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RELC Journal

Published in Association with SEAMEO Regional Language Centre
A Journal of Language Teaching and Research

Editors-in-Chief
Jack Richards SEAMEO, RELC, Singapore
Marie Alina Yeo SEAMEO RELC, Singapore
Managing Editors
Roby Marlina SEAMEO RELC, Singapore
Alvin Pang SEAMEO RELC, Singapore

Other Titles in:
Applied Linguistics | Linguistics

eISSN: 1745526X | ISSN: 00336882 | Current volume: 48 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: 3 Times/Year

RELC Journal is published on behalf of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) Regional Language Centre (RELC), located in Singapore. It presents information and ideas on theories, research, methods and materials related to language learning and teaching. The journal welcomes contributions that have in mind the common professional concerns of both the practitioner and the researcher, providing a bridge between theory and practice.

SEAMEO RELC promotes an approach to research on language and language–related concerns with particular reference to education, especially, although not exclusively, in Southeast Asia. Within this framework the journal welcomes contributions in such areas of current enquiry as first and second language learning and teaching, language and culture, discourse analysis, language planning, language testing, multilingual education, stylistics and translation. The broadening of scope will be reflected in articles that will present more ‘state of the art’ surveys, as well as theoretical conceptualizations that contribute fresh insights into the multidisciplinary field of language in education. With the directions that are now being taken in language issues in education, reporting findings is only part of the task; there has to be a critical look at the methodologies used in these studies and the theories used to support the research.

As part of our service to teachers and researchers, one section of the Journal will continue to be devoted to book reviews and a compilation of books ‘received’.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Electronic Access:

RELC Journal is available to browse online.

The RELC Journal is a fully peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles on language education.

The aim of this Journal is to present information and ideas on theories, research, methods and materials related to language learning and teaching. Within this framework the Journal welcomes contributions in such areas of current enquiry as first and second language learning and teaching, language and culture, discourse analysis, language planning, language testing, multilingual education, stylistics, translation and information technology. The RELC Journal, therefore, is concerned with linguistics applied to education and contributions that have in mind the common professional concerns of both the practitioner and the researcher.

Editorial Board
Helena Agustien Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Mohammad Javad Ahmadian University of Leeds, UK
Alexander Arguelles American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Mahmood Reza Atai Kharazmi University, Iran
Jayanti Banerjee Paragon Testing Enterprises, Canada
Rakesh Bhatt University of Illinois, USA
Katherine Cao University of Melbourne, Australia
Xia Chao Duquesne University, USA
Anna Ching-Shyang Chang Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Irina Elgort Victoria University Wellington, New Zealand
Neil England University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Thomas Farrell Brock University, Canada
Flora D. Floris Petra Christian University, Indonesia
Joseph Foley Assumption University, Thailand
Ram Ashish Giri Monash College, Australia
Nguyen Hanh Thi Hawaii Pacific University, USA
Claudia Harsch University of Bremen, Germany
David Hirsh University of Sydney, Australia
Songthama Intachakra Thammasat University, Thailand
Shinichi Izumi Sophia University, Japan
Jeremy Jones University of Canberra, Australia
Channarith Keuk University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Usha Lakshmanan Southern Illinois University, USA
David C.S. Li Hong Kong Institute of Education
Shaofeng Li University of Auckland, New Zealand
Beng Soon Lim Singapore Institute of Management, Singapore
Christine Manara Atma Jaya Catholic University, Indonesia
Tatsuhiko Matsushita University of Tokyo, Japan
Lindsay Miller City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Jeffrey Mok Management Development Institute of Singapore, Singapore
Stephen Moore Macquarie University, Australia
Tim Murphey Kanda University of International Studies, Japan
Jonathan Newton Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Paroo Nihalani Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Hayo Reinders Unitec and Anaheim University, New Zealand
Willy Renandya NIE, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Michael Rodgers Carleton University, Canada
Karim Sadeghi Urmia University, Iran
Abdel Halim Sykes SIM University, Singapore
Zia Tajeddin Allameh Tabataba'i University, Iran
Jennifer Tan Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei
Peter Tan National University of  Singapore, Singapore
Xiaomei Wang Xiamen University, Malaysia
Christopher Ward English Language Institute of Singapore, Singapore
Stuart Webb Western University, Canada
Chan Yue Weng SEAMEO RELC, Singapore
Cynthia White Massey University, New Zealand
Lindy Woodrow University of Sydney, Australia
Fukada Yoshifumi Meisei University in Hino, Japan
Henny Zacharias-Lim Satya Wacana Christian University, Indonesia
Lawrence Zang University of Auckland, New Zealand
International Advisory Committee
James D. Brown University of Hawaii, USA
Anne Burns Macquaire University, Australia
Ronald Carter University of Nottingham, UK
Jim Cummins OISE, Canada
Rod Ellis University of Auckland, New Zealand
Nobuyuki Honna Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan
Tony T.H. Hung Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
John Joseph Edinburgh University, UK
Stephen Krashen University of Southern California, USA
Sandra McKay San Francisco State University, USA
Paul Nation Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
David Nunan University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Academic Search Premier
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  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • Contents Pages in Education
  • Current Abstracts (EBSCO)
  • Educational Research Abstracts Online
  • Language Teaching
  • Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
  • MLA International Bibliography
  • Scopus
  • The Modern Language Journal
  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: RELC Journal

