempers York University, Canada
P Kew Heriot-Watt University, UK
Kinda Khalaf Khalifa University, UAE
T Kim Loughborough University, UK
E Kremer Schaeffler Automotive Buehl GmbH & Co. KG Bühl, Germany
A Krushynska University of Groningen, Netherlands
Munish Kumar Gupta Opole University of Technology, Poland
G Lamanna University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy
Bing Li Harbin University of Technology, China
Binbin Lian Tianjin University, China
J Liu Harbin Institute of Technology, China
X Luo University of Strathclyde, UK
S Mancin University of Padova, Italy
Hasan Al Marzouqi Khalifa University, UAE
D Massai Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Mattia Mele University of Bologna, Italy
V Meruane Universidad de Chile, Chile
A A Minea Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Dr. Andrea Mola IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy
G Niu Tongji University, China
R Nobile Università del Salento, Italy
Seamus O'Shaughnessy Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
G Olmi University of Bologna, Italy
M Paggi IMT Institute for Advanced Studies, Italy
Vito Pagliarulo National Research Council, Italy
Ilaria Papa University of Naples Federico II, Italy
R Pecora University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
D T Pham Cardiff University, UK
B Pluymers Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
S Poncet University of Sherbrooke, Canada
C Putignano Politecnico di Bari, Italy
Z Qin Tsinghua University, China
Lei Ren University of Manchester, UK
Fulvio Romano CIRA, Italy
F Romeo Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Maria Rosaria Research Council, Italy
Murat Sarikaya Sinop University, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Hamid M. Sedighi Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Feng Shan Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Haidong Shao Hunan University, China
T Si University of Science and Technology, China
C Spitas Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan
T Sun Tianjin University, China
J Szwedowicz Siemens, Switzerland
Iman Taha Aalen University, Germany
Mara Terzini Politecnico di Torino, Italy
F B Tian University of New South Wales, Australia
S Valvano University of Enna, Italy
A Varone University of Rome, Italy
A Victorino Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France
X Wang Hunan University, China
G Wei University of Salford, UK
Wenkun Xie The University of Strathclyde, UK
Z Xu Tianjin University, China
H Yi Chongqing University, China
E M Zanetti University of Perugia, Italy
J Zhang Harbin Institute of Technology, China
L Zhang Beijing Institute of Technology, China
J-Shan Zhao Tsinghua University, China
Yue ZHAO Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Editorial Board
S Boedo Rochester Institute of Technology, USA
D Breslavsky National Technical University 'Kharkov Polytechnic Institute', Ukraine
Hongrui Cao Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Yao CHEN Southeast University, China
F Chu Tsinghua University, China
L Dala Northumbria University, UK
Sergio De Rosa University of Naples Federico II, Italy
A Dewan Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Nguyen Dinh Duc Vietnam National University, Vietnam
J Durodola Oxford Brookes University, UK
S D Fassois University of Patras, Greece
P Goncalves Pontifical Catholic University, Brazil
S T Halliday Rolls-Royce, UK
D Hills University of Oxford, UK
M Ishihama Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Japan
Wang Jianjian Tsinghua University, China
A Krivtsov Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia
L Li University of Manchester, UK
T Lim University of Cincinnati, USA
G Lock University of Bath, UK
M Lucas University of Glasgow, UK
V Meruane Universidad de Chile, Chile
Y Mikhlin National Technical University 'Kharkov Polytechnic Institute', Ukraine
G Mullineux University of Bath, UK
S A Neild University of Bristol, UK
A Neville University of Leeds, UK
W M Ostachowicz Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
M Paul University of Glasgow, UK
G Petrone University of Naples "Federico II", Italy
Z Qian Jilin University, China
FJ Ramirez Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
R Randall University of New South Wales, Australia
F Renda Khalifa University of Science and Technology, UAE
G Scarselli University of Salento, Italy
Igor Shevchuk TH Cologne, Germany
R Singh Ohio State University, USA
Keshav Sud Amazon Robotics, USA
T Sun Tianjin University, China
D Symons University of Cambridge, UK
S Theodossiades Loughborough University, UK
K Vafai University of California, USA
J Warminski Lublin University of Technology, Poland
M Wiercigroch University of Aberdeen, UK
Z You University of Oxford, UK
L C Zhang University of New South Wales, Australia
Y Zhang Tsinghua University, China
J-Shan Zhao Tsinghua University, China
H Zhou Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
S Zucca Politecnico di Torino, Italy
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    Original Article: Describes a piece of original or substantially original research, or some aspect of design development, manufacture, operation and maintenance, or engineering education
    Review Article: A critical review of the state-of-the-art with examples of applications in design and profitable manufacture without extensive analysis
    Case Study: Describes the application of a technique, procedure or management concept in a real situation
    Short Communication: High quality brief articles which justify rapid publication. For example, formative conclusions from pure and applied research; concepts and paradigms and their initial validation; innovative design solutions; innovative use of materials in design and manufacture; novel industrial applications 
    Technical Note: A short, interim statement on a research project or description of some new development


    1. In general, Original Articles, Review Papers and Case Studies should not normally exceed 5000 words (with up to 10 illustrations). Longer articles will be considered, however, as our criterion is that the content justifies the length of the article.
    2. Technical Notes should not exceed 1500 words and 5 illustrations.
    3. Short Communications should be brief (up to 2000 words and 4 illustrations). If a Short Communication exceeds this, the author(s) will be asked to shorten the article.
    4. Discussions on papers already published should not exceed 500 words and 2 illustrations.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Clearly state the aims and context of the work

    The introduction to a paper should explain to readers what the study sets out achieve and why this is of interest in Mechanical Engineering. To put this into context, acknowledgement of, and references to, the most relevant previous publications that have influenced the study are usually appropriate. 
    1.3.2 Explain what was done
    Others may want to repeat some of the research presented, or compare with related studies. Hence it is important to give clear and complete descriptions of research methods.
    1.3.3  Explain the significance of results 
    Results, whether experimental or numerical, should be related to those from previous published studies and relevant physical principles. The significance of the new results should be clear. 

    1.3.4 Summarise the main conclusions

    The conclusions should summarise only the most significant and original outcomes of the study. Confirmation of previous work or understanding may be significant, but this context should be clear, with acknowledgement of earlier work.
    1.3.5  Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools


    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    2.6 Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.  

    Mathematical: All vectors and matrices should be shown in bold type. Avoid confusion between ambiguous characters and take care to ensure that subscripts and superscripts are clear. Numbers below 10 should be written out in the text unless used in conjunction with units (e.g. three apples, 4 kg). Full points (not commas) should be used for decimals. For numbers less than one, a nought should be inserted before the decimal point. Equations should be numbered sequentially throughout the document, with labels on the right hand side of the page.

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.4 Reference style

    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science adheres to the Sage Vancouver reference style. View the Sage Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Vancouver EndNote output file.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science editorial office as follows:

    Publishing Editor 
    Sage Publications Ltd
    1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
    London, EC1Y 1SP


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