In 1980, Geert Hofstede published his monumental work CultureÆs Consequences, which laid out four dimensions on which the differences among national cultures could be understood: individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity. Since then much research has been conducted and presented on individualism/collectivism but until now, no single volume has focused on the masculinity dimension of the model. In Masculinity and Femininity, Hofstede has expanded, sharpened, and deepened the discussion of masculinity and femininity. This new volume presents the first thoroughly developed discussion of this dimension and how it can help us understand the differences among cultures. It begins with a general explanation of masculinity and discusses how it illuminates broad features of different cultures. It then applies the dimension more specifically to gender, sexuality, and religion. Finally, the book examines how the masculinity dimension reveals a lot about a cultureÆs expressions of religious ideas, the importance its citizens attach to religion, and the way religious concepts are understood.
Intended as a companion volume to KimÆs Individualism and Collectivism, this important volume will be of interest to those teaching courses such as cross-cultural psychology, international social welfare, international business, womenÆs studies, cultural studies, and the psychology of women.