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Media and Communication Research Methods
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Media and Communication Research Methods
An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

Fifth Edition


January 2019 | 400 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
 
Preface to the Fifth Edition
 
Acknowledgements
 
Introduction
Round Up the Usual Suspects  
Applying the Focal Points Model to Media  
How I Became a Man without Quantities  
Date Man versus Date-Free Man  
Kinds of Questions Researchers Ask  
Conclusions of a Man without Quantities, Who Is also a Practicing Theoretician  
Introduction: Applications and Exercises  
 
I. GETTING STARTED
 
1. What Is Research?
We All Do Research, All the Time  
Scholarly Research Is Different From Everyday Research  
Cultural Studies and Research  
Nietzsche on Interpretation  
Problem of Certainty  
Diachronic and Synchronic Research  
The Way the Human Mind Works  
Overt and Covert Oppositions  
Thinking Fast and Slow  
Quantity and Quality in Media Research  
Media and Communication  
Why a Book That Teaches Both Methodologies?  
Considering Research Topics  
What Is Research? Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
2. The Research Process
Search Strategies  
Sources of Information  
How to Read Analytically  
Critical Thinking  
Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987  
Doing a Literature Review  
Primary and Secondary Research Sources  
Searching on the Internet (or “Find the Info if You Can!”)  
Using the Internet to Conduct Research  
Analyzing Methodology in Research Articles  
The Research Process: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
II. METHODS OF TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
 
3. Semiotic Analysis
Saussure’s Division of Signs into Signifiers and Signifieds  
Semiotics of Blondeness  
Semiotics and Society  
Peirce’s Trichotomy: Icon, Index, And Symbol  
Allied Concepts  
Foucault on Codes and Cultural Change  
Marcel Danesi on Codes and Culture  
Clotaire Rapaille on Culture Codes  
Semiotics in Society: A Reprise  
Syntagmatic Analysis of Texts  
Paradigmatic Analysis of Texts  
Applications of Semiotic Theory  
Paul Ekman on Facial Expression  
Semiotics: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
4. Rhetorical Analysis
Aristotle on Rhetoric  
Rhetoric and the Mass Media  
A Brief Note on the Communication Process  
Certeau on Subversions by Readers and Viewers  
Applied Rhetorical Analysis  
A Miniglossary of Common Rhetorical Devices  
Other Considerations When Making Rhetorical Analyses  
A Sample Rhetorical Analysis: A La Mer Advertisement  
Rhetorical Analysis of the Visual Image  
Images in Narrative Texts  
Gangsta Rap and American Popular Culture  
Rhetorical Analysis: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
5. Ideological Criticism
Mannheim’s Ideology and Utopia  
Defining Ideology  
Marxist Criticism  
Roland Barthes on Mythologies  
The Problem of Hegemony  
The Base and the Superstructure, False Consciousness, and the “Self-Made Man and Woman”  
Post-Soviet Marxist Criticism  
Society of the Spectacle  
Basic Ideas in Marxist Criticism  
A Marxist Interpretation of the Fidji “Snake” Advertisement  
John Berger on Glamour  
Identity Politics  
Feminist Criticism of Media and Communication  
The Social Conception of Knowledge  
Phallocentric Theory: The Physical Basis of Male Domination  
Political Cultures, the Media, and Communication  
Pop Cultural and Media Preferences of the Four Political Cultures  
Marxist Perspectives on Social Media  
A Preview of Critical Discourse Analysis  
Ideological Criticism: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
6. Psychoanalytic Criticism
Freud’s Contribution  
Smartphones and the Psyche: Applying the Theories of Erik Erikson  
Smartphones and the Self  
Neuropsychoanalysis: Freud and Neuroscience  
Jungian Theory  
Psychoanalytic Criticism: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
7. Discourse Analysis
Defining Discourse Analysis  
Teun A. Van Dijk on Discourse Analysis  
Spoken and Written Discourse  
Styles and Written Discourse  
Political Ideologies and Discourse Analysis  
Critical Discourse Analysis  
Advertising and Critical Discourse Analysis  
Multimodal Discourse Analysis  
Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis  
Fashion and Discourse Analysis  
A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of an Advertisement  
Discourse Analysis: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
III. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS
 
