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Ongoing Crisis Communication
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Ongoing Crisis Communication
Planning, Managing, and Responding

Fifth Edition


December 2018 | 264 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
 
Dedication
 
Brief Contents
 
Detailed Contents
 
Preface
 
1. A Need for More Crisis Management Knowledge
Crisis Management Defined  
The Initial Crisis Management Framework  
Outline of the Three-Stage Approach  
A More Advanced View: The Regenerative Model of Crisis  
Importance of Crisis Management  
Crisis Leadership: An Overlooked Resource  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
2. Risk as the Foundation for Crisis Management and Crisis Communication
Enterprise Risk Management  
Boyd’s OODA Loop  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
3. The Crisis Mitigation Process: Building Crisis Resistant Organizations
Observe: Finding Red Flags  
Orient: Collect the Information  
Orient: Analyze the Information  
Decide and Act: Take Preventive Action  
Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Threat Reduction  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
4. Crisis Preparing: Part I
Diagnosing Vulnerabilities  
Assessing Crisis Types  
Selecting and Training a Crisis Management Team  
Selecting and Training a Spokesperson  
Resilience: Training for All Employees  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
5. Crisis Preparing: Part II
Developing a Crisis Communication Plan  
Reviewing the Crisis Communication System  
Stakeholders and Preparation  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
6. Recognizing Crises
Selling the Crisis  
Crises and Information Needs  
Information Gathering  
Information Processing: The Known  
Information-Processing Problems  
Information-Processing Mechanisms  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
7. Crisis Responding
Form of the Crisis Response  
A Strategic Focus in Crisis Communication  
Content of the Crisis Response  
Crisis Response Strategies  
Follow-Up Communication  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
8. Postcrisis Concerns
Crisis Evaluation  
Knowledge Management: Organizational Memory and Learning  
Continuity of Actions  
Memorials and Shrines  
The Big Picture  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
Epilogue
Musings: Taking an Evidence-based Approach Seriously  
Musings: Simplicity, Complexity and Effectiveness  
Musings: Simplicity, Complexity and Effectiveness  
Conclusion  
Discussion Questions  
 
Appendix: Possible Case Studies
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Author

·   PART IIChapter-By-Chapter Changes

 

Authors and editors are asked to delineate detailed changes to a revision on a chapter-by-chapter basis. We recommend that you maintain a record of changes over the entire revision process. This report will be kept on file at SAGE in compliance with the legal standards required by the Higher Education Opportunity Act. Please utilize the form below to report chapter-by-chapter changes.

 

 

I.    Overall Book Changes

Please include all additions, deletions, and updates.

 

Table of Contents: (e.g. Reorganization of chapters, chapter deletions, additions, splitting, or combining)

 

 

Chapter 1:  A Need for More Crisis Management Knowledge

Chapter 2:  Risk as the foundation for Crisis Management and Crisis Communication

Chapter 3  The Crisis Mitigation Process:  Building Crisis Resistant Organizations

Chapter 4:  Crisis Preparing:  Part 1

Chapter 5:  Crisis Preparing:  Part2

Chapter 6:  Recognizing Crises

Chapter 7:  Crisis Responding

Chapter 8:  Postcrisis Concerns

Epilogue

 

In the fourth edition there were nine chapters.  The old Chapter two (Effects of the Online World on Crisis Communication and Management) was dropped and key ideas from that chapter placed in Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8.

 

TOC

Old Chapter 1 A Need for More Crisis Management Knowledge                                                          

Crisis Management Defined                                                                                                                   

Disaster Defined                                                                                                                             

Organizational Crisis Defined                                                                                                        

Crisis Management                                                                                                                         

The Initial Crisis Management Framework                                                                                           

Past Staged Approaches to Crisis Management

Outline of the Three-Stage Approach                                                                                                    

Precrisis                                                                                                                                          

Crisis Event                                                                                                                                     

Postcrisis                                                                                                                                         

Importance of Crisis Management                                                                                                         

Value of Reputations                                                                                                                       

Stakeholder Activism                                                                                                                       

Communication Technologies                                                                                                         

Broader View of Crises                                                                                                                   

Negligent Failure to Plan                                                                                                               

Crisis Leadership: An Overlooked Resource                                                                                         

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

New Chapter 1  A Need for More Crisis Management Knowledge

 

         Crisis Management Defined

                   Disaster Defined

                   Organizational Crisis Defined

                   Crisis Management

         The Initial Crisis Management Framework

                   Past Staged Approaches

         Outline of the Three-Staged Approach

                   Precrisis

                   Crisis Event

                   Postcrisis

         A More Advanced View:  The Regenerative Model of Crisis

         Importance of Crisis Management

                   Value of Reputations

                   Stakeholder Activism

                   Digital Naturals

                   Broader View of Crises

                   Negligent Failure to Plan

                   Employer Duty of Care

         Crisis Leadership:  An Overview

         Conclusion

         Discussion Questions

 

