TEACHING Exceptional Children (TEC) features research-to-practice information and materials for classroom use, as well as current issues in special education teaching and learning.
Published six times per year, TEC also brings its readers the latest data on instructional technologies, strategies, procedures, and techniques with applications to students with exceptionalities. The focus of its practical content is on immediate application.
TEACHING Exceptional Children (TEC) is a journal designed specifically for teachers, administrators, paraprofessionals, and other practitioners who work with children and youth with disabilities or who are gifted.
The purpose of TEC is to advance the professional development of practitioners and to provide useful information, resources, and tools for improving education and services for exceptional learners. Consistent with this purpose, we publish articles that share innovative and successful methods and materials based on current evidence-based practice for use in a wide variety of educational programs and settings.
|Dawn A. Rowe||East Tennessee State University, USA|
|Jennifer Lesh||Lynn University, USA|
|Tammy V. Abernathy||University of Nevada, Reno, USA|
|Jennifer Alexander||Comprehensive Behavior Change, USA|
|Shirin D. Antia||University of Arizona, USA|
|Devender Banda||Texas Tech University, USA|
|Sally Barton-Arwood||Belmont University, USA|
|David Bateman||Shippensburg University, USA|
|Kristen Beach||University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA|
|Katie Bennett||Kennesaw State University, USA|
|Virginia W. Berninger||University of Washington, USA|
|Miriam C. Boesch||University of North Texas, USA|
|Regina Brandon||San Diego State University, USA|
|Thomas Breucker||University of Dortmund, Germany|
|Monica Brown||University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA|
|Allison Bruhn||University of Iowa, USA|
|Deborah Bruns||Southern Illinois University, USA|
|Shannon Budin||Buffalo State University, USA|
|Paul Caldarella||Brigham Young University, USA|
|Barbara Chorzempa||State University of New York, New Paltz, USA|
|Jason Chow||Virginia Commonwealth University, USA|
|Stephen P. Ciullo||Texas State University, USA|
|Ben Clarke||University of Oregon, USA|
|Elias Clinton||Piedmont College, USA|
|Mari Beth Coleman||University of Tennessee, USA|
|Lauren Collins||University of Denver, USA|
|Bryan Cook||University of Virginia, USA|
|Kathleen Cook||Augustana University, USA|
|Lysandra Cook||University of Virginia, USA|
|Sara Cook||University of Hawai'i at Manoa, USA|
|Karena Cooper-Duffy||Western Carolina University, USA|
|Susan Courey||San Francisco State University, USA|
|Michael Coyne||University of Connecticut, USA|
|Jean Crockett||University of Florida, USA|
|Michelle Cumming||Florida International University, USA|
|Therese M. Cumming||University of New South Wales, Australia|
|Alexandra Da Fonte||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Christopher B. Denning||University of Massachusetts-Boston, USA|
|Lindsay Diamond||University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA|
|Christian Doabler||The University of Texas at Austin, USA|
|Nicole Dobbins||North Carolina A&T State University, USA|
|Melissa Driver||Kennesaw State University, USA|
|Charles Dukes||Florida Atlantic University, USA|
|Nicole Edwards||Rowan University, USA|
|David Edyburn||University of Central Florida, USA|
|Anne Foegen||Iowa State University, USA|
|Douglas Fuchs||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Cindy Gevarter||University of New Mexico, USA|
|Marya Grande||Canisius College, USA|
|Katy Green||University of West Georgia, USA|
|Catherine Griffith||Clemson University, USA|
|Bethany Hamilton-Jones||University of Georgia, USA|
|Juliet Hart||Arizona State University, USA|
|Lynn Hayes||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Shanna Hirsch||Clemson University, USA|
|John L. Hosp||University of Massachusetts Amherst|
|David Houchins||Georgia State University, USA|
|Yun-Ju Hsiao||Washington State University, USA|
|Roxanne Hudson||University of Washington, USA|
|Elizabeth Hughes||Pennsylvania State University, USA|
|Andrea D. Jasper||Central Michigan University, USA|
|Jennifer L. Jolly||University of Alabama, USA|
|Vita Jones||California State University, Fullerton, USA|
|Michael Kennedy||University of Virginia, USA|
|Todd Kettler||University of North Texas, USA|
|Timothy Landrum||University of Louisville, USA|
|Holly Lane||University of Florida, USA|
|Justin Lane||University of Kentucky, USA|
|Mark Larson||Wayne State University, USA|
|Melinda Leko||University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA|