8. Interviews
The Prisoner Interviews Number Two  
What Is an Interview?  
Four Kinds of Research Interviews  
Why We Use Interviews  
How to Interview People  
Kinds of Questions  
Questions Investigative Reporters Ask  
The Structure of Conversations and Interviews  
Transcribing Recorded Interviews  
Making Sense of Transcribed Interviews  
Coding  
Problems with Interview Material  
Interviews: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
9. Historical Analysis
What Is History?  
History as Metadiscipline or Specialized Subject  
Is History Objective, Subjective, Or A Combination Of The Two?  
The Importance of Fernand Braudel  
Kinds of Historical Research  
The Problem of Writing History  
The Problem of Meaning  
Historical Periods  
Baudrillard and Jameson on Postmodernism  
Postmodernism and Historiography  
The Historical and the Comparative Approach  
History Is an Art, Not a Science  
Doing Historical Research  
Historical Analysis: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
10. Ethnomethodological Research
Defining Ethnomethodology  
Garfinkel’s Ingenious and Mischievous Research  
Norbert Wiley’s Interesting Perspective on Harold Garfinkel  
Using Ethnomethodology in Media and Communication Research  
Metaphors and Motivation  
Love Is a Game  
Humorists as Code Violators  
Techniques of Humor  
Ethnomethodology and the Communication Process  
Ethnomethodological Research: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
11. Participant Observation
Defining Participant Observation  
Significant Considerations When Doing Participant Observation  
A Case Study of Participant Observation: Readers of Romance Novels  
Problems with Participant Observation  
Benefits of Participant Observation Studies  
Making Sense of Your Findings  
Writing up A Participant Observation Study  
An Ethical Dilemma  
Ethics and Research Involving Humans  
Participant Observation: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
IV. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS
 
12. Content Analysis
Defining Content Analysis  
Why We Make Content Analyses  
Methodological Aspects of Content Analysis  
Aspects of Violence  
Advantages of Content Analysis as a Research Method  
Difficulties in Making Content Analyses  
Content Analysis Step-By-Step  
Content Analysis: Applications and Exercises  
A Cautionary Note from Denis McQuail  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
13. Surveys
Defining Surveys  
Kinds of Surveys: Descriptive and Analytic  
The VALS Typology Survey  
Methods of Data Collection  
Advantages of Survey Research  
Problems with Surveys  
Surveys and the 2012 Presidential Election  
Surveys and the 2016 Presidential Election  
A Note on Media Usage Surveys: Shares and Ratings  
Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Survey Questions  
Writing Survey Questions  
Making Pilot Studies to Pretest Surveys  
Conducting Online Surveys  
Samples  
Obtaining Random Samples  
Evaluating Survey Accuracy  
Surveys: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
14. Experiments
Everyday Experimentation  
Defining Experiments  
The Structure of an Experiment  
The Hawthorne Effect  
Advantages of Experiments  
Disadvantages of Experiments  
The “Black Rats” Case and Experimental Fraud  
A Checklist on Experimental Design  
What’s An Experiment and What Isn’t?  
Ethics and the Facebook Experiment  
Experiments: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
 
Further Reading
15. A Primer on Descriptive Statistics  
Levels of Measurement  
Descriptive Statistics  
Measures of Central Tendency  
Measures of Dispersion  
The Normal or Bell-Shaped Curve  
The Problem with Ratings  
A Cautionary Note on Statistics  
Using Statistics to Support a Claim  
Statistics and Comparisons  
Data on Media Use in America  
Smartphones  
The Problem of Interpretation  
Statistics and Problems Caused by Definitions  
Statistics: Applications and Exercises  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
V. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
 
16. Nineteen Common Thinking Errors
Common Fallacies  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
17. Writing Research Reports
Keeping a Journal  
A Trick for Organizing Reports  
Outlines, First Drafts, and Revisions  
Writing Research Reports  
The IMRD Structure of Quantitative Research Reports  
Writing Correctly: Avoiding Some Common Problems  
Academic Writing Styles  
A Checklist for Planning Research and Writing Reports  
Conclusions  
Further Reading  
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index
 
About the Author

·   PART IIChapter-By-Chapter Changes

 

Authors and editors are asked to delineate detailed changes to a revision on a chapter-by-chapter basis. We recommend that you maintain a record of changes over the entire revision process. This report will be kept on file at SAGE in compliance with the legal standards required by the Higher Education Opportunity Act. Please utilize the form below to report chapter-by-chapter changes.