Old Chapter 2 Effects of the Online World on Crisis Communication and Crisis Management                                                                                                                               

The Online Environment: Multiple Communication Channels                                                             

Refining the Conceptualization of Crisis                                                                                        

Effects on Crisis Communication                                                                                                          

Precrisis                                                                                                                                          

Crisis Response                                                                                                                               

Postcrisis                                                                                                                                         

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

THIS CHAPTER HAS BEEN DELETED WIH SOME MATERIAL MOVING TO OTHER CHAPTERS

 

This is now Chapter 2

Old Chapter 3 Proactive Management Functions and Crisis Management                                          

The Proactive Management Functions                                                                                                   

Issues Management                                                                                                                         

Reputation Management                                                                                                                 

Risk Management                                                                                                                            

Interrelationship Between the Proactive Management Functions                                                          

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

 

Chapter 2   Risk as the Foundation for Crisis Management and Crisis Communication

 

          Enterprise Risk Management

                   Issues Management

                   Reputation Management

                   Risk Management

          Boyd’s OODA Loop

          Conclusion

          Discussion Questions

 

This is now Chapter 3

Chapter 4 The Crisis Prevention Process                                                                                                  

Identify the Sources to Scan                                                                                                                   

Collect the Information                                                                                                                          

Analyze the Information                                                                                                                        

Summary                                                                                                                                          

Take Preventive Action                                                                                                                          

Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Threat Reduction                                                                              

Paracrisis                                                                                                                                                

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

 

Chapter 3  The Crisis Mitigation Process:  Building Crisis Resistant Organizations

 

          Observe:  Finding Red Flags

          Orient:  Collect the Information

          Orient:  Analyze the Information

                   Summary

          Decide and Act:  Take Preventative Action

          Evaluate the Effectiveness of he Threat Reduction

                   Paracrises:  A Review of Action of Evaluation

          Conclusion

          Discussion Questions

 

This is now Chapter 4

Old Chapter 5 Crisis Preparation: Part I                                                                                                 

Diagnosing Vulnerabilities                                                                                                                     

Assessing Crisis Types                                                                                                                           

Selecting and Training a Crisis Management Team                                                                              

Functional Areas                                                                                                                             

Task Analysis                                                                                                                                  

Group Decision Making                                                                                                                  

Working as a Team                                                                                                                         

Enacting the Crisis Management Plan                                                                                           

Listening                                                                                                                                          

Implications for Crisis Team Selection                                                                                           

Applications for Training                                                                                                                

Improvisation’s Relationship to Crisis Team Training                                                                  

Special Considerations                                                                                                                   

Selecting and Training a Spokesperson                                                                                                 

The Spokesperson’s Role                                                                                                                

Media-Specific Tasks of the Spokesperson                                                                                     

Appearing Pleasant on Camera                                                                                                   

Answering Questions Effectively                                                                                                

Presenting Crisis Information Clearly                                                                                         

Handling Difficult Questions

Spokespersons in a Digital World                                                                                                   

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

 

Chapter 4  Crisis Preparing Part 1  

 

          Diagnosing Vulnerabilities

          Assessing Crisis Types

          Selecting and Training a Crisis Management Team

                   Functional Areas

                   Soft Skills

                   Task Analysis

                   Group Decision Making

                   Working as a Team

                   Enacting the CCP

                   Listening

                   Implications for Crisis Team Selection

                   Applications for Training

                   Improvisation’s Relationship to Crisis Team Training

                   Special Considerations

          Selecting and Training a Spokesperson

                   The Spokesperson’s Role

                   Media Specific Tasks of the Spokesperson

                             Appearing Pleasant on Camera

                             Answering Questions Effectively

                             Presenting Crisis Information Clearly

                             Handling Difficult Questions

                   Spokesperson in a Digital World

          Resilience:  Training for All Employees

          Conclusion

          Discussion Questions

 

 

This is now Chapter 5

Old Chapter 6 Crisis Preparation: Part II                                                                                                

Developing a Crisis Management Plan                                                                                                  

Value                                                                                                                                               

Components                                                                                                                                     

Crisis Appendix                                                                                                                               

The CMP Is Not Enough                                                                                                                 

Other Related Plans                                                                                                                        

Reviewing the Crisis Communication System                                                                                       

Mass Notification System                                                                                                                

Crisis Control Center                                                                                                                      

Intranets and Internet                                                                                                                     

Stakeholders and Preparation                                                                                                                 

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

 

