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Simulation & Gaming

Simulation & Gaming

An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Practice and Research

Timothy C. Clapper Weill Cornell Medical College, USA
J. Tuomas Harviainen University of Tampere, Finland
Willy Christian Kriz University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg, Austria

eISSN: 1552826X | ISSN: 10468781 | Current volume: 49 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly
For more than five decades, Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal of Theory, Practice and Research has served as a leading international forum for the exploration and development of simulation/gaming methodologies used in education, training, consultation, and research. It appraises academic and applied issues in the expanding fields of simulation, computer- and internet-mediated simulation, virtual reality, educational games, video games, industrial simulators, active and experiential learning, case studies, and related methodologies.

Multidisciplinary in Scope

The broad scope and interdisciplinary nature of Simulation & Gaming are demonstrated by the wide variety of interests and disciplines of its readers and contributors, who practice in areas such as: business, cognition, communication, decision making, psychology, economics, education, educational technologies, engineering, entrepreneurship, environmental issues, human resources, international studies, language training, learning theory, management, marketing, medicine, multiculturalism, negotiation, organization studies, peace and conflict studies, policy and planning, political science, project management, sociology, teamwork, technology, and research methodology. 

Special Theme Issues & Debates

Simulation & Gaming
frequently publishes single-theme Symposium Issues and Special Sections guest-edited by experts in the field.
Distinguished Sponsors

International Simulation and Gaming Association
North American Simulation and Gaming Association

Rigorous Peer Review

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

For more than five decades, Simulation & Gaming has served as a leading international forum for the study and discussion of simulation/gaming methodologies used in education, training, healthcare, consultation, and research. This outstanding quarterly journal not only examines the methodologies, but also explores their application to real-world problems and situations. Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal of Theory, Practice and Research contains articles examining academic and applied issues in the expanding fields of simulation, computerized simulation, gaming, modeling, play, role-play, debriefing, game design, experiential learning, and related methodologies. The broad scope and interdisciplinary nature of Simulation & Gaming are demonstrated by the wide variety of interests and disciplines of its readers, contributors, and editorial board members. Areas include: healthcare, sociology, decision making, psychology, language training, cognition, learning theory, management, educational technologies, negotiation, peace and conflict studies, economics, international studies, communication, policy and planning, organization studies, political science, education, environmental issues, multiculturalism, research methodology.

Biographies and History of Gaming Simulation
David Crookall University de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France
Associate Editors
Mindi Anderson University of Central Florida, USA
Toshiko Kikkawa Keio University, Japan
Richard N. Landers Old Dominion University, USA
Heide Lukosch Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Igor Mayer Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Sebastiaan Meijer KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Susumu Ohnuma Hokkaido University, Japan
Paola Rizzi University of Sassari, Italy
Eduardo Salas Rice University, USA
Taylor L. Sawyer University of Washington School of Medicine, USA
Precha Thavikulwat Towson University, USA
Marcin Wardaszko Kozminski University, Poland
Nicola Whitton Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
Advisory Board
Hugh Cannon Wayne State University, USA
Hans Christian Arnseth University of Oslo, Norway
Pierre Corbeil Universite de Montreal, Canada
Daniel Druckman George Mason University, USA
Richard D. Duke University of Michigan, USA
Richard Dukes University of Colorado, USA
Amparo Garcia-Carbonell Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain
Cathy Greenblat Rutgers University, USA
Toshiyuki Kaneda Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan
Dmitry Kavtaradze Moscow State University, Russia
Jan Klabbers University of Bergen, Norway
Richard Teach Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Shigehisa Tsuchiya Chiba Institute of Technology, Japan
Joseph Wolfe University of Tulsa, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Simulation & Gaming (S&G)

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines will be returned.

    1. Types of articles considered

    Simulation & Gaming (S&G): An International Journal of Theory, Practice and Research serves as a leading international forum for the exploration and development of simulation/gaming methodologies used in education, training, consultation, and research. S&G appraises academic and applied issues in the expanding fields of simulation; computer and internet mediated simulation, virtual reality, educational games, video games, industrial simulators, active and experiential learning, case studies, and related methodologies.

    S&G encourages original research and reviews on innovative uses of simulation and/or gaming and ready to use games. We will consider case reports on a case by case basis, where the editors feel that the article will contribute to innovative ways of thinking about the use of simulation and gaming.

    Game Ready To Use (GRTU). In the past, S&G has included some GRTU articles that provided only a guide and materials for playing an educational game. These articles were editorially reviewed, but did not go through the full double blind process. In an effort to increase the quality of these articles and support our belief that all S&G contributions should have an educational component, we have changed the criteria for GRTU submissions. Effective immediately, GRTU articles should be written as a review or research article. As with these type of articles, they should include a literature review and an analysis that shows implications for education, as well as preferably also research results from using the game. A guide or instructions for the GRTU should be placed in the Appendix to provide support to educators who wish to use the game in their settings.

    a. Word count

    As stated in the APA manual (2010), "less is more" (p. 61). S&G discourages articles with high word counts. While there will be exceptions, we ask you to use the 4000-6000 word range as your guide. Short communications of 2000-4000 words are highly encouraged.

    b. Learning component

    We discourage the reporting of games and will not accept articles that give the impression of being used for marketing purposes. Instead, we encourage articles that have an education component and explain how the simulation and/or game leads to better learning experiences.

    c. Debriefing

    As learning experiences often include some form of experiential learning and reflection, all articles will include a discussion about how reflection-in-action or reflection-on-action enhances the learning experience and is used in the game and/or simulation.

    2.1 Peer review policy

    S&G employs a double-blind peer review process for at least the first round of reviews. Additional reviews may be required at the discretion of the managing editor. Although each article and the managing circumstances are very unique, it is our goal to provide authors with feedback on their article within 50 days.

    2.2 Authorship

    Articles should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting articles should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the article are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    *Editing an article does not entitle a person to authorship.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    (i) made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data,

    (ii) drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,

    (iii) approved the version to be published.

    Please refer to the ICMJE Authorship guidelines at

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an ‘Acknowledgements’ section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    2.4 Funding

    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), S&G additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit Funding Acknowledgements on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding or state in your acknowledgments that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of S&G to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please include any declaration at the end of your manuscript after any acknowledgements and prior to the references, under a heading ‘Conflict of interests’. If no declaration is made the following will be printed under this heading in your article: ‘None declared’. Alternatively, you may wish to state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    When making a declaration the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that all authors of the article has with any sponsoring organization and the for-profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article.

    Any commercial or financial involvements that might represent an appearance of a conflict of interest need to be additionally disclosed in the covering letter accompanying your article to assist the Editor in evaluating whether sufficient disclosure has been made within the Declaration of Conflicting Interests provided in the article.

    For more information, please visit the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    2.6 Research ethics

    We accept manuscripts that report human and/or animal studies for publication only if it is made clear that investigations were carried out to a high ethical standard. Studies in humans which might be interpreted as experimental (e.g. controlled trials) should conform to the Declaration of Helsinki and typescripts must include a statement that the research protocol was approved by the appropriate ethical committee. In line with the Declaration of Helsinki 1975, revised Hong Kong 1989, we encourage authors to register their clinical trials (at or other suitable databases identified by the ICMJE, If your trial has been registered, please state this on the Title Page. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate on the Title Page which guideline/law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. \

    Near the bottom of the article, under the Acknowledgements section, or in the text itself, authors should include one of the statements as applicable:

    This research was approved by our institution’s Institutional Review Board or research ethics committee.

    Or as may be the case for some international researchers: This research has been conducted following the ethical requirements established by (Country) national board of ethics.

    2.7 Participant / patient consent

    Authors are required to ensure the following guidelines are followed, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Likewise, participants in educational research must be afforded similar privacy considerations and the researcher should obtain informed consent to comply with good research practices. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the submitted article.

    2.8 Statistical analyses 

    Where statistical analyses have been carried out please ensure that the methodology has been accurately described. In comparative studies power calculations are usually required. In research articles requiring complex statistics the advice of an expert statistician should be sought at the design/implementation stage of the study.

    2.9 Randomized controlled trials

    All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication in Public Health should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at for more information.

    2.10 Data replication

    By request from the author/researcher, S&G will consider publishing datasets on the S&G website. The datasets must be free to use by other researcher/authors. Researcher/authors using posted datasets are asked to be courteous and provide appropriate credit to the author/researcher providing the datasets.

    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case, copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    Upon acceptance of an article, the corresponding author will receive an author agreement form. This form must be signed and returned prior to the article being published.

    S&G and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the journal or all SAGE journals, or appropriate legal action.

    3.2 Open access and author archiving

    For more information on the open access options for S&G, funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    3.3 Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. [Title of graphic]. Source: Reproduced with permission from publisher, author, and year.


    Figure 1. In situ checklist. Source: Reproduced with permission from Elsevier, Clapper (2013).

    APA (2010) is explicit about crediting the author for original work that may have been modified (pp. 150-166). Creating a figure based on the work of other authors/researchers still requires that credit be given to the authors for their original ideas. That is, you MUST provide the source of the original ideas for each figure unless the original ideas are based on your own findings. In many cases crediting the author(s) responsible for the ideas used in your graphics may include a statement directly under each graphic with the following information:

    [Title of graphic]. Source: Adapted from [authors, date, page no.; just as you would with a citation]


    Figure 1. Vygotsky’s learner transformation process. Source: Adapted from Vygotsky (1978).

    *Examples provided above are for most common types of permission and crediting following adaptation of original ideas and materials. Additional information may be found in the SAGE Style Guide.

    Authors should include written permissions as required with their final version of the article.

    For further information, including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    4. Preparing your manuscript 

    4.1 File types

    Only electronic files conforming to the journal's guidelines will be accepted. Please format text and tables of your manuscript in Microsoft Word. The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Please use Arial or Times New Roman font with a 10 or 12 point.

    Under page layout in Word Doc, select line numbers; continuous. This will allow reviewers to provide feedback and inquiry to specific passages in your article.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Submitting additional material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, AV files) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article. For more information, please refer to SAGE’s Guidelines for Authors on Supplemental Files.

    4.4 Journal layout

    S&G conforms to the SAGE house style. Click here to review guidelines on SAGE UK House Style.

    4.5 Reference style

    With only a few exceptions, Simulation & Gaming (S&G) adheres to the APA (2010) reference style. Click here to review the guidelines on APA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    Some common elements to consider when preparing your article (see Appendix):

    • S&G now requires authors to provide a DOI number for each reference. If a DOI has not been assigned, provide the home page URL for the source (APA, pp.188-191). 
    • Use the appropriate levels of headings and subheadings (APA, p .62) to assist with flow and understanding.
    • See section 3.1. Plagiarism is a serious concern and the Internet is full of cases of public humiliation where an author intentionally or unintentionally plagiarized content from the work of others. Content directly quoted from another author requires, author(s) year, and page/paragraph numbers. As very often the overuse of quotations can affect readability, we encourage authors to paraphrase while also giving credit to the author(s). Doing so adds credence to the passage and assists the reader with locating the passage being referenced (APA, p. 171).
    • Emphasizing a word or words: Whenever possible, italicize the word or words to emphasize a point(s) rather than placing them in quotation marks. Quotation marks used to emphasize text may be confused with direct quotes.
    • As an exception to the APA rule, S&G asks that authors capitalize the names of games (throughout the article).
    • Although we discourage articles that read like personal statements, we encourage authors to write in the first person when appropriate, especially when reporting research. As an example, rather than stating, "the authors recorded the difference between…, authors might state, "We recorded the difference between… (APA, p. 85).
    • Long-time S&G editor, David Crookall emphasized that authors should eliminate the words/phrases, there is/there are from their articles. We encourage you to continue this practice as it can lead to articles that are more definitive and succinct.
    • Avoid run-on sentences.

    4.6 English language editing services

    Authors who would like to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of a professional English-language editing company. Visit English Language Editing Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    S&G is an international journal and receives submissions from authors worldwide. As English is the language used in S&G and not always the first language of many countries, we encourage authors to prepare their articles so that (a) reviewers are able to read the article, including understanding the proper flow, and (b) nothing is lost in the translation to English. The managing editors reserve the right to return articles to the author for formatting and language issues to ease the burden on the reviewers. As necessary, the managing editors may also insist on professional or equivalent editing following the peer review process before the article is accepted and moved to publication.

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    S&G is hosted on SAGE track, a web-based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™Manuscripts. Authors can log in and submit their articles through this system (

    For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 Title, keywords and abstracts

    Please supply a short title of less than 12 words and a structured abstract of 200 words or less. Underline headings (not bold) and embolden keywords in the abstract to accompany your article. Under the abstract, in the Keyword section, prepare a list of keywords. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting SAGE’s Journal Author Gateway Guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online. In the text and the abstract, refer to your work as an article and not a paper

    5.2 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. The corresponding author will receive a PDF version of the article proof. The author should address any notes or discrepancies and return the proof promptly.

    6.2 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.3 Online First publication

    Online First allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a final journal issue which significantly reduces the lead-time between submission and publication.

    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the S&G editorial office as follows:  

    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in SAGE Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let SAGE know directly if you are choosing SAGE Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit SAGE Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at SAGE, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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