 

 

I.    Overall Book Changes

Please include all additions, deletions, and updates.

 

Table of Contents: (e.g. Reorganization of chapters, chapter deletions, additions, splitting, or combining)

 

 

Additions to Table of Contents

 

Daniel Chandler on Binary Oppositions

William Dutton on the Cambridge Analytica Fiasco

Selected authors on Critical  Thinking

Michel Foucault on Codes and Cultural Change

             Marcel Danesi on Codes and Culture

             Guy Debord on Society of the Spectacle

             Addiction to Cell Phones

             Fashion and Discourse Analysis

             Kinds of Questions

             The Importance of Fernand Braudel

             Norbert Wiley on Harold Garfinkel

             A Cautionary Note by Denis McQuail

             Surveys and the 2016 Presidential Election

             Using Statistics to Support a Claim

             Statistical Problems Caused by Definition

 

Pedagogy and Feature Sets:

 

·         Introductory Chapter Pedagogy

Additions to Focus Questions in some chapters

 

·         End-of-Chapter Pedagogy

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·         Chapter Features

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·         Questionnaires/Worksheets

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·         Glossary

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·         Table/Figures, and/or Other Art

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References:

New references at the end of chapters based on new material added.

 

 

Overall Manuscript Length:

Around 100,000 words

 

 

 

II. Chapter-Specific Changes

Please list changes to each element, including textual revision, tables, maps, charts, figures, data, readings, etc., as applicable.

 

Preface:

 

New textual material in preface

 

 

Foreword:

 

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Introduction:

 

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Chapter 1:

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Added new material on binary thinking from Daniel Chandler book on semiotics

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Chapter 2:

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New section on Critical Thinking

New material on using Google Search

Added new quotation on Research

New material on Using Internet to Conduct Research

New Boxed Insert on Cambridge Analytica Fiasco by William Dutton

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Chapter 3:

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New material by Michel Foucault on Codes and Cultural Change

New material by Marcel Danesi on Codes and Culture

New quote by Juri Lotman

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Chapter 4:

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Summary of Changes

New material on Visual Rhetoric

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New section on Gangsta Rap Music and Race in USA

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Chapter 5:

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New quotation by Engels

Addition to Focus Questions

New material on Guy Debord’s Society of the Spectacle

Updated chart on Political Cultures and Popular Culture

Additions to Further Reading

 

 

 

Chapter 6:

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Summary of Changes:

New discussion of Cell Phones and Addiction

Addition to discussion of the Unconscious

Addition to list of Defense Mechanisms

New Focus Question

Addition to Bond and the Oedipus Complex

Changes in chart on Id, Ego and Superego

 

 

 

Chapter 7:

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New quotation on Critical Discourse Analysis

New section on Fashion and Discourse Analysis

New advertisement reproduced for Critical Discourse Analysis

New question in Applications and Exercises

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Chapter 8:

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New quotation by Bakhtin on Conversation

New discussion of Kinds of Questions

New material on Apps for Transcribing Recorded Interviews

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Click here to enter text

 

 

Chapter 9:

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New material on Fernand Braudel’s Annales School of Historiography

New material on Generations

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Chapter 10:

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New Quotation on Importance of Harold Garfinkel

New material by Norbert Wiley on Garfinkel’s Research

New material on Ethnographic Research and Communication Process

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Chapter 11:

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Added another definition of participant observation

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Chapter 12:

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Added new image of Leo Lowenthal

Added new definition of content analysis

Added new material from Chaim Eyal on content analysis

Added  “cautionary note” from Denis McQail on analyzing media content

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Chapter 13:

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Boxed Insert on Surveys and 2016 Presidential Election

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New extended discussion of Media Sex and Violence

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Chapter 15:

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New drawing of Comte

Addition to Focus Questions

New Extended Discussion of Using Statistics to Support a Claim

New Chart on Media Use in USA 2012-1017

New discussion of Statistics and Problems Caused by Definitions

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Chapter 17:

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Chapter 18:

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Chapter 19:

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Chapter 20:

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