Chapter 5  Crisis Preparing: Part II

 

          Developing a Crisis Communication Plan

                   Value

                   Components

                   Crisis Appendix

                   The CCP Aline Is Not Enough

                   Other Related Plans

          Reviewing the Crisis Communication System

                   Mass Notification

                   Crisis Control Center

                   Social Intranet:  Internal Digital Channels

          Stakeholders and Preparation

          Conclusion

          Discussion Questions

 

This is now Chapter 6

Old Chapter 7 Crisis Recognition                                                                                                              

Selling the Crisis                                                                                                                                    

Crisis Framing: A Symbolic Response to Crises                                                                            

Crisis Dimensions                                                                                                                           

Expertise of the Dominant Coalition                                                                                              

Persuasiveness of the Presentation                                                                                                 

Organizing the Persuasive Effort                                                                                                    

Resistance to Crises                                                                                                                        

Crises and Information Needs                                                                                                                

Crises as Information Processing and Knowledge Management                                                   

The Unknown                                                                                                                                  

Information Gathering                                                                                                                            

Information Processing: The Known                                                                                                     

Information-Processing Problems                                                                                                          

Serial Reproduction Errors                                                                                                             

The MUM Effect                                                                                                                              

Message Overload                                                                                                                           

Information Acquisition Biases                                                                                                       

Group Decision-Making Errors                                                                                                      

Summary                                                                                                                                          

Information-Processing Mechanisms                                                                                                     

Structural Elements                                                                                                                         

Procedural Elements                                                                                                                       

Training                                                                                                                                           

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 6  Recognizing Crises

 

          Selling the Crisis

                   Crisis Framing:  A Symbolic Response to Crises

                   Crisis Dimensions

                   Expertise of Top Management

                   Persuasiveness of the Presentation

                   Organizing the Persuasive Effort

                   Resistance to Crises

          Crises and Information Needs

                   Crises as Information Processing and Knowledge Management

                   The Unknown

          Information Gathering

          Information Processing:  The Known

          Information Processing Problems

                   Serial Reproduction Errors

                   The MUM Effect

                   Message Overload

                   Information Acquisition Bias

                   Group Decision-Making Errors

                   Summary

          Information Processing Mechanisms

                   Structural Elements

                   Procedural Elements

                   Training

          Conclusion

          Discussion Questions

 

This is now Chapter 7

Old Chapter 8 Crisis Response                                                                                                                  

Form of the Crisis Response                                                                                                                  

Responding Quickly                                                                                                                        

Speaking With One Voice: Consistency                                                                                          

Openness                                                                                                                                         

A Strategic Focus in Crisis Communication                                                                                          

Objectives: What Crisis Communication Hopes to Accomplish                                                     

The Target Audience for Crisis Response Strategies                                                                      

Content of the Crisis Response                                                                                                              

Instructing Information: Physical Harm                                                                                        

Adjusting Information: Psychological Well-being                                                                          

Reputation Management                                                                                                                 

Crisis Response and Strategies                                                                                                               

Evaluating Reputational Threat                                                                                                      

Effects of Credibility and Prior Reputation on Crisis Response Strategies                                   

Social Media Considerations                                                                                                                  

Follow-Up Communication                                                                                                                   

Conclusion                                                                                                                                              

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 7  Crisis Responding

 

          Form of the Crisis Response

                   Responding Quickly

                   Speaking with One Voice:  Consistency

                   Transparency  The New Openness 

          A Strategic Focus in Crisis Communication

                   Objectives:  What Crisis Communication Hopes to Accomplish

                   The Target Audiences for Crisis Response Strategies

                   Communication Channels ad Platforms for Crisis Communication

                   Immediate Feedback and Crisis Communication

                   The Source for Crisis Communication

                   How It All Comes Together

          Content of the Crisis Response

                   Instructing Information:  Physical Harm

                   Adjusting Information:  Psychological Well-being

                   Reputation Management

          Crisis Response Strategies

                   Evaluating Reputational Threats

                   Effects of Credibility on Crisis Response Strategies

                   Crisis Communication is not Magic

          Follow-up Communication

          Conclusion

          Discussion Questions

 

This is now Chapter 8

Old Chapter 9 Postcrisis Concerns                                                                                                            

Crisis Evaluation                                                                                                                                    

Crisis Management Performance Evaluation                                                                                 

Data Collection                                                                                                                            

Organizing and Analyzing the Crisis Management Performance Data                                      

Impact Evaluation                                                                                                                           

Specific Measures: Assessing Objectives                                                                                   

General Measures                                                                                                                        

Summary                                                                                                                                          

Memory and Learning                                                                                                                          

Postcrisis Actions                                                                                                                                 

The Big Picture                                                                                                                                    

Conclusion                                                                                                                                           

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 8  Postcrisis Concerns

 

