In Privatization in the City, E .S. Savas comprehensively examines the evolution and implementation of former New York Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani’s aggressive privatization program in the face of a city council generally hostile to privatization. Savas identifies, examines, evaluates, and documents all forms of privatization employed, including contracting, competitive sourcing, divestment, leases, vouchers, franchises, default, withdrawal, and voluntarism. He contrasts these efforts in New York with privatization in several other cities across the country, ranging from Indianapolis to Phoenix. After analyzing the costs and benefits—both quantitative and qualitative—of New York's privatization program, Savas concludes that significant savings were achieved during Giuliani’s eight years in office.