|Jennifer Lindstrom||University of Georgia, USA|
|John W. Lloyd||University of Virginia, USA|
|Allison Lombardi||University of Connecticut, USA|
|John Luckner||University of Northern Colorado, USA|
|Joseph Madaus||University of Connecticut, USA|
|Daniel Maggin||University of Illinois, Chicago, USA|
|Lawrence Maheady||SUNY Buffalo State, USA|
|Ida Malian||Arizona State University West, USA|
|Sharon Maroney||Western Illinois University, USA|
|Teri Marx||American Institutes for Research, USA|
|Valerie Mazzotti||University of North Carolina, Charlotte, USA|
|Tessa McCarthy||North Carolina Central University, USA|
|James McLeskey||University of Florida, USA|
|Devery Mock||Appalachian State University, USA|
|Lisa Monda-Amaya||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA|
|Tanya Moorehead||Eastern Connecticut State University|
|Joseph Morgan||University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA|
|Robert L. Morgan||Utah State University, USA|
|Nancy Nelson||University of Oregon, USA|
|Ashley Oldham||University of Saint Joseph, USA|
|Cecily Ornelles||University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA|
|Angela Pang||Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, USA|
|Kim Paulsen||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Lindsey Peaster||Morgan County Public Schools, GA, USA|
|Apryl Poch||Duquesne University, USA|
|Sharolyn Pollard-Durodola||University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA|
|Sarah Powell||University of Texas, Austin, USA|
|Lisa Pufpaff||Ball State University, USA|
|Paige Pullen||University of Florida, USA|
|Paul J. Riccomini||The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA|
|Anne Rinn||The University of North Texas|
|Carly Roberts||University of Washington, USA|
|Marcia Rock||The University of North Carolina - Greensboro, USA|
|Diane Rodriguez||Fordham University, USA|
|Amy Gillespie Rouse||Southern Methodist University, USA|
|Christina Santamaria-Graff||Indiana University - Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA|
|Peggy J. Schaefer Whitby||University of Arkansas, USA|
|Barbara Schirmer||Defiance College, USA|
|Sally Shepley||University of Kentucky, USA|
|Seoyoung Shon||Konkuk University, South Korea|
|Jeff Sigafoos||Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand|
|Jane Sileo||State University of New York, New Paltz, USA|
|Robert Simpson||Auburn University, USA|
|Leslie Soodak||Pace University, USA|
|Candice Southall||Piedmont College, GA|
|Louise Spear-Swerling||Southern Connecticut State University, USA|
|Robert Stodden||University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA|
|Jonte' C. Taylor||Pennsylvania State University, USA|
|Bill Therrien||University of Virginia, USA|
|Cathy Thomas||Texas State University, USA|
|Jason Travers||University of Kansas, USA|
|Elizabeth Tuckwiller||George Washington University, USA|
|Naomi Tyler||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Kimberly Vannest||Texas A&M University, USA|
|Jeanne Wanzek||Vanderbilt University, USA|
|Sharon Ware||University of Saint Joseph, USA|
|Erin Washburn||Binghamton University, USA|
|Sarah Watt||Miami University, USA|
|Margaret Weiss||George Mason University, USA|
|Jade Wexler||University of Maryland, College Park, USA|
|Andrew Wiley||Kent State University, USA|
|Brad Witzel||Winthrop University, USA|
|Mitchell Yell||University of South Carolina, USA|
|Rebecca Zumeta||American Institutes for Research, USA|
Before submitting your manuscript, please read the information on this page to ensure that your manuscript adheres to the recommended guidelines for content, style, and format. When you are ready to submit a manuscript to the journal, please click here: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/tec
For further questions on manuscript submission, please download this presentation on how to write for TEC.
NOTE: TEC+, the online-only, companion version of TEC has been discontinued; we are no longer accepting submissions to TEC+. Archived articles previously published in TEC+ can be accessed here: https://www.cec.sped.org/Publications/CEC-Journals/TEACHING-Exceptional-Children/TEC-Plus.
The following information is designed to assist authors in preparing material to submit to TEC. This information replaces all earlier versions.
PREPARING A MANUSCRIPT FOR SUBMISSION
TEC has an open submissions policy; we accept manuscripts from the field throughout the calendar year on topics and issues related to the professional practice of special education teachers, gifted education teachers, general education teachers, related services specialists, and administrators to support their work with students with exceptionalities.
TEC publishes feature-length articles (18–22 pages in length including tables and figures). As a research-to-practice journal, all manuscripts should be grounded in an appropriate research base or founded upon a strong understanding of recent legislation. The key to successful manuscripts for TEC, however, lies in the author’s ability to translate content into actionable guidance for practitioners. Prospective authors are advised to consider the following guidelines prior to the development of a manuscript for TEC.
Appropriate Content for TEC
Manuscripts should be well organized and provide an explicit connection to the current, professional literature on evidence-based practice in the field. Manuscripts that have a simple message with immediate application to practice and provide detailed guidelines that enable practitioners to immediately and easily implement the suggested practices in their own settings work best for TEC. Many manuscripts include scenarios or examples (commonly referred to as “fictional vignettes”) illustrating how suggested practices might be implemented with one or more individuals or in different contexts. Specifically, successful manuscripts for TEC:
1. Have a specific research-to-practice focus. The focus of TEC is on translating research into practice guidelines. Therefore, authors should provide a direct link between offered recommendations and empirical research. Lengthy reviews of the literature, however, are not appropriate for TEC. The typical structure of a TEC manuscript begins with a presentation of a problem of practice followed by a brief synthesis of relevant, recent empirical research. The bulk of the manuscript is then devoted to the delineation of detailed practice guidelines supplemented with tables, figures, and examples.
NOTE: TEC does NOT publish original research (e.g., action research, pilot studies, qualitative/quantitative studies, program evaluation).
2. Reflect a direct focus on students with exceptionalities. TEC’s target audience is special educators and other professionals who work directly with students with exceptionalities including students with gifts and talents. As such, manuscripts should focus on the unique needs of students with identified disabilities or gifts and talents.
NOTE: TEC does not publish manuscripts whose target audience does not work directly with individuals with exceptionalities. In addition, although teacher preparation programs frequently make use of TEC articles, recommendations for the delivery of teacher preparation are not appropriate for TEC.
3. Include graphic elements to facilitate content understanding and application. Tables and figures are used within TEC manuscripts to provide checklists, sample materials, examples, definitions, etc. Tables and figures should be referred to within the narrative (e.g., “see Table 2 for a list of common terms used”) and potential placement indicated by a notation such as .
4. Reference current research. As a general rule, references should reflect work published within the past decade. Older references to seminal research or that demonstrate an extensive research history can be included but should be used sparingly. In addition, strong references come from research journals. As such, the majority of references used within a manuscript should not come from textbooks or research-to-practice journals.
5. Are masked (i.e., “blinded”). An important aspect of the double-blind, peer-review process is that reviewers do not know the identity of authors and visa versa. For TEC, authors should properly cite and reference their own work but should not use phrases such as “In our previous work (Smith, 2011), we presented…,” which identifies the author. Such work should be referred to in the third person, e.g., “Previously Smith (2011) presented…”.
6. Reflect original work. If manuscripts include several tables or figures that have been published elsewhere, their inclusion within the manuscript may reflect a redundancy in the literature—consider their inclusion carefully. Authors who wish to use material for which they do not own the copyright must obtain written permission from the copyright holder.
TEC does not publish manuscripts that present descriptive, experimental, or applied research projects, general overviews, literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, book or media reviews, unsolicited editorials, position papers, program or product descriptions, term papers, theses or dissertations, personal experiences or stories, media portrayals, or poetry. We also do not publish manuscripts that present a topic or issue that does not address special education or individuals with exceptionalities at the preschool, elementary, secondary, or postsecondary level. CEC cannot publish manuscripts that contain content that has previously been published elsewhere or that is primarily designed to advertise a commercially available product.
American Psychological Association Guidelines
All manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the style and format guidelines specified in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (http://www.apastyle.org/manual/).
Hallmarks of APA style are objectivity, precision, and clarity. For TEC, these principles are applied when authors:
1. Use formal, academic language. Although TEC is a practitioner-friendly journal (i.e., the target audience is largely an audience of school-based personnel), the tone of the manuscript should reflect formal, academic language. To make the content accessible to a large audience, authors should avoid relying on jargon to communicate information. Technical terms, if used, need to be clearly defined with examples provided. Similarly, the excessive use of long, complex sentences inhibits readability. Short, direct sentences facilitate readability and complement the presentation of longer, more complex content. Further, explanation, the use of examples and non-examples, tables and figures, employment of a fictional vignette to serve as an exemplar, etc. facilitate reader understanding of the material. Colloquial language, contractions, expressions, and idioms, however, are not appropriate for TEC—particularly, as an informal tone can be interpreted as condescending or patronizing.
2. Present data-based information, not emotionally charged position statements. TEC does not publish persuasive essays or thought pieces. Although it can be assumed that authors feel strongly about the topic of their manuscripts, readers are more likely to “hear” the message if it is presented in neutral terms with appropriate data to support the claim or recommendation.
NOTE: Occasionally, TEC will publish a position paper that has been vetted through the Council for Exceptional Children and/or one of its divisions. These position papers reflect syntheses of research or legislation, the value structure of the organization, and a consensus view of the organization. Publication of these position papers is viewed as a complementary mission of TEC in terms of its role within the organization. Position papers are clearly designated as separate from TEC’s feature manuscripts, which undergo masked peer review.
3. Consider perspective. First,it is myth that first-person perspective is prohibited under APA guidelines. For TEC, first person point of view (I, we) can be used effectively (e.g., “We recommend a three-step process for…”). However, use of the editorial or royal “we” is not permitted (e.g., “We, as a field, need to do a better job of…”; APA, 2010). Second-person perspective (you, your) can be effective for helping readers connect the content to their own settings and experiences, but more frequently than not, the repeated use of “you” throughout a manuscript creates an authoritarian tone to the manuscript, which can be off-putting for readers. Third-person perspective tends to be the “Goldilocks” point of view for manuscripts for TEC. From the neutral position of observer, readers can think about how a teacher, colleague, or their future self may apply the recommendations provided.
4. Maintain a consistent voice. If multiple authors contribute to a manuscript, have an independent, third-party reader review the manuscript to ensure a consistent voice and tone are presented across sections. Similarly, the excessive use of direct quotes can impede readability, create an uneven voice, and demonstrate authors’ inability to translate the content into a cohesive narrative. As such, direct quotes should be used sparingly.
5. Employ “economy of expression” (see p. 67, APA, 2010). Reduce wordiness, redundancy, excessive use of metaphors, and overuse of passive voice to create precise, clear communication.
6. Avoid bias in language. In particular, when writing about individuals with exceptionalities, use people first language. People first language refers to both the placement of the person prior to the disability (e.g., “student with a learning disability” rather than “LD student”) and avoidance of sensational or demeaning language (e.g., “suffers from ADHD,” “is wheelchair-bound”). Avoid the use of gendered pronouns (he, she, his, hers, he/she, etc.) by making the sentence plural or dropping the pronoun (e.g., “a teacher can call on students” rather than “a teacher can call on her students”).
Within the publication manual, explicit guidelines for formatting a manuscript are provided. Manuscripts that vary dramatically in presentation from APA will not be sent out for review. To avoid common errors in formatting, authors should:
1. Adhere to basic, APA formatting conventions. Double space all content within the manuscript (e.g., title page, abstract page, body, quotes, fictional vignettes, references) and use one-inch margins. The preferred font for APA publications is Times New Roman.
2. Create a concise title. Titles should contain no more than 12 words and include key terminology. As a general rule, avoid the use of rhetorical questions or cutesy titles. As the goal of TEC is to create a direct link between research and practice, clear, direct titles are more likely to get the attention of teachers and teacher educators and meet the mission of the journal. (Hint: Consider how your title would look as a Tweet.)
3. Develop a brief, focused abstract. Although abstracts are typically not published in TEC, an abstract should be developed for the review process. The editorial team and reviewers use the abstract to determine the appropriateness of the content for the journal and/or their review. Manuscripts for TEC offer a research-based solution to a problem of practice; the abstract should reflect this focus. Finally, if an introductory vignette is not provided with a manuscript, the abstract may be published as the introduction.
4. Use formatting tools within Microsoft Word or other document processing software. Manuscripts produced without the use of appropriate formatting tools often lose their formatting when translated into the portable document format (PDF) used within SAGE Track (Manuscript Central). This can make the document difficult for reviewers to follow or create an unprofessional look to the document that can be off-putting to reviewers. For example, when formatting a manuscript, use page breaks rather than hard returns, hanging-indent paragraph formatting for references, and alignment tools for centered titles rather than the Tab key.
Once a manuscript has been developed for TEC, author(s) can begin the submission process. SAGE Track (Manuscript Central) will require authors to provide the following:
· Cover Letter. In the cover letter, authors must guarantee that the manuscript is an original work that has not been previously published and is not being considered concurrently in whole or in part by another publisher.
· Author Contact Information. Submitting authors must provide the names and contact information for all co-authors.
NOTE regarding Ethics in Publishing: The list and order of authors should be finalized prior the first submission of a manuscript. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors must be conducted prior to final acceptance. If changes are requested after a manuscript has been accepted, SAGE requires the following process: (a) an email must be sent to the Editor with the reason for the addition, removal, or rearrangement of author names; (b) written confirmation from all authors confirming that they approve the changes—confirmation must be submitted individually from institutional email addresses; and (c) a new, signed copyright agreement submitted.
· Abstract. An abstract of 150 words or fewer should be included.
· Keywords. Keywords are used by search engines to identify articles that address specific topics. Authors are encouraged to be prudent in identifying keywords. Carefully consider the terms that would likely be used by a reader seeking an article on a topic of interest. For example, an article on teaching reading skills to adolescent students with autism spectrum disorder might use the keywords autism spectrum disorder, reading, and adolescent but would not be helped by terms such as disabilities, secondary, or language arts.
· Main Document. Manuscripts should be 18-22 pages in length including the body of the manuscript, references, tables, and figures. Manuscripts that exceed page length recommendations may not be sent out for review.
· References. References should be focused on establishing the evidence base for the suggested practices rather than providing general background information. Include the DOI number for all references (visit http://www.crossref.org/ to obtain DOI numbers). CEC requests that authors include references that are no more than 10 years old, with the exception of references to seminal work.
Editor and Peer Review
When a manuscript is submitted to TEC, the Editor reviews it and decides whether to forward the manuscript for peer review. The Editor might not accept a manuscript that:
· Is on a topic not directly related to the focus of or audience for the journal.
· Fails to follow the manuscript guidelines concerning length, format, and style.
· Covers a topic addressed in TEC within the past 2 years or slated for publication in the near future.
Authors will be promptly notified when manuscripts are not accepted for peer review so that they can seek other avenues for publication.
After a manuscript passes through the initial review process, the reviewer selection process begins. Typically, at least three reviewers with expertise in the areas addressed by the submission are invited to evaluate the suitability of the manuscript for publication on the basis of the importance of the topic, clarity, accuracy and validity of the content, value of the contribution to the professional literature, implications for special education practitioners, and quality of the writing.
Peer reviewers send their recommendations to the Editor. Reviewers have the option of providing feedback directly to authors, confidentially to the Editor, or in both formats—directly to authors and confidentially to the Editor. After reviewing peer-review recommendations, the Editor may decline to publish the material, request a revision with a stipulation for further peer review, request a revision subject to additional review by TEC editorial staff, or accept the submission as is. Almost all manuscripts submitted to TEC will involve some level of additional revision prior to publication. The editorial decision and rationale will be communicated in an e-mail to the first author. Decisions to accept or decline a manuscript are informed by reviewers’ comments, content analysis of previously published materials, and previous commitments to publish materials.
Data from the last several years indicate that about 20% of manuscripts submitted to TEC are accepted for publication.
After initial acceptance, manuscripts are placed in a publication queue and assigned to the Editor or Associate Editor for content editing. The editorial staff of TEC reserves the right to make editorial changes that do not materially affect the meaning of the text. Authors may be contacted during this time if there any queries to address or corrections to be made. Content editing typically occurs 60–120 days after initial acceptance. Once final content edits have been addressed by the author(s), the manuscript is exported to SAGE for copyediting and page setting. Authors can expect to receive article proofs from SAGE within 6–8 months after acceptance.
In addition, TEC editors and CEC publication staff read proofs for errors in typesetting and other defects. Upon publication of an article in TEC, the lead author will receive an electronic copy of the article.
Authorship: All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis
Acknowledgements: All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
Funding: TEACHING Exceptional Children requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors
Declaration of conflicting interests: TEC encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.
Please include any declaration in file separate from the main text, after any acknowledgements, under the heading 'Conflicts of Interest.' When making a declaration the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that all authors of the article has with any sponsoring organization and the for profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article.
Publication ethics: SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway. Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal.
Plagiarism: TEC and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
Prior publication: If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.
For more information, please refer to the SAGE Manuscript Submission Guidelines.
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.) Washington, DC: Author.