         Crisis Evaluation

                   Crisis Management Performance Evaluation

                             Data Collection

                             Organizing and Analyzing

                   Impact Evaluation

                             Specific Measures:  Assessing Objectives

                             General Measures

                   Summary

         Knowledge Management:  Organizational Memory and Learning

                   Organizational Memory

                   Organizational Learning

                   Knowledge Management:  Connecting the Pieces

         Continuity of Actions

         Memorials and Shrines

         The Big Picture

         Conclusion

         Discussion Questions

 

Epilogue                                                                                                                                                         

Appendix: Possible Case Studies                                                                                                                  

References                                                                                                                                                     

Index                                                                                                                                                              

About the Author

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pedagogy and Feature Sets:

 

·         Introductory Chapter Pedagogy

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·         End-of-Chapter Pedagogy

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·         Chapter Features

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·         Questionnaires/Worksheets

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·         Glossary

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.

 

·         Table/Figures, and/or Other Art

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References:

Significant edition of over 100 new references

 

 

Overall Manuscript Length:

About the same because a chapter was removed.

 

 

 

II. Chapter-Specific Changes

Please list changes to each element, including textual revision, tables, maps, charts, figures, data, readings, etc, as applicable.

 

Preface:

 

Focus on an evidence-based approach to crisis communication

 

 

Foreword:

 

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Introduction:

 

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Chapter 1:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

Summary of Changes:

New opening examples of crises

New division between operational crises and paracrises

New discussion of digital naturals and their effects of crises

New section of employer duty of care as a reason for the importance of crisis management

Add the new concept of the regenerative crisis model

 

 

Chapter 2:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Chapter is now organized through the lens of enterprise risk management, a new concept in this edition

The section on issues has been reduced

The reputation management section has been revised as part of the ERM focus.  This includes new information about how CSR becomes a crisis risk via reputation management.

The concept of Boyd’s OODA loop is added at the end to guide how managers attend to and cat on risks. This concept was not in previous editions.

The discussion of the relationship between risk, reputation, issues, and crises is revised and shortened.

 

 

Chapter 3:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

The chapter is organized and written through the lens of Boyd’s OODA Loop to demonstrate how risk mitigation relates to crisis management and crisis communication.

The chapter contains addition details related to social media platforms and crisis scanning.

There is an extended discussion of paracrisis as risk management that was not in previous editions

 

 

Chapter 4:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes

There is a new and expanded discussion of crisis types and unique crisis forms.  Unique crisis forms was not in previous editions.

The crisis team discussion has a new section (and skill set) called soft skills that examines the interpersonal nature of management.  This includes an addition of political skills which is a form of social and emotional effective constructs (SEECs) that includes emotional intelligence. 

The group decision making has an expanded discussion of intuitive decision making in crisis situations.

There is new material added to the delivery section of spokesperson training.

There a new section added on training for employee resilience

 

 

Chapter 5:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Changes discussion from crisis management plan to crisis communication plan.

Revised discussion of mass notification

Revised and expanded discussion of social intranet

Revised discussion of stakeholders and preparation

 

 

Chapter 6:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

More of a focus on knowledge management.

Greater recognition of how organizational culture and soft skills affect crisis recognition.

 

 

 

Chapter 7:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Revised discussions of consistency and transparency.  Added discussion of message maps that was not in the 4th edition.

Added new sections of communication channels and platforms for crisis communication, immediate feedback and crisis communication, sources for crisis communication, and how it all comes together.

The response discussion added technical translation, a concept not in previous editions.

Revised discussions of denial and effects of credibility on crisis response strategies.

Added a new section on crisis communication is not magic.

 

 

Chapter 8:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

The learning discussion is now done through knowledge management and this section was expanded.  This result in a significant alteration of the material that was presented and how it was present in the old section on learning and memory.

There is a new and improved section on continuity of actions to replace the idea of follow up.

The concept of shrines was added as a way to improve and to extend the discussion of memorials.

 

 

 

Epilogue:

Please check all that apply

 

?Major Changes      ?Minor Changes       ?Changed Tables/Figures      

?Changes Data &Statistics    ?Changed References/Citation

 

Summary of Changes:

Removed most of old review and replaced it with a discussion of few key points to remember.

Added an entirely new section on the role of time in crisis communication and crisis management.


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