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/relc to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of RELC Journal will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to RELC Journal, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    RELC Journal is published on behalf of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) Regional Language Centre (RELC), located in Singapore. It presents information and ideas on theories, research, methods and materials related to language learning and teaching. The Journal welcomes contributions that have in mind the common professional concerns of both the practitioner and the researcher, providing a bridge between theory and practice.

    1.2 Article Types

    RELC Journal publishes a range of article types on the topic of language education:

    1. Research Articles (6000 words excluding abstract)
      Research articles present an empirical project on language education or related areas that consists of original data the author has obtained using appropriate and well-justified methodological approaches and strategies of inquiry. The articles should also provide implications for language teaching and learning in intra/international contexts.
       
    2. Review Articles (3000 words excluding abstract)
      The Language Education review articles present a review of recent research in the Applied Linguistics and/or TESOL disciplines. These articles may include summaries of the key research findings, critical overviews of the area of inquiry, and future research and/or pedagogical directions.
       
    3. Innovations in Practice (3000 words)
      RELC invites contributions focussing on innovations in classroom practice. Contributions should be no more than 3000 words and follow these guidelines:
       a)The teaching context: provide a short description of the institution and context where the innovative practices occurred. This could include information about the course, course objectives, learners’ profile, and any other relevant information.
       b) Reason for the innovation: what prompted the change in practice? What problems or issues did it seek to address? How is it supported by related theory or research?
       c) Description of the innovation: Describe the innovation and its effects. 
       d) Reflection: reflect on and critically evaluate the innovation, and what can be learned from it.
       e) Future pedagogical directions: what can be done differently in the future to improve the innovative practices and/or to overcome any potential or already identified challenges?

    4. Book Reviews (1000 words)
      This article type provides reviews on current books on language education and other areas related to language education. The principal aim of this column is to make the readers aware of recently published books of significance to the field.
       
    5. ICT Reviews (800 words)
      In addition to book reviews, we also invite reviews of apps, websites, or other ICT based tools for language teaching and learning. The reviews may include a description of the tool and its effectiveness in enhancing language learning and teaching. Reviews should not exceed 1000 words.
       
    6. Viewpoints
      These articles are by prominent figures in the field and/or emergent scholars with strong record of publications who are invited by the Editors to present their view on currents issues or new developments within their areas of expertise.
       
    7. Conversations with Experts
      This section features an interview with a renowned scholar in the field of TESOL. Experts featured in this section are invited by the Editors to respond to questions that provide a more personal glimpse of their views in their areas of expertise.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    The RELC Journal is a fully peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles on language education.

    All papers submitted to the RELC Journal are subject to double blind peer review by members of a carefully appointed editorial board.

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.4 Funding

    RELC Journal requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    RELC Journal encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    RELC Journal and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    RELC Journal offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    RELC Journal does not currently accept supplemental files.

    4.4 Reference style

    RELC Journal adheres to the SAGE Harvard reference style. View the SAGE Harvard guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Harvard EndNote output file.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    RELC Journal is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/relc to login and submit your article online.

    If you are a new user, you will first need to create an account. Submissions should be made by logging in and selecting the Author Center and the 'Click here to Submit a New Manuscript' option. Follow the instructions on each page, clicking the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. If at any stage you have any questions or require the user guide, please use the 'Online Help' button at the top right of every screen.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities ensuring that their work is recognised.

    We encourage all authors to add their ORCIDs to their SAGE Track accounts and include their ORCIDs as part of the submission process. If you don’t already have one you can create one here.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. In addition, SAGE is partnered with Kudos, a free service that allows authors to explain, enrich, share, and measure the impact of their article. Find out how to maximise your article’s impact with Kudos

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the RELC Journal editorial office as follows:

    RELC Journal Editor, 
    SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, 
    30 Orange Grove Road, 
    Singapore 258352 
    E-mail: journal@relc.org